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Entered, according to Act of Cc 

gresa, in the year 1S66, 

lu lh2 Clerk's. Office of the District Court of the United States for the Sculhcrn District of 
Kew York. 

v^^ , ^i»:A 







Ne^vYouk, January, 18f>3. 



Tho Position of the Contending Forcos in May, 1862 15 

Tho Marcli of the Army of the Potomac to White House. V:i IG 

General McCli'lhin and th^- (fOvernTmnt 17 

Stonewall Jack.sons Raid in the Shenandoah : Retreat of Gen. Banks 19 

Tile Investmi-nt and Occupation of Corinth, Miss., May, 1862 21 

Occupation of Norfolk, Va . by General Wool's troops 27 

Destruction of the rebel ironclad Merriniac 23 

Battle of Hanover Court House, Va., May 28, 18G2 29 

Fair Oaks, Va, May 31 and June 1. 1862 33 

" Sevnn Pines, Va., June 1, 1862 36 

" Cross-Keys, Va., June 8, 1862 38 

The Seven Days' Battles— Rattle of Oak Grove. Va 40 

battle of Gaines' Mill. Va.. June 26. 1862 41 

Changi' of Base of the Army of the Potomac 4.5 

Battles of A Ih-n's Farm and Savage's Station, Va 46 

Battle of Nelson's Farm, Va., June 30. 1862 48 

Malvern Hill, July 1. 1862 49 

Ev.acuation of Pensacola, May 9, 1862 50 

Capture of Forts Pillow and Randolph— Occupation of Memphis, June 4-6, 1862. 55 

New Combinations — Battle of Cedar Mountain, Va 58 

Battli' of Minassas, or Bull Run CI 

" Chantilly 63 

Movements of McClellan 64 

Battle of South Mountain, Md. Sept. 14, 1862 65 

Surrender of Harper s P'erry, Sept. 15,1862 69 

Battle of Antietam, Sept, 17, 1862 70 

Mi;("l>'llan's Army on the Potomac, October, 1862 83 

Operations in Kentucky, June to September, 1862 87 

Battle of Richmond, Ky., Aug. 30, 1862 90 

Braijg's Invasion— Battle of Munfordsville, Ky., Sept. 14-16,1862 93 

Battl.' of Perryville, Ky.. Oct. 8, 1862 94 

•' luk.a. Miss., Sept. 19. 1862 96 

Corinth. Miss. Oct. 3-4. 1862 99 

Gen. Burnsi.le takes command of the Army of the Potomac. Nov. 10, 1862 104 

Advance of the Army of the Potomac. Nov. 20, 1862 106 

Biirnsides Army before Frederick>burg 107 

Battle of Fredericksburg. Va., Dec. 13, 1862 109 

Operations in Tennessee— Bixttl^ of Murfreesboro', Dec. 31, 1862 Ill 

North Carolina at the close of 1862 119 

Battle of Pocotaligo Bridge, S. C. Oct 22,1862 J23 

Battle of Baton Rouge. La., Aug. 5, 1862 123 

Operations in Missouri in 1862 123 

Naval Operations in 1862 126 

Battle of Drury's Bluff. Va., May 15. 1862 126 

Naval Operations on the Mississippi. Miy to December. 1862 127 

Hookers Campaign in Virginia, Jan 26, 1863 130 


G.-noral Stonemmrs Cavalry Raid, May 1. 18G3 lol 

Hooker's Advaucu to Kelly's Ford, on the Ilupidan lal 

r..ittk-of ChancellorsviUe, Va., May 1-4, 1803 loiJ 

The Second Day's b'iglit. May 2 i::'.) 

The Tiiird Day s Fij,'ht. tfunday. May 3 Ml 

i^ketch otthe Life ot'Stont-wallJackson l-i 

Vlu' Rebel Invasion in Maryland and Pennsylvania ll'J 

Capture of General Milroy's Army at Winchester. Va., June M, 1S63 1.3i 

Capture of Martinsbur^, Va., June 14, 1863 lol 

Attack on Carlisle, Pa., July 1, 1863 154 

Battle of Gettysburg. Pa, July 1-3, 1803 ICO 

riie Vicksburg Campaign, December. H6-2— July, 1SG3 ICG 

Repulse of General Sherman's Army, Jan. 3, 1803 171 

Capture of Fort Hindman. Ark., Jan. 10-11,1803 173 

Sketch of tlie Life of Rear- Admiral D. D. Porter 170 

Sketch of the Life of Major-Genera John A. Mc(31ernand 179 

Expedition of the ram " Queen of the West" IHl 

The Vicksburg Canal 1S3 

Expedition dort-n the Coldwater, April 2. 1863 184 

Passing the Vicksburg Batteries, April 16-22, 1863 186 

Captiireof Grand Gulf, Miss., April 29— May 3 187 

Bombardment of Haines' Bluff. April 29, 1863 189 

Capture of Fort Gibson. Miss., May I, 1863 19il 

Gricrson's Raid from Mis?issippi to Louisiana, April 17-May 2, 1SG3 192 

Battle of Raymond,, May 12,1803 190 

Capture of Jackson, Miss., May 14, 1803 199 

Battle ot Baker's Creek, or Champion Hill, Miss -02 

Battleof Big Black Bridge. Miss, May 17, 1803 205 

Captureof Haines' Bluff. May 18, 1803 207 

Bombardment and Assault of Vicksburg. May 19-23. 1803 209 

Capture of Vicksburg. July 4, 1&63 221 

Battle at Helena. Ark., July 4, 1863 -22 

Morgan's Raid in Indiana, Kentucky and Ohio. July G-2G, 1803 220 

The Draft Riots in New York City, July 13-15, 1803. 232 

Operations in Tennessee in 1803 ^i'^ 

Battle of Fort Dunelson, Tenn. Feb 3, 1803 249 

Battle near Franklin. Tenn., ALarch 5, 1863 2-31 

Colonel Streight's Expedition into Georgia, May 3, 1SG3 254 

Capture of Hoover's Gap by Colonel Wilder's Brigade 255 

Colonel Wilder's Expedition from Manchester to Anderson, Tenn 2.>.? 

Advance of General Rosecrans against Cliattanooga 200 

The Battleof Chickamauga, Tenn.. Sept. 19, 1863 261 

Sketch of Major-General George H. Thomas 267 

Operations in North Carolina in 1863 208 

Expedition against Rocky Mount, N. C, July 24, 1803 271 

Operations in South Carolina in 1803 272 

Attack on Fort Sumter, April 7, 1803 273 

Capture of the rebel ironclad Atlanta, June 17, 1863 '-7G 

Siege of Charleston. S. C, commenced July 3, 1803 -77 

Attack on Morris Island, S. C, July 10, 1863 -' 5 

Assault on Fort Wagner, S. C, July 11, 1863 £''J 

Bombardment of Fort Sumter, S. C, August 17-23. 1«G3 280 

The " Swamp Angel" -^^ 

Operations in Arkansas— Capture of Little Rock, July 1, 1863 28G 


PAT. a 

Operations in Soutliern Virginia in 1803 vyO 

Tlie Siege of tiulFolk, April 11 — May 3, 18G3 f2<>0 

The Siege ot Kuoxville, Tfun., Nov. 17— Deo. G. ISG3 OUJ 

Operations in Tennessee, Sept. 20— Dec. 31. 1803 097 

JJiittle of Lookout Mountain, Nov. 24. 1803 3Ui 

Sliernian's Advance Hgiiiust Missi<ni liidge. Nov 'J4. 1803 3uJ 

]{attle of Missionary ilidge. Nov. i'o. 1803 3U5 

U.iUle of Kinggold. (Ja , Nov. 28, 1803 309 

Dej.artnu'nt of tiie (hilf in 1803 3!0 

()p--iatioiis on the, Ti'ciie and Atcliafalaya river.-i. FI.1 315 

Buttle of Irisli Bend, ha., Apr. 13, 1803 315 

Attack on Port Hudson, La.. .May 27. 1803 311) 

A.-^sauit of Port Hudson. La., June 14, 1803 321 

i^iicrendiM- of Port Hudson, July y, 1803 .... 327 

MisceHaneous Naval Operations in 1803 329 

The Field ol Operations in January, 1804 331 

Slierniaii's Kxpedition against Meridian, Miss 332 

(leneral Sniitii's Expedition from Memphis, 'I'enn.. Feb. 11.18G4 333 

The Red Itiver Expedition. Marcli 10— May 10. 18G4 334 

Battle of Sabine Cross-Uoads. A jtril 8. 1804 o37 

Battle of Plea-sant Hill, La., April 9, 1804 3-JO 

Operations in Georgia: Battle of Tuunel Hill, Feb. 22, 1864 348 

lleionnoissance and Battle at Rocky Face Ridge, Feb. 25. 1804 350 

Cipture ot Union City, Tenn.. March 25. 1804 350 

Attack on Paducah. Ky.. March 20, 1804 351 

Capture of Fort I'illow, Tenn., April 12, 18G4 353 

Operations in Florida in 1864 S.-JS 

BattU' of Olustee. Feb. 20, 1864 357 

Battle at Bachelor's Creek, N. C, Feb. I. 1S04 359 

Cajiture of Plymouth, N. C. Apr. 19. 1804 359 

L)n"* ruction of the rebel ironclad Albemarle 362 

v'?aptui'' of Fort Fisher and Wilmington, N. C 363 

Kil{)atrick"3 Cavalry Raid toward Richmond, Feb. 28— .Marcli 5, 1801 374 

l»P"rations in Arkansas in 1804 377 

Invasion of Missouri, September. 1864 379 

Ojierations in Georgia: General Sherman's March to .Mhuit:. SSI 

Capture of Rome, Ga., May 19. 1864 384 

Battle of Kenesaw Mountain June 14. 180 1 389 

P.:ittle of Little Kenesaw, June 24. 1864 392 

Battle before Atlanta. July 22, 1804 394 

Stoneman's Cavalry Expeditions in July. 18G4 3C6 

The Siege of Atlanta, and its Capture 393 

Hoods Campaign in Alabama and Tennessee 404 

Battle of Allatoona. Ga.. October 5. 1804 4:)7 

Preparations for Shttrman's Grand March 4')S 

The Burning of Rome. Ga.. November 11. 1804 MS 

The Destruction of Atlanta, November. 1804 Jj9 

The Battle of Franklin. Tenn., November 30. 1804 411 

The Battle of Nashville, Tenn.. December 15-17. 1804 413 

CoTitinuation of the Siege of Charleston in 1864 418 

Operations in Middle and Western Virginia in 1861 419 

Battle of Piedmont, Va.. June 5. 1864 421 

ButtleofOpeciu:in Creek. Va. Sept. 19, 1SG4 •::« 

Battleof Fisher's Hill, Va.. Sept. 21, isi;4 A-.i 

Battle of Cedar Creek, Va.,Oct 19, 1804 431 



Sketch of th« Life of Mnjor-General Sheridan •i<iZ 

J{iittleof Moriistowii. Ti'iin , Nov.13, 18G4 434 

Stoneiuiin'.s lluiii into Wi'stern Virginia, Dec. 12-20, 1S()4 434 

Expeditions :it tlie olosu on8ti4 440 

Kubel Privateers— the Alabama, the Florida, and tlie iShtiiandoali 442 

Tlie St. Albans Raid, Oct. I'J. 1864 446 

Advance of the Armjr o!' tlic Potomac, May 3, 1804 449 

Battle of the, Va.. May 6-7, 1864 451 

Battle of ypottsylvania. May 8-12, 1864 456 

Sketch of the Life of Greuenil Sedgwick 457 

Battleof Coal Harbor. Va., June 1-3, 1804 464 

Ueneral Grant's (.'liange of Base, June 12-15. 18G4 468 

Operations on James Kirer, Va., May 4-10 1864 469 

Battle of Fort Uariing, Va.. May 12-16. 1864 473 

Assaults on the Intrenchments at Petersburg, Va., June S-i8, 1804 475 

Kngagenient on the VVeldon Ruilroad, near Va 478 

Kngagements at Reanis's Station, Stony Creek, etc., June 22-29. 1864 479 

Sherman's Maieh from Atlanta to Savannah, Nov. 16— Dec. 22. 1864 480 

CaptureofFoit McAllister, Ga., Dec. 13, 1864 488 

Capture of Savannah. Ga., Dec. 21, 1864 489 

Grand Naval Combat in Mobile Bay— Capture of Forts Morgan, Powell and Gaines. 490 

Sherman's March from Savannah to Goldsboro', N. C. Jan. — March, 1865 493 

Battle of Averasboro'. March 15-16, 1865 494 

Battle of Bentonsville, March 20, 1865 495 

Capture of Charleston, S. C , Feb. 18, 1805 496 

Gen. Scholield's March to Goldsboro' : Battles at Kingston, N. C. Mch. 7-10, 1805. 499 

The Siege of Petersburg. Va., June 15. 1864 501 

Explosion of Pleasants' Mine, and Battle before Petersburg, July 29, 1804 503 

The '• Dutch Gap Canal" projected by General Butler 504 

The War Summer of 1865 505 

Battles on the VVeldon Railroad, V."... August, 1864 505 

Battle of Reams's Station. Va., Aug. 28, 1864 506 

Battle of Chapin's Blutf, Va., Sept. 28, 1864 509 

Army of the James: Battle before Richmond, Oct. 7, 1864 511 

Battle of Hatcher's Run. Oct. 27. 1864 513 

Close of the Campaign: Battle of Five Forks, Va.. April 1-3, 1805 517 

Slieridan's Expedition in the Shenandoah Valley, Feb 27 — March 19, 1805 519 

Expedition again<t St. Mark's. Fla., March 4-12. 1865 521 

Stoneman's E.Kpedition in North Carolina, March 20— Apr. 13, 1865 523 

General Wilson's Expedition in .'Mabama. March 22— Apr. 20, 1865 525 

Capture of Mobile and the Rebel Fleet. April 12— May 4, 1865 526 

Evacuation of Richmond and Petersburg, April 3, 1865 532 

Surrender of General Lee and his Army, April 9, 1865 534 

Sketch of tiie rebel General Lee 538 

A.ssassination of President Lincoln, April 14, 1865 541 

Sketch of the Life of Abraham Lincoln 547 

The Attempt to Assassinate Secretary Seward, April 14, 1865 548 

The Inauguration of President John.>on, Apr. 15, 1865 549 

Tlie Close of Sherman's Campaign. Surrender of General Johnston 552 

Farewell Addres.s of General Sherman to his Array 554 

Hi.story of the Birkenhead Rams, built for the Pacha of Egypt 556 

Tlie Emancipation Proclamation of President Lincoln, Jan. 1, 1803 558 

Proclamation of Secretary Seward announcing the Adoption of the Constitu- 
tional Amendment AbolLsliing Slavery 560 

List of Vessels captured by the Confederate Navy during the War 561 




Union IIkuoes, 

Union Heroes, 

Battle of MuKFKi;ESRf)Ko', . . 

Captuke of a Batikky isy General Rousseau, . . 

House used for C'onfink.mknt of Rf.bicl SvMPATnizERd at St. Loui 

Union Heroes, 

Union Heroes, 

Andrews LE.\DrNG the Hiotwus. 

Provost Guard attackin.; Tiir: Rioters, 

Confederate Generali^, 

Battle of Missionary Ridge, 

Pursuit to Ringgold, Ga.. . . 

Camp Scene. — Assorting the Mail,. . 

Camp Scene. — Tiie News Depot, . . . . 

C()Nfeder.\te Generals, 

View of Parrott Gun Burst on board tiii? Susc^uehanna 

Attack on Fort Fisher, 
confeder.\te generals, 
Gener.\l Hospital at Savannah, Ga., 
Confederate Generals, 
Confederate Generals, 
Battle of Coal Harbor, Va., 
Hood's Headquarters At Atlanta,'s Headquarters at Ati-anta, 
Charging a Battery on the W.'ci.don Railroad, . . 
Capture of a Railroad Train, 
Confederate Portr.^its, 





A.NDUEws, Geo. L., Riig.-Gen., . 
Algdr, C. C, JIaj.-Gen., . . . , 
Grant, U. S., Lieut. -Gen., . . 
GiiAHAM, Lawkknck P., liiig -Gen 
GiLLMORE, Q. A., ]\Iaj.-Gen., . . 
Harney, W. S., Brig.. -Gen., . . 
Johnson, Andrew, President U. S 

Keith, Brig.-Gen., 

Marcy, R. B., Inspectoi-Gen., . 
Meade, Geo. G., ^laj.-Gen., . . 
Meagher, T. F., Brig.-Gen., . . , 

Meigs, M. C, Maj.-Gen. 

MiLROY, RoBT. H., Maj.-Gen., . 








, 550 






.Mitchell, O. M,, ^laj.-Gen., . 
RiCKETTS, James B , Brig -Gen 
KoussEAC, L. N., Maj.-Gen., . 
Sherman, W. T., :Maj -Gen., . 
Sheridan, Philip H., Muj.-Gcii 
Shepley, Geo. F., Biig.-Gen., 
Slocim, H. \y., Maj.-Gen., . 
Stone, Chas. P., Brig.-Gen., . 
Sto.neman, Geo., Maj.-Gen., . 
Thomas, Geo. H., J\Iaj.-Gen.,. 
Ward, J. II. H., Brig.-Gen., . 
White, Julius, Brig.-Gen.. . 

!• A C. I! 







Beauregard, P. G. T., Maj.-Gen.,. 341 
Br.agg, Braxton, Maj.-Gen., . . . 287 

BowEN, Maj.-Gen., 425 

Branch, L. O'B., Brig -Gen.,. . . 385 
BucKNER, Si.MON B., Maj.-Gen., . . 447 
BoRHAM, L., Brig.-Gen., .... 527 
Cheatham, B. F., Maj.-Gen., . . 447 

CoLQUET, Brig-Gen 385 

Crittenden, G. B., Brig.-Gen.,. . 385 
Cooper, Sa.muel, Brig.-Gen., . . 527 

D.wis, Jefferson, 97 

Ewell, Richard S., Lieut. -Gen , . 287 
Floyd, John B., Maj.-Gen., . . . 385 
Qarnett, Rich. B., Brig.-Gen , . . 287 
Harder. Wm. J., Lieut.-Gen., . . 447 

DouD, MaJ Geo., 447 

II AMPToy, Wade, Maj.-Gen, . . .425 
(Iansom, RooER, Brig.-Gen., . . .425 

Hill, A. P, Maj.-Grn., 287 

JoHNEON, B T , Brig -Gen . . . . 385 
Johnston, Jo=i. E., Lieut.-Gen . . . 287 
Jackson, " Stonewall," Lt.-Gen., . 137 
JOBNSTON, A. S., Maj.-Gen., . . .447 
Lee. Fitzhcrh. Maj.-Gen., . . . 287 
LoNesTRKET, Ja.mes, Lleut.-Gen., . 287 

Lee, Robert E., General, . . 
LovELL, Mansfield, Maj.-Gen 
Maffitt, J. N., Capt., . . . 
Magruder, J. B., Maj.-Gen.,. 
Marshall, H., Maj.-Gen., . . 
Mason, James M., .... 
MoRG.\N, John H., Maj.-Gen., 
McCuLLocH, Benj., I\Iaj.-Gci)., 
Polk, L. K, Maj.-Gen., . . . 
Pillow, G. J., Maj.-Gen., . . 
Price, Sterling, JIaj.-Gen.,. 
Rains, G. J.. Brig.-Gen., . . 
Rhett, Thos. S., Brig.-Gen., . 
Stephens, Alexander H., . 
Stuart, J. E. B , Maj.-Gen., . 
Stewart, George, Gen., . . 
Smith, G. W., Maj.-Gen., . . 
Semmes, Raphael, Capt., . . 

Slidell, John, 

Smith, E. Kiuby, Lieut.-Gen., 
Toombs, Robert, M.ij.-Gen., . 
Twiggs, David E., i\Iaj.-Gen., 
Van DoiiN, Earl, Miij.-Gen., 
Zollicoffer, F. K., Maj.-Gen., 


. 539 

. 385 




The month of May, 18G2, found the great armies of the Union threat- 
cniag the forces of the rebellion at all jjoints. A firm detormination 
tilled every northern bosom. Many a glorious battle field hud tuuglit 
the soldiers on both sides how to fight and how to endure. Uubouuded 
heroism filled the whole nation. i\ever on tliis earth had so broad and 
{rUuious a country groaned under a harvest of iron The defeat of IJulI 
Hun, instead of disheartening the people, fired them with now courairo 
and that unconquerable resolution, which is the best part of Natiouil 

N("\v Orleans had been captured by the invincible Farragut, by a scrie.^ 
of brilliant naval victories, lie was then a commodore, but has since 
been rui.scd by these really wonderful exploits to the highest raulc in the 

The sea coast had been blockaded from Fortress Monroe to the Rio 
Grande. Generals IJutlor and l>ui nside had carried their fleets iu safety 
to Haiteras Inlot, and had set up tiie old flag upon the shores of the Ca- 
rolliias. General Hunter had established him>elf in Florida. The Army 
of the West, moving southward along the banks of the Mississippi, aided 
by the gunboat flotilla of (commodore Foote, had captured Island Number 
Ten, fouL'iit and won the great battle of Pittsburg L Hiding, and led by 
General Ilalleck, had investv'd Corinth. In the Ea>t, (jeiieral M 'Clelhn, 
at the hi-ad of the Army of the Potomac, was moving up the Peninsula, in 
the advance upon lliclimond. The whole nation watched his movements 
with anxious hopefulness, inspired by his successes in the West, backed 
by General Scott's high recommendation. This history has already 
recorded the siege and capture of Yurktown, and tlie victory of Wil- 
liamsburg, and has touched upon the engagement of West Point. 
The latter took place on the 7th of May, and was but one of the many 
lesser battles, which furmed a stormy prelude to the terrible Sevcu 


16 Tin: WAR FOR THE UNION'. \ 

Days' Fights, among the swamps before the city of ilichiiiuii'l. It-; piir- 
po>e \v;is the cstablishiuoiit of the Union arms at West P./mt, which 
would necessarily force the llebels to abaudou all their works ou th.i 
Peninsula, between Yorktown and that place. Its success crowned tlio 
Jriumph that had meanwhile been acliicved at Williamsburgh. It lustcl 
from about ten o'clock in the morning, till about, throe o clock in the 
afternoon, and ended in the repulse of the llobels, who were thus, at all 
points, retiring before the gallant soldiers of the Union. The losses at 
the. battle of West Point, as reported by Cioneral Franklin, were tbriy- 
niue killed, one hundred and four wounded, and forty one missing. 


The narrative, terminating at the close of the volume of this 
history, with the battle of West Point, now concerns itsolf with the on- 
ward march of the Army of the Potomac. On the D:h of May, General 
McClelian effected a junction with the forces under the command of 
General Franklin, at West Point; and hence, partly by laud and partly 
by water, the whole army moved up the Pamunkoy river towards a 
place called White House, twelve miles distant. The ronds at this time 
were in a bad condition for travel, owing to heavy rains; and therefore 
the advance was made but slowly. It was not until the 16th inst., that 
General McClelian established his head-quarters at White House, where 
he organized a permanent depot for supplies. These coming up the York 
river by water, could be landed at West Point and brought hence by 
r;.i!ro;id. From White House the march continued toward the Chicka- 
hominy river. No material opposition was anywhere encountered. The 
rebels were massing their forces beyond the Chickahominy, in front of 
Hiehmond, and preparing for the desperate, decisive struggle. 

On the 20th of May the left wing of the Union Army reached the 
Chickahominy, at a point called Bottom's Bridge. The bridge had been 
destroyed by the enemy, but the stream was immediately forded by 
General Casey's troop.s, and the bridge was rebuilt. In the mean while 
the centre and the right wing were advanced to the river above, driving 
the rebels out of the village of Mechimicsville. The hues now extended 
Iroin Mechanicsviile, on the right, to oeven Pines, on the left, the latter 
being a strong position on the liottom's Bridge road, on the further sid-i 
«i the Chickahominy. 



Ilere the advance was stayed. As early as the 10th of May, General 
McCIellan, well assured of the strength of his foe, and of the nature and 
place of the opposition that would be made by the rebels, had represented 
to the War Department the comparative numerical weakness of his army, 
and the necessity for its reinforcement. Much correspondence now 
eusucd, between him and the President, on this subject. It was General 
McClellan's desire to rest his army on the James river, to receive his 
reinforcements by that channel, and to move on llichinond from that 
quarter. Oi the other hand, it was the opinion of the President, and 
the Secretary -of- War, that his army ought to rest upon the Pamunkey, 
receive reinforcements by land, if at all, and move on Iliehmoud by 
means of bridges across the Chickahominy. General MoDowell, at the 
head of between 35,000 and 40,000 men, was, at this time, in the neigh- 
borhood of Fredericksburg. The proper disposition of this force was 
also a point in controversy between General McCIellan and the authorities 
at the capital. The former requested that McDowell's troops might be 
sent to him, and sent by water. The latter dreaded to send them, lest, 
by so doing, fhey might uncover the City of Washington, and expose it 
to a rebel raid. On the part of General McCIellan it was urged that no 
such apprehension need be entertained ; that the bulk of the enemy's 
forces were massed for the defence of Richmond ; that to conquer 
the rebels there, would be the surest method of securing the safety of 
Washington ; that the presence of McDowell's corps would so strengthen 
his hands as to make victory certain ; that, should the rebels attempt a 
raid on Washington, their route would be by way of Gordonsville and 
Manassas, on which they could readily be checked ; and, finally, 
that the coming of McDowell's troops by land would render their 
timely arrival less certain than it would be in the event of their coming 
by water, while it would equally render them unavailable for the defense 
of Washington. The opinion of the Government, however, prevailed ; 
and, in the end, the plan of General McClellan's campaign was materially 
changed. He had designed to approach Richmond by the east and 
south. Resting on the Pamunkey, his purpose was now to approach it 
by the north. This change in the plan of the campaign necessitated 
the division of his army by the Chickahominy river, and the bridging 
of that river in many places. On the 18th of May the 8ecretary-of-War 
notified him that General McDowell's corps would be sent forward by 
land from Fredericksburg, to form a junction with the right wing of the 
Army of the Potomac. Awaiting this reinforcement, General McCIellan 


employed hirasolf in strengthening his position, and in building the 
necessary bridges across the Cliickahorainy. On the 24th of May he waa 
notified that the critical position of General Banks' troops, consequent upon 
a sudden raid, by Stonewall Jackson, up the Valley of the Snciuindoah 
river, had occasioned the recall of General McDowell, and that the Army 
of the Potomac must proceed without reinforcements. 

General IMcClellan has been bitterly censured for his alleged slotliful- 
ness and hesitation, at this juncture ; nor can it be denied that hia 
advance towards I'ichmond was made slowly and with extreme caution. 
It must be remembered, however, that to march through sloughs of mire, 
in the face of a powerful and well intrenched foc, is far less easy than to 
advance on paper, and conquer enemies with printers' ink. This is not 
a partisan history — its design is simply to record facts and to do justice. 
Subsequent events have shed much light upon General McClellan'a 
Peninsular Campaign. That he had not over-estimated the power of the 
rebel forces, was conclusively shown in the bloody and terrible seven 
days' battles. Tliat he was obliged to deviate from his own chosen plan 
is evident, and is not denied : yet that plan was the same which waa 
ultimately adopted by General Grant, in the final campaign of the war. 
Richmond when finally taken, was approached from the eiist and south, 
and not from the north. General McClellan may have been over- 
cautious ; but his tactics were wise, and his patriotism stainless. 

The following is the language of General McClellan's Report, as to 
several essential points : " The land movement obliged me to expose 
my right in order to secure the junction ; and as the order for General 
McDowell's march was soon countermanded, I incurred great risk, of 
•which the enemy finally took advantage, and frustrated the plan of my 
campaign. Had General McDowell joined n)e by water, I could have ap- 
proached Richmond by the James, and thus avoided the delays and 
losses incurred in bridging the Chickahominy, and 'vu\ild have had the 
army massed in one body, instead of being necessarily divided by that 
stream. . . . 

"In view of the peguliar character of the Chickahominy, and 

the liability of its bottom land to sudden inundations, it became neces- 
sary to construct between Bottom's Bridge and Mechanicsville, eleven 
new bridges, all new and difficult, with extensive by-way approaches. 

"The entire army could, probably, have been thrown across the Chick- 
ahominy immediately after our arrival, but this would have left no force 
on the left bank to guard our communications or to protect our right and 
rear. If the communication with our supply depot had been cut by the 
enemy, with our army concentrated upon the right bank of the Chick- 
ahominy, and the stage of water as it was for many days after our arrival, 
the bridges carried awAy, and our means of transportation not furnishing 


a single day's supplies in advance, the troops must have gone wifhout 
rations, and the animals without furagc, and the army would have been 

" It is true I might have abandoned my communications and pushed 
forward toward Richmond, trusting to the s[»eody defeat of the enemy 
and the consequent fall of the city, for a renewal of supplies; but the 
approaches were fortified, and the town itsjlf wa? surrounded with a 
strong line of iutrenchments, requiring a greater length of time to reduce 
than our troops could have dispensed with rations. 

" Under these circumstances, I decided to retain a portion of the army 
on the left bank of the river until our bridges were completed." 


While the Army of the Potomac was thus occupied in bridging the 
Chickahominy, and while General McClellan and the President were 
in correspondence, the rebels did not remain idle. On the 23rd 
of May commenced the well remembered raid, up the valley of the Shen-. 
andoah, which was the occasion of a serious panic at Washington, and 
even further north than New York ; which prevented the junction of 
McDowell's and McCIelian's forces ; and which involved the splendid re- 
treat of General Banks from Strasburgh to Winchester, and thence to 
Williamsport on the Potomac river. The distance is fifty three miles, 
and the retreat was accomplished in forty-eight hours. The Army of 
the Shenandoah, commanded by General lianks, consisted of about six 
thousand men, while the forces of the rebel raiders numbered upwards 
of twenty thousand, and were led by the brilliant and dashing Stonewall 
Jackson. The advance of the rebels was made up the valley, (o the 
westward of the Blue llidge, and the first point attacked was Front 
Iloyal. Here the enemy encountered the First Maryland Reg'ment, 
Col. Kenly, which was attacked with great fury, and driven back towards 
Strasburgh. Col. Kenly fought with wonderful valor, and was heartily 
sustained by his men. The fighting, indeed, was of almost unexampled 
severity, but the regiment was soon overpowered by numbers. Colonel 
Kenly, when asked to surrender, shot the rebel who thus summoned 
him to yield : and finally, when overpowered, broke his sword in halves, 
to avoid surrendering it. lie was shot, but only wounded, and was 
placed in an ambulance. In that ambulance he was subjected to much 
suffering, for want of surgical aid. 

As foou as General Banks received news of this disaster at Front 
Ro)al, and knew that General Jackson was advancing in force, he per- 


ceived his danger and ordered a retreat. And now commenced a race 
between the two armies, for the town of Winchester. Had Jackson 
readied that point first, he would have intercepted the little band of 
Union soldiers, cut off their supplies, and forced their surrender. But 
the celerity and courage of General Banks's forces proved their salvation. 
They retired, indeed, in the face of superior numbers ; but they retired 
fighting. At Newtown, at Kernstowu, and at Winchester they were 
clo:>ely pushed by the pursuing foe ; but, at every point of attack, the 
enomy was checked and held at bay. The severest encounter took place 
at Winchester. General Gordon's brigade was here engaged, and gained 
great honor by its gallantry and coolness. The regiments constituting 
it were the Second 3Iassachuselts, Lieut-Cul. Andrews ; the Third Wis- 
consin, Col. Iluger ; the Twenty-seventh Indiana, Col. Colgrove ; and 
the Twenty ninth Pennsylvania, Col. Murphy. The stability with which 
this brigade opposed itself to overwhelming numbers undoubtedly saved 
General Banks' Army. General Gordon thus describes its final retreat : 

•' I fell back slowly, but generally in good order. The Second Massa- 
chusetts in column of companies moving by flank, the Third Wisconsin 
in line of battle moving to the rear. On every side above the surround- 
ing crest surged the rebel forces. A sharp and withering fire of musketry 
was opened by the enemy from the crest upon our centre, left and right. 
The yells of a victorious and merciless foe were heard above the din of 
battle, but my command was not dismayed. The Second Massachusetts 
halted in a street of the town to reform its line, then pushed on with the 
column, which, with its long train of baggage-wagons, division, brigade, 
and regimental, was making its way in good order towards Martins- 

" My retreating column suffered serious loss in the streets of Winches- 
ter : males and females vied with each other in increasing the number 
of their victims by firing from the houses, throwing hand-grenades, hot 
water, and missiles of every description. The hellish spirit of murder 
was carried on by the enemy's cavalry, who followed to butcher, and 
who struck down with sabre and pistol the helpless soldier sinking from 
fatigue, unheeding his cries for mercy, indiff"erent to his claims as a 
prisoner of war. 

" This record of infamy is preserved for the females of Winchester. 
But this is not all : our wounded in hospital, necessarily loft to the mer- 
cies of our enemies, I am credibly informed were bayoneted by the rebel 
infantry. In the same town, in the same apartments, where we, when 
victors on the field of Winchester, so tenderly nursed the rebel 
wounded, we were even so more than barbarously rewarded." 


May 12-30, 1802. 

The decisive battle of'Pittsbur^'h, on Monday, April 7th, terminated in 
the retreat of the vast army of rebels, which fell back to Corinth. During 
the latter part of the same week, Gen. Htilleck arrived on the field to as- 
sume the chief command of the Federal Army, The success of Gen. Pope's 
division at New Madrid, and at Island No. 10, placed his superb army of 
about twenty thousand strung, at llalleek's disposal ; and they were now 
ordered to join the grand army under the commander-in-chief. They 
were assigned position at Hamburgh, four miles above Pittsburgh Land- 
ing, fronting on the extreme left of the Federal lines. Several changes 
were now made in the organization of the Federal army. The divisions 
of Shermau and Crittenden were added to Grant's corps d'atmee. This 
gave Grant eight divisions. The reserve of Grant's forces were composed 
of the divisions of Gen. Lew. Wallace, Crittenden, and McClernand; 
the former command of the latter being conferred upon Brig. -Gen. John 
A. Logan. While McClernand was placed in command of this reserve, 
Gen. Thomas was placed in chief command of the remaining divisions of 
Grant's forces. 

In the field position, Grant's forces constituted the right, Buell's the 
centre, and Pope's the left. 

The first advance was ordered on April 29, the entire array moving 
toward the common centre, Corinth. Wallace held the extreme right. 
McClernand moved along the lower Corinth road, to a point one and a 
half miles west of Monterey. Sherman moved directly for a hill command- 
ing Monterey, and occupied it on the morning of the 30th of April, 

Every thing on the route indicated the haste with which the enemy 
had retreated, after his defeat. Gun-carriages, caissons, wheels, tents, 
and all the apparatus of war, broken or burned, strewed the whole line 
of march. 

On the same day Gen. Wallace dispatched a force to cut the Ohio and 
Mobile railroad at Bethel, south of Purdy, in order to sever the rebel 
communication to the northward. Three battalions of cavalry, ajid one 
of infantry, under command of Col. Morgan L. Smith, executed this com- 
mission. They found the rebels in position near Purdy, in a piece of 
woods. While the infantry and a detachment of cavalry engaged the 
enemy. Colonel Dickey, with two battalions of cavalry moved to the rail- 
road. They destroyed a bridge a hundred and twenty feet in length, 
and the conductor, engineer, and four others were taken prisoners. 
Buell struck direct from Pittsburgh Landing toward Corinth, while 


Pope's division pushed forward from Hamburgh towards the lower 

On the 3d of May, a reconnoissance in force toward Farminirton was 
ordered. The country is uneven and difScult to penetrate, and both time 
and caution were necessary. Generals Paine and Palmer of Pope's 
command, were detailed for this important duty. The regiments select- 
ed were the Tenth, Sixteenth, Twenty-second, Twcnty-scventli, Ftirty- 
secoiid and Fifty-first Illinois Volunteers, Tenth and Sixteenth Michigan 
Volunteers, Yates' Illinois Sharpshooters, Iloughtaling's and Hercock's 
batteries, and the Second Michigan cavalry. The column proceeded about 
five miles on the Farmington road, where they encountered the enemy's 
cavalry pickets. A skirmish ensued, in which the rebels lost eight killed, 
and the same number of their wounded, were made prisoners. The ene- 
my was compelled to fall back, after a second skirmish, and at 3 o'clock, 
p. M., the vanguard came up from a swamp they had crossed, and the 
fight commenced in earnest. The enemy was strongly posted on an ele- 
vated piece of ground which was flanked by a part of the force, and the 
rebels were obliged to fall back half a mile, yielding their former position 
to the Federals, who pressed them closely. The two regiments of infantry 
having secured a position commanding the left flank of the rebels, 
poured upon them such a destructive fire, that their infantry abandoned 
their artillerists. The latter, finding themselves forsaken, hastily with- 
drew their guns to a new position, from which they were soon dislodged, 
and fled with all speed to Corinth. General Pope's advance was thus 
put in possession of Farmington. 

This successful movement of General Pope's advance was a cause of 
great annoyance to the rebels, and on the 9rh of May they came out in 
overwhelming force to drive him back. The enemy numbered about 
thirty-five thousand, under command of Bragg, Price, Van Dorn, and 
Ruggles. General Pope had been specially directed not to engage the 
enemy in force. Under these circumstances he was obliged to encounter 
the shock of this large body, with only a single brigade, which, however, 
was advantageously posted. The enemy threw forward five or six regi- 
ments, with artillery, to engage this brigade, holding their immense 
reserve in readiness to attack the Federal reinforcements, which they 
supposed would be brought on the field. After five hours of desperate 
resistance. General Pope withdrew his advance, with a loss of forty killed, 
and about one hundred and twenty wounded. The rebels, surprised by 
the obstinate resistance of this small force, and their sudden retreat, 
made no pursuit, but fell back to their own intrenchments, after having 
suffered a much greater loss. 

Three different " parallels " were constructed along the Federal lines, 
from the time of the first investment to the occupation of Corinth. The 


construction of these works compelled the robela to fall back furtlier 
upon tliiir centre, until the last was completed. 

On the 17th of Jlay a brilliant engagement took place, under the com- 
mand of General V/. T. Sherman which re.;.iltod iu the ca|)ture of a posi- 
tion known us Russell's house, the place being owned unJ occujiied by a 
gentleman of that name. The possession of this ground being impor- 
tant to the Federal advance, General Sherman directed General llurlbut 
to take two regiments aud a battery of aitiUery up the road to Ru-sscU's 
house. General Denver witli an equal force, composed of the Seventieth 
and Seventy-second Ohio, and Barrett's battery, took a ditferent road, so 
as to arrive on the enemy's left, while his front was engaged. General 
Morgan L. Smith, with his brigade, and Bouton's battery, were directed 
to follow the main road, and drive back a brigade of the enemy that held 
the position at Russell's. General Smith conducted his advance in a 
very handsome manner, the chief work as well as the loss falling upon 
his two leading regiments, the Eighth Missouri and the Fifty-fifth Illinois. 
The firing was very brisk, but the enemy's pickets were driven steadily 
back till they reached their main position at Russell's, where they made 
an obstinate resistance. At first the Union artillery worked to a dis- 
advantage, owing to the nature of the ground, but then finally succeeded 
in gaining an elevation v/hcnce they shelled the houss, when the 
enemy immediately retired in confusion, leaving the field in possession of 
the victors. The Federal loss was ten killed, and thirty-ouc wounded. 
The enen'y left twelve dead on the ground. 

Preparations were constantly progressing for the final assault, which 
was appointed for the iSth of May. Occasional skirmishes took j)iace 
in which the rebels always lost ground, as the great body of the Federal 
forces slowly but surely closed around them. On the morning of the 
28!li, General Pope sent Colonel Elliott to cut the line of the Mobile and 
Ohio Fiailroad. This was accomplished with great skill. On tho 
same day the whole army slowly advanced to the point of attack. 
On the left, the division under General Pope approached so near the 
rebel lines as to discover that the retreat of the enemy had begun. 

It was nine o'clock on the morning of Wednesday the 28th, before 
Pope opened on the left and began the reconnoissance, which soon be- 
came general, as was evinced by rapid firing in McKe<m's division, and 
further to the right in Sheraian's. The right and center had encoun- 
tered no enemy until they had reached the swamp and pushed through 
it toward the creek. Pope, on the contrary, met a determined resistance, 
and at night his line was but little further ad'vanced than the third par- 
allel of the center a;)d right. Operating in an open space of some miles 
in extent he had not been able to advance his lines with the rapidity of 
Buell and Thomas. But the engagement began when the right and 


center reached the swamp, and while yet the left was striving to obtain 
the same position. There was no distinguishing anything. Along the 
•whole line ■\vhere tho fight was raging, sharp reports, shouts, com- 
mands, and cheers, were heard, but nothing could bo seen, save occa- 
sionally the white smoke rising from the leveled weapons which had just 
been discharged. The ambulances were slowly filled. The wounded 
soldiers were brought from the swamps, and the surgeons gathered 
around them. Cries of pain, curses, and groans, mingling with the 
wilder shouts of the excited combatants, who were hidden by the woods, 
arose distinctly. This style of skirmishing was kept up during the 
whole day. The combatants on the right and center maintained their 
original position, and Thomas and Euell bivouacked where they had 
fought — in the damp, miry swamps. The night was spent in preparations 
for an advance in the morning. 

The resistance of the rebels to Pope's advance was more stubborn, 
and the conflict during the day was more determined, more exciting, 
and resulted in greater loss than in both the other corp.«. lie was opposed 
both by infantry and artillery. The crossing at the creek was defended 
by a battery of rifled guns, which Pupe had found exceedingly effective, 
and he was content, when night came, to rest in the plain, and make his 
preparations for reducing the battery at early dawn. The troops of the 
three divisions bivouacked on the field, where they had stood mostly 
inactive the whole day, Hamilton's left resting on the Faimington road. 

The position obtained at Eussell's House on the 17th, had been 
strongly intrenched as a base for the operations of W. T. Sherman's di- 
vision on the 28th. On that day be was ordered to advance and secure 
a log-house standing on a ridge, giving a near and commanding position. 
The place was then held by the enemy — supposed to be in strong force. 

The house was a double log-building standing on a high ridge on the 
southern end of t,he large field to which the Union pickets had advanced. 
The enen.y had taken out the chinks and removed the roof, making it an 
excellent blockhouse, from which he could annoy the Union pickets, in 
security. The large field was perfectly overlooked by this house, and 
by the ridge along its southern line of fence, which was covered by a 
dense grove of heavy oaks and underbrush. The main Corinth ro;id runs 
along the eastern fence, while the field itself, three hundred yards wide, 
by five hundred long, extended far to the right into the low land of Phil- 
lip's creek, densely wooded and impassable to troops or artillery. On 
the eastern side of the field, the woods were more open. The enemy 
could be seen at all times, in and about the house and the ridge beyond, 
but the Federal pickets could not appear on that side of the field without 
attracting a shot. 

General J. W. Denver, with his brigade and the Morton battery of 


four guns, was ordered to inarch from the Union lines at eight a. m., 
keei)ing woll under cover as he .ipproached the field ; General M(jrgau 
L. Sniitli's briu'ade, with ]}arrett's and Watcrliouse's batteries, was or- 
dered by Sheniian to ninvc along the main road, keeping his force well 
masked in the woods to the left ; Brigadicr-tJoneral Vuafeh's briu'ado 
moved (Voiii Cioneral Hurlbut's lines through the woods on the left of 
and connecting with General Morgan L. Smith's, and General John A. 
Logan's brigade moved down to Bowie Ilill Cut of the Mobile and Ohio 
Railroad, ?.nd thcni'C forward and to the left, connecting wi;.h General 
Denver's brigade on the extreme right. 

Two twenty-pound rifled guns of Silfversparre's battery, under the 
immediate supervision of Major Taylor, chief of artillery, were moved 
silently through the forest to a point behind a hill, from the top of which 
could be seen the house and ground to be contested. The guns were 
unlimbered, loaded with shell pnd moved by liand to the crest. The 
house was soon demolished by Major Taylor's battery, when the troops 
dashed forward in splendid style, crossed the Sold, drove the enemy from 
the ridge and field beyond, into another dense and seemingly impenetra- 
ble forest. When t!ic enemy reached the ridge, he opened with a two-gun 
battery oa the right, and another from the front and left, killing three of 
General Veatch's men. The Union artillery soon silenced his, and by 
ten A. M. the Federals were masters of the position. Generals Grant and 
Tlioiiias were present daring the affair and witnessed the movement, 
which was admirably executed both by the officers and men. 

The enemy, evidcotly annoyed at this unexpected repulse, sallied out in 
some force to regain the lost position, but they were repulsed after a brisk 
fire of musketry and artillery. The new position won was near Corinth, 
and the work of intrenching went on during the night ot the '2Sth. On 
the morning of the 23lh, a I'.ne of defences was constructed, which gave 
the Federals a ]»owcrful foothold within thirteen hundred yards of the 
enemy's main works. 

The whole division of Sherman lay in a slightly curved line, facing 
south ; his right resting on the Mobile and Oliio Railroad, near a deep 
cut known as Bowie Hill Cut, and his left resting on the main Corinth 
road, at the crest of the ridge, there connecting with General Ilurlbut, 
who, in turn, on his left, connected with General Davies, and so on 
down the whole line to its extremity. So near was the enemy, that the 
sound of his drums and sometimes of voices in command could be heard, 
while the rumble of the railroad cars, coming and going to and from Cor- 
inth was easily distinguished. For some days and nights, cars had been 
arriving and departing frequently. On the nigiit of the 29th, they had been 
more active Mian usual, and Sherman's suspicions were aroused. Before 
daybreak on the 80th, he instructed the brigade commanders and the 


field oflSccr of the day, to feel forward as far as possible, but all reported 
the enemy's pickets still in force iu the dense woods to his front. About 
six A. M., a curious explosion, sounding like a volley of large siege 
pieces, followed by others singly, and in twos and threes, arrested atten- 
tion. Soon after a dense smoke arose from the direction of Corinth. 
Sherman immediately put in motion two regiments of each 
brigade by different roads, and soon after followed with the 
whole division, infantry, artillery and cavalry. To his surprise, the 
enemy's chief redoubt was found within thirteen hundred yards of the 
inner line of introiichmcnts, but completely masked by tht.' dense forest 
and undergrowth. Instead of a continuous line of intrenchments encir- 
cling Corinth, his defenses consisted of separate redoubts, connected in 
part by a parapet and ditch, and in part by shallow riQe-pits ; the trees 
being felled to afford a good field of fire to and beyond the main road. 

General Morgan L. Smith's brigade moved rapidly down the main 
road, entering the first redoubt of the enemy at seven a. m.. May 30th. 
It was completely evacuated, and he pushed on into Corinth and beyond, 
to College Ilill, there awaiting Thomas' orders and arrival. General 
Denver entered the enemy's lines at the same time, seven a. m., at a 
point midway between the wagon and railroads, and proceeded on to 
Corinth, about three miles from his camp ; and Colonel McDowell kept 
further to the right, near the Mobile and Ohio Railroad. By eight a. m., 
all Sherman's division was at and beyond Corinth. 

On the wiiole ridge extending from Sherman's into Corinth, and to the 
right and left could be seen the abandoned camps of the enemy ; flour 
and provisions were scattered about, everything indicating a speedy 
and confused retreat. In the town itself, many houses were still burn- 
ini.', and the ruins of warehouses and buildings containing commissary and 
other stores wore yet smouldering ; but there still remained piles of 
cannon balls, shells and shot, sugar, molasses, beans, rice, and other 
property, which the enemy had failed to carry off or destroy. 

The enemy had for some days been removing their sick, and their valu- 
able stores, and had sent away on railroad cars a part of their effective force 
on the night of the 28th. But, of course, even the vast amount of their 
rolling stock could not carry away an army of a hundred thousand men. 

The rebels were, therefore, compelled to evacuate the place, and 
began the march by ten o'clock on the night of the 29th— the columns 
filling the roads leading south and west all night ; the rear-guard firing 
the train which led to the explosion and conflagration, that gave the 
first intimation that Corinth was evacuated. 



While these events were happening, bcloic llichmond and in the 
valley of iho Shenmdoah, the rebels were not idle elsewhere. 

On the evening of tlu^ lUth of .May, General \Vool verifled hi.s opinion 
as to tho easy capture of Norfolk, by landing his troops at Ocean \ icw, 
undor th • direction of Captain Cram, and conimenccd his march upuu 
the city. 

T!i(i roiite lay through pine woods and over roads in only tolerable con- 
('ition. The i ifantry regiments being lirst landed, started at once upon 
their march, the jTineipal object being to secure the bridge across 
Tanner's Creek, whieli w aild be a shnrfoning of the route by several 
miles. The leading regiments under (tiii iil Weber, reached the 
bridge about one o'clock, and found it biniiiiig, it having been fired by a 
small force of rebels then on the opposite bank. They had also planted a 
couple of small guns, with which they tiow opened Gre upon our advance. 
General Mansfield considered that this effort to beat back our approach 
could not be resisted without artillery and a larger force ; and smarted on 
a return to hurry forward the batteries and a reinforcement. General 
Wool in the mean time derided to push forward, and led the column by 
a rou:»d; route toward Norfolk. 

In spite of the of the day, the Union troops reached the en- 
trenched camp at about half past four o'clock, and were in possession 
at twenty minutes before five. The entrenchuients were strongly forti- 
fied with ear li.vorks, on the top of which were found twonty-nine pieces 
of artillery. When just about to enter the city the troops were met by 
a flag of truce. The N[ayor of the city, who had oome out under the flaf, 
was met by General Wool and Secretary Ciiase. They entered a cottage 
by the road side, fur the purpose of conferring together, and there the 
JIayor of Norfolk informed General Wool of the purport of his visit, 
exjtlaining that ho had come to surrender the city into the hands of the 
Unite' .States, and to ask protection for the persons and property of the 
citizens. General Wool's reply was that the request was granted ia 
advance. He then immediately took possession of the city, and appointed 
Brigadior-Gencral Egbert L. V'iele to be Military Governor, with direc- 
tions to see that the citizens were protected in all their civil rights. 

At this point it is necessary to look backward for a few days at the 
doings of the rebels, in order to explain the burning of the Merriuuc. 



Commodore Tatnall, early in May, received orders to take up his po- 
sition upon the James river, in such a way as would entirely prevent the 
Union forces from ascending it. On the next day he va; cr li'red to en- 
deavor to protect Norfolk, too, which placed him in his origin: 1 position. 

On the day following. Commodore Hollins reached Norfolk with orders 
from the rebel Secretary of the N ivy, Honorable S. R. Mallory, to com- 
mutiicate with Commodore Tatnali and such officers as he migl t select, iu 
regard to the best disposition to be made of the rebel steamer Virginia 
— better known at the as the Merrimac. 

On the 8th of May the Union forces attacked the Sewell's Point bat- 
tery ; and Commodore Tatnall immediately undertook its defence, with 
the IMcrrimac. Sl.t of our vessels, including the Monitor aid Nangatuck, 
were act'vely engaged in the bombardment of the rebel batteries on 
Sewoll's Point and Craney Island. The Merrimac evinced a decided dis- 
inclination to come out into the roadstead ; and, as the National vessels 
were equally disinclined to go up to her, the combat ceased. 

The Monitor had orders to engage the ilerrimac, in only such a poi- 
tion as would enable the Union iron-clad, and other vessels eriga^^ed, lo 
run her down. 

The demonstration had one <:ojd effect; that of ascertaining the fact 
that the number of guns, at the principal work on Sewell's Point, was 
greatly reduced, aud the force of men posted there comparatively small. 
On the 10th of May the rebels learned that a large force of Union men 
were marching rapidly upon Norfolk, and 'a'er in the day ihit the Union 
troops occutiicd the city. They at once endeavored to put in force a de- 
sign to get up the river, and aid in the defence of Richmond, trust'ng to 
be able to do this before the Union officers should learn of their intention. 
Before daybreak the next morning, however, it was found that the Mer- 
rimac was not fit for acfion ; and the rebel flag-officer in command deter- 
mined, with the concurrence of the first and flag-lieutenants, to land the 
crew at Craney Island, the only means of retreat left open to them ; and, 
as it was otherwise impossible to prevent the Merrimac from falling into 
our hands, to destroy her before we could capture her. The vessel was 
accordingly put ashore, near the main land, the crew was landed, and in 
a few minutes sheets of flame rose into the air fore and aft of the proud 
rebel iron-clad. For more than an hour she burned fiercely ; tongues of 
fire licked her sides and shot up livid streams of light through the dense 
smoke, and at 5 o'clock on the morning of May 11th, with a loud report, 


like a roar of baffled rage, agony, and mortification, she blew up, scatter- 
in"' her ruins far and wide ; and the morning sua shone down on nothing 
of the Merrimac save wreck and smoke. 

M\\ 2\ 1«U2. 

On Wednesday, May 28th, one of the most brilliant achievemonts was 
consummated which distinguished the great, patriotic war for the Union. 

For several days previously to tlie above date, the rebels, returning 
from their raid up the Shenandoah valley, had been extending their 
pickets towards Old Church, throwing f<irces upon McClelian's right; 
flank, and otherwise indicating that they meant mischief. These threats 
of battle were answered by his suddenly throwing out a heavy Union 
force, between Hanover and Richmond, which cut off their commu- 
nications by the Virginia Central, and the Richmond and Petersburg rail- 
roads. By this means the Union army totally dispersed the enemy, in two 
short, sharp engagements, cleared its flank, and disabled the rebel rail- 
road operations. But a more important work was ahead ; and the force 
selected for it was General G. W. Morrell's division, of General F. J. 
Porter's Fifth Provisional Army Corps. At midnight of Monday, orders 
•were given to each regiment to be in light marching trim, for the morn- 
ing. The revielle beat at 3 a. m. A drenching rain was pouring down, 
so that not so much as a cup of coffee could be heated ; and there was 
nothing but cold rations to give the required strength for the prospective 

The soldiers marched in silence for some six or eight miles ; and then 
the whisper gathered breath, and passed from man to man, " Where are 
we going V Pocket compasses were consulted, and it was discovered 
that slowly, though gradually, the division was bearing more and more 
to the right. Few in the column had any idea of the object in view ; but 
no questions were asked. 

At 10 o'clock, the dismal, overhanging clouds had disappeared almost 
entirely, and through their broken masses poured down the rays of a bril- 
liant sun. that soon became almost tropical in its intense heat. The head 
of the column was suddenly turned to the right ; a course due north was 
pursued for a short time ; and then, where the roads intersected each 
other, a battery was planted, a regiment being detailed to support it. Again 
the brigades moved rapidly onward. At the halt, the Virginia railroad was 
reported to be but a mile and a half westward ; and, in obedience to 
orders received, the Twenty-second Massachusetts, Colonel Gore, marched 


northward to disable the railroad, and subsequently joined the main body 
a few miles above. 

The design in view was to cjipturc a large body of rebels, known to 
have been at Hanover Court H luso on the Sunday before, and which had 
then consisted of the Seventh, Twelfth, Eigliteenth, Twenty-third, Tliirty- 
third, and Thirty-eighth, North Carolina troops. Each regiment was rep- 
resented as numbering one thousand men : and it was further stated that 
the enemy intended to strongly reinforce the position. 

The Union division reached a point about two miles north of the in- 
tersection of the roads, when the advance guard, composed of cavalry; 
the Twenty-fifth New York Infantry, Colonel Joiinson, and a section of 
artillery, discovered the pickets of the enemy. Without an instant's 
delay the skirmishers opened fire, when the enemy slowly withdrew for 
two miles — the Twenty-fifth in rapid pursuit, keeping ahead even of 
Benson's Light Battery, which was in front. It was in an open field, 
near the house of Doctor King, that the rebels drew up in line of battle. 
Colonel Johnson pressed boldly forward, engaged them at close range, 
and for fifteen minutes, before any support arrived, made hot work for 
both sides. The rebe'.s had sheltered themselves behind the house, and 
in support of two of their own field pieces ; but they were speedily 
driven from that protection. A force of the enemy which approached on 
the right of the Twenty-fifth, coming from the woods, succeeded in 
taking prisoners a portion of company G, which they immediately 
carried to their rear. A section of Manin's Massachusetts Battery, 
followed by a portion of Griffin's Regular Battery now came to the 
assistance of Colonel Johnson, and speedily fixed the attention of the 
rebels, who continued to pour in a sharp shower of grape and shell from 
their twelve-pound howitzers. 

But now a turn in afi'airs took place which was as great a surprise as it 
was a disaster to the rebels. From their determined stand it was clearly 
perceived that they supposed the force before them to be our only 
strength ; and they evidently considered that it would be short work to 
repulse and capture the small bod}?- of men so heroically attacking tlieiu. 
But General Butterfield had already ordered the Eighty-third Pennsyl- 
vania, Colonel McLane and the Seventeenth New York, Colonel Lansing, 
to the timber on the left of the enemy's flank ; and before they could sus- 
pect the blow that threatened them, our reinforcements appeared in the 
wheat field on their left. The vitality of the movement was clear to them 
as soon as perceived ; and surprised, then confused, they wavered at 
the first well-directed volley poured in on them. Their ranks broke ; 
and, turning, they fled confusedly, in every direction. A second volley 
picked off their men at the guns. Forward, at the double-quick, and 
■with a loud, hearty yell, went the brave Seventeenth. The cannon were 


a^andoneil wMiout sfikin^; tlicrn, and our victori'uis troops pursiu.'J 
the retreating enemy to Iluiiover CourtHouse. Witlii:i an liour sixty 
prisoners were brought in. Bi-yond this point the enemy still flod ; and 
the cavalry continued in hot pursuit. At the Court-IIouse the regiments 
stopped, as the enemy had abandoned it just in time to escape the net 
60 skilfully .-ct for his capture. 

At Peake's Station orders were received from General Porter fur the 
Twenty-second Massachusetts to move up the railroad, several hundred 
feet of whi'di they had previously torn up. All other regiments, includ- 
ing the Forty-fourth and the battery below, were ordered to move with 
all possible rnpidity, as it wr.s expected that much more sharp fighting 
remained to be done ahead. They had but just moved furward when a 
mounted cavalry picket in hot haste rode up and informed General 
Martindale that a large force of rebels hid arrived by rail, and was 
already hurrying on for an attack upon the rear, evidently hoping to 
get us between two fires. The Second Maine regiment, in the rear, 
was faced about, and stationed at the point where the rebel attack was 
expected. But they advanced under shelter of the timber. The Forty- 
fourth New York, Colonel Stryker, was ordered to the left of Martin's 
battery ; the Twenty-fifth regiment, attending on the wounded, having 
been sent for, arrived and took up a position on the left of the battery, 
before which the rebels had already appeared. The Forty-fourth 
started to deploy in the woods to the left, with a view to protect one of 
the hospitals which was in that direction; but the enemy attacking our 
right flank miide it necessary to have them recalled. They returned 
to their former position; and engaged their opponents vigorously. 

The fight waxed hot and furious. Six rebel infantry regiments were 
in plain sight. Colonel Johnson was severely wounded, and soon after 
had his horse shot undtu' him ; Adjutant Houghton received a flesh 
wound in the leg, and Miijor Chapin of the Forty-fourth was severely 
wounded in the chest, and the leg. Adjutant Knox, and Lieutenant Fox 
were both wounded. The enemy pressed fiercely uprn the Union lino.^ ; 
their fire was poured in with relentless fury, and their whole strength 
was put out to crush the patriotic force* But in vain, for though losing 
sevorcly at every onslaught, the three heroic columns stood their 
ground with an unflinching bravery that has won for them the highest 
mocd of praise. They would not yield an inch. Finally the Second 3Iaino 
was out of nmniunition, and Colonel Eoberts appealed for a chance to 
charge with the bayonet. 

During all the time this furious fight was raging the brigades in the 
advance were returning on the double-rjuick. 

The Eighty-third Pennsylvania and Sixteenth Michigan were thrown 
in on the left. The Sixty-second Pennsylvania, Colonel Black, was sent 


into the timber on the left ; the Ninth Massachusetts, Colonel Cass, was 
placed on the left of the Eii^lit3'-third. The Fourteenth New York re- 
lieved the Second Maine, and was joined by the Thirteenth New Jersey, 
from Colonel Warren's brigade. 

Griffin's battery, which now came thundering in, commenced throwing 
shell and shrapnell, on the instant after taking position. 

The fresh regiments pressed forward. On the enemy's left, the Sixty- 
second was doing such execution as forced the rebels to fall back before 
its destructive fire. The whole advancing columns came on with a steady 
rush ; the enemy was thrown into confusion, and under cover of the 
forest, beat a disordered and precipitate retreat. 

The victory was won, hardly, bravelj', and nobly won ; and the results 
were more than the victors had hoped for. 

The spoils were over six hundred men ; a large number of guns ; and 
a railway train, captured by General Stoneman. 

It is worthy of remark that in this engngement the flag of the Forty- 
fourth New York was pierced by forty-four bullets. The regiment 
behaved nobly — as did every one engaged. Too much praise cannot be 
awarded to both officers and men. The following is from a newspaper 
account of the day. 

" General McClellan came up the next morning and was most enthusias- 
tically received by the men. He grasped General Porter by the hand 
most cordially and congratulated him. Turning to General Butterfield, 
who was near, he put one hand on his shoulder and said some words that 
we on the outside could not hear. That they were well merited compli- 
ments for brave and gallant deeds, the faces of both showed most plainly. 
Our brigade was satisfied and confident that under fire, as well as else- 
where, we have the right man in the right place." 

The result of this fight was the firm establishment in position of the 
right wing of McClellan's army, which took position without waiting 
the cooperation of McDowell, and entered upon that scene of bloody days 
which ended in the retreat to Harrison's Landing. 



M.VY 31 AND JUMi 1. 

On the 20th ami 30th of May the National pickets were manj' times 
fiercely attacked by detachments of the rebels, endeavoring to ascertain 
the preci>c situation of the Federal troops. TI.ey were repulsed with 
considerable loss. Tlicre were indications that the enemy was approacli- 
in;; in great force, fur the cars coming out from Riclimoiid had Leeii 
running all the previous nijrht. On the morning of the 30th, General 
Keyes, stationed at Seven Pines, was informed of the threatening aspect 
of affairs ; and together with Gen. Casey, at once made every possible 
preparation to repel all sudden attacks, well knowing that the enemy 
could assail with double or treble the numbers of the Union forces. 

General Keyes in his official report, says : " The camp I selected, and 
which was the next day approved by iMajor-Gen. McClellan, stretches 
.ncross the Williamsburgh road between Bottom's Bridge and Seven 
Pines, and is distant about a mile from the latter. I ciused that cam[. 
to be fortified with rifle-pits and breastworks extending to the left about 
eiu'ht hundred yards, and terminating in a crotchet to the rear. Similar 
works, about three hundred yards further in advance, were constructed 
on the right, extending towards the llichmond and AVest Puint Iiuil- 

" Having been ordered by Gen. McClellan to hold the Seven Pinea 
strongly, [ designed to throw forward to that neiL'hborhood two brigades 
of Casey's division, and to establish my picket-line considerably in 
advance, and far to the right." 

In the mean time the rebel preparations were of the most powerful 
description, and seemed to promise to them undoubted success. 
General Hill, with a force of 16,000 men, was to march from Richmond, 
along the AVilliamsburg road, towards Seven Pines. General Long- 
street, with 16,000 more, was to support his right wing ; and Gener'jl 
linger with a third 16,000. was appointed to protect his left tiank, 
prepared to fall upon the right wing of the Federal troops. General 
Smith, with still another 16,000 men, was to make a detour through the 
woods, fur the purpose of cutting off the retreat of Casey's division. Such 
was the generalship of the rebel officers that often with really inferior 
numbers, they so massed their troops as to be superior in numbers upon 
the battle-field. 

Throughout the night of the 30th of May, there was a raging storm, 
the like of which few who listened to its roar and fury could remember 
ever to have experienced. The thunder roared without iutermissioa ; tor- 

6-i TIIli; WAi: FOlt THE UNION. 

rents of rain drenchod the earth ; while the whole sliy was on fire with an 
unceasing bhize of liu'litiiing. It was from the peltings of this storm, 
saturated wiih rain, which had penetrated the camps, and turned iheii 
hard field-beds into pools of mud, that the Federal troops rose, to face 
an advancing army of six or seven times their own number. The tempest 
had gradually died away, toward daybreak, but a luworing sky seemed to 
increase the gloom of the ilreary landscape. Nor were the men, after a 
night of unrest, any brighter than the aspect of surrounding nature. 
The roads flooded by rain, were almost impassable; and the waters of 
the Chickahominy, overflowing its ba-aks, were encroaching upon the 

About an hour before noon it was announced that a large body of the 
rebels had been seen approaching, on the Ricliraond road. Picket-firing 
commenced almost immediately, and was instantly followed by the 
shriek of several shells from the enemy's ariillery, which came tearing 
through the air, in the neigliborhood of General Peck's head-quarters — 
proving that the enemy was advancing on General Casey's division. 

The troops were, on the instant, summoned to arms. Every man at 
work on the intrenchments was dispatched to his regiment ; the artil- 
lery was harnessed up, the batteries placed in position ; and the One 
Hundred and First Pennsylvania Volunteers, was sent down the road, to 
check the advancing foe and to support the pickets. 

Up to this moment it was su[)posed that nothing more was impending 
than one of those sharp skirmishes in which the troops had so often en- 
gaged. The Pennsylvania troops marched briskly onward, little imagining 
that they were throwing themselves on the bayonets of an army of 16,000 
men ; till, to their horror and consternation, as they emerged from the 
forest, they found themselves face to face with an overwhelming force. 
A volley of bullets swept, with devastating efi'ect, upon their ranks 
dealing death on every side, and scattering one-fifth of their number dead 
or wounded upon the field. It was a moment in which flight was valor ; 
for in fifteen minutes they would inevitably have been surrounded, and 
every man cut down or made a jtrisoner. 

General MeCleilan was, at the lime, severely criticised for that sentence 
inhisdispatch to Secretary Stanton which read, " Casey's division, which 
was the first line, gave way, unaccountably and discreditably." The retreat 
of this handful of men, after first losing one-fifth of their number, does 
not reflect upon their heroism. General Casey says in his official 
report, — 

" In my humble opinion, from what I witnessed on the 31st, I am con- 
vinced that the stubborn and desperate resistance of my division saved 
the army on the right of the Chickahominy from a severe repulse, which 
might have resulted iu a disastrous defeat. The blood of the gallant 

BATFLE 07 FAIR O \ i:3. 35 

dead would cry to mc from the ground on wliicli tlioy fell, fii^iiting for 
their country, had I not said wiiat I have to vindicate thcin from the 
unmerited aspersions which have been cast upon them." 

It is gratifying to be able to add that General MeClcUan subsequently 
owned that he had been mistaken iu this particular, and did justice to 
brave soldiers. 

Five tl)oiisand men in an almost open field could do but little to repel 
the advance of two divisions of the enemy, each numbering IG.OOO 
men. Onward the rebels marched, till within a few yards of Stuart's 
battery, when the brave artillnrists delivered their last fire, before, at 
their commander's order, they retired. The Federals now retreated 
about a quarter of a mile, toward their second line ; and the rebeb 
having paused to secure the captured cannon, again advanced, still pour- 
ing in, upon the retreating Union troops, volley after volley of bullets 
and shells. But the latter maintained their ground for upwards of threo 
hours, without a single regiment arriving to their assistance After a 
short conflict, of awful fierceness, the rebels succeeded in taking tlie 
redoubt; and General Casey's devoted little band, fearfully mutilated, 
exhausted and bleeding, retreated through General Couch's troops drawn 
up in line half a mile behind them ; and thus sheltered, ouce more 
reformed their wasted, broken ranks. 

The rebels resumed their march on General Couch's line, at four 
o'clock, having halted a moment at th3 deserted camp. 

General Couch having formed his line, already eight thousand strong, 
was at this n)oment being reinforced by General Ileintzclman's corps of 
16,000 men, with which he advanced to meet in front the combined 
forces of Generals Hill and Longstrcet, numbering together •32,009, 
and a division of 10,000 under General Smith, which was marching upon 
his flank. 

The ground was rather favorable than otherwise ; a few ulight ia- 
trcnchmcnts had been hastily thrown up, and General Couch's line was 
formed to the north of the Williamsburg road. The design of the rebels 
was to make their strongest assault upon General Couch's right wing, 
which intent, as soon as perceived, was partly frustrated by his sending 
troops to.slren^'thcn the point of attack. Again the roar of battle thundered 
forth upon the hut, heavy air ; dense clouds of smuke shut out the sky from 
friend and iuc ; the ground was literally red with blood, and the fioM 
was covered with the dead, dying, and wounded. The whiz of bulleia 
and the appalling, horrible scream of shells kept up a shrill accompani- 
ment to the uninterrupted roar of cannon. General Peck, with two 
Pennyslvania regiments, passed through an open space, swept 
with a shower of balls, and poured in a destructive fire on tiie 
enemy. it was impossible to resist the advance of the rebels, wbo 


greatly ontnunibcrcd the Federals ; but the courage displayed on bolli 
sides was equal. 

The brave soldiers of the Union slowly retired, in good order, stub- 
bornly contesting every foot of ground they passed over. At about 5 
o'clock they were joined by General Biiuey, with a brigade of General 
Kearney's division. General Sumner was on the other side of the 
Chickahominy, encamped at New Bridge. lie had, at 3 o'clock in the 
afternoon, received orders to cross and march to the aid of the troops, 
\?hich were in imminent peril of being overwhelmed. But it required 
a long time to cro-^^s the river, swollen to oveiflowing by recent 
rains ; and it was live miles to the scene of conflict. But, pressing 
through rain and mud, with indefatigable energy tliey slrugirled forward, 
till the heroes at Seven Pines were gladdened by the si^^ht of them, and 
all along the lines ran the shout, " It is General Sumner I" 

Almost at the same moment the rebels were thrown into great confu- 
ision, on seeing their Commander-in-Chief, General J. E. Johnston struck 
by a fragment of shell, and hurled from his horse. 

Taking advantage of a moment so disastrous to the rebels. General 
Sumner's men advanced on the double quick. They had succeeded in 
bringing up a battery, which was instantly planted ; and they carried 
real fighting guns, 12-pound howitzers. With chcse they poured in a 
rapid and destructive tire upon the enemy. General Sumner, his gray 
hair streaming on the wind, a picture to inspire heroism, reverence and 
admiration, rode up and down the lines, shouting encouragement to his 
brave soldier.s. The rebels charged twice, well and bravely ; and twice 
they were repulsed. A third charge was feebly attempted, but over- 
whelmed by the destruction dealt upon their rauks by the Union men, 
they broke, turned, and fled wildly, leaving their dead and wounded on 
the field. Tlie Federals, bayonet in hand, and led bj General Sumner, 
pursued the routed foe, driving them as far as Fair Oaks Station. 

JuxE 1, 1SG2. 

During the night all the Union artillery was brought safely through 
the marshes and swamps ; and was posted for duty, it being well under- 
fctood that the enemy would, on the following day, throw out all his 
remaining force, to drive back the Federal troops, and compel them to 
cros.s the Chickidiominy. Throughout the night was hoard the sound of 
axes, felling trees to protect the rebels from the advance of their ibec ; 


and tlic words of command from the rebel officers wore distinctly heard 
by our sol(li(>r<. 

The attack was not made at so early an hour as had been anticipated 
by our officers ; it was six o'clock when the enemy first gave signs of 
their intended movement, and our pickets were driven in. They halted 
in our front and taunted our line to advance. General French, wiioso 
brigade was in front, declined the challenge, and the rebels rushed for- 
ward. The battle opened at once furiously. The enemy fought rapidly 
and skilfully, adopting tactics which General French construed into a 
feint to draw him on. At intervals they suspended fire, appeared to be 
driven back, but continued to send forward new forces — their capacity 
for reinforcements, as on the previous day, appearing to be inexhaustible. 
As upon Saturday, both sides fought with equal and determined bravery. 
When the contest had lasted two hours and a half, with still increasing 
fury, General Kichardson ordered Howard's brigade to the front ; the 
enemy also again reinforced, and the volume of his fire increased. 
Meantime our batteries were shelling the forests furiously ; and a 
vigorous bayonet charge, by tbc Fifth New Hampshire, scattered the 
enemy, who had appeared in a skirt of the woods, like dry leaves before 
the autumn wind. General Howard, who had cheered on his brave men 
in the thickest of the fray, wa? at length disabled, and carried to the 
rear; his brother, Lieutenant Howard, also fell wounded; and Colone] 
Cross of the Fifth New Hampshire took command. The enemy having 
begun to fall back. Colonel Miiler, of the Eighty-first Pennsylvania, 
and Lieu'eiiunt- Colonel Masset, a talented young man, and a brave 
officer, of the Sixty-first New York, were killed iustantly. The Fifth 
New Hampshire charged again. Colonel Cross at their head was 
wounded in the forehead with a fragment of shell, but bravely resisted 
its effect till he was hamstrung by a musket ball, when ho allowed him- 
self to be carried to the rear. As he was borne away he was cheered by 
hearing a shout of triumph that rent the air ; and he knew that the 
Federals had won the day. Colonel Parker then took command of the 
brigade, and fought till the enemy were completely repulsed. The 
battle was at an end ; the rebels did not again appear that day, nor did 
they even venture to post their pickets within view of the Federal line. 

Major W. \V. Cook, of the Fifth New Hampshire was disabled in the 
same manner as his Colonel. All the officers engigod, both in the fight 
of Sunday and of Saturday, bore themselves with unflinching bravery. 
Sedgwick displayed a coolness and courage invaluable in keeping up the 
spirits of his men; the firmness of Gorman filled the soldiers in his 
command with enthusiasm, and the cpiick judgment of General Burns at; 
a most critical moment of the action, had a decidedly inspiriting effect; 
upon his troops. When the balls were flying uround them like hail, 


Fovorul hor?cs and tliroc biit'ory teams stamp > Jed, and for an instant the 
whole line of battle seemed to waver ; wlien General Burns, coniprehcud- 
ing the situUioa at a glance, c.illed oat with admirable coolness, " Steady, 
men, stcadjl" The effect was like magic. The Zouaves uttered a long 
loud, hearty series of yells that might have been hoard at Richmond ; 
and before tliey had realized that they had even wavered, the entire lines 
hnd drcs>cd up compactly, and were dealing murderous discharges on 
the enemy. Captiin Sedgwick, Assistant Adjutant-General to General 
.'^ed^wick, and Lieutenant Stone, his Aid-de-Cainp ; Captain G. H. 
Wicks, Assistant A'ljutant-G.;neral to General Burns ; and Lieutenants 
Blakcney and Camblos are entitled to honorable mention Colonel 
Cochrane, Colonel Neill, Colonel Sully, and Colonel Senter showed 
themselves to be brave soldiers and efficient officers. 

The loss of men on both sides was very great. Capt. Achnuff, of 
the One Hundred and Sixth Pennsylvania, Capt. Marke, First Cali- 
fornia, Lieut. Camblos and Gen. Burns, and Lieut. Donelson of the First 
California, were wounded. 

General McCiillan was wherever duty called him; in the fight of 
Sunday he was in the field, and rode al^ng the er.tire battle-line, greeted 
with enthusiastic cheers from every moulh. In the battle of Sunday, 
Gen. Petligrew and Col. Champ Pavis of South Carolina, and Col. 
Long of the regular army, were taken prisoners. 

On SuHvlay nigtit, the gallant troops of the Union army again slept on 
the battle-field ; while around them lay the n)anglod, stiff, and gory dead, 
with upturned, pallid faces, on which the heavens smiled down in n)ute 
approval of the d.iuutiess courage that bad dared death and wou the 
victory in a noble cause ! 

June 8, 1SG3. 

At six o'c-lock on the morning of the 8th of June, the Virginia forces, 
tinder General Fremont, commanding the mountain department in West 
Virginia, left ILirrisonbiirgh, and advanced about sevc^i miles, attacking 
the rebels near a pb.ce called Union Church. The advance was led by 
General Clu-eret, his brigade consisting of the Sixtieth Ohio and Eighth 
Virginia, aft"r\vards .'^upiiorted by the Garibaldi Guard. The battle 
commenced at about nine o'clock, and was prosecuted with great fury on 
boh sides. The rebels, consisting of Stonewall Jackson's command, had 
the advanta,'e of position. 


Gcnoral Fremont was eurly on the ground, and was often exposed to 
the fire of the enemy. On one oecasion, a shell from a rebel battery 
struck the ground within a tVw feet of the spot on which he stood. The 
Union line of battle was a mile and a half in length. General vSchetick 
led the right wing. His forces were disposed as follows : at his left was 
the Ei.'hty-sGcond Ohio, Colonel Cantwcll ; next came the Fifry-tifth 
Ohio, Colonel Lee ; Seventy -third, Colonel Smith ; Seventy-Oflh, Colonel 
McLean, while the Thirty-second Ohio, Colonel Ford, held the extreme 
right. The centre, under the command of the intrepid Milruy, h .d the 
Third Virginia, Lieutenant-Colonel Tliorapson e(jmiiiandiiig, on the left; 
next the Fifth Virginia. Colonel Zeigler; the Second Virginia, Major J. 
D. Owens commanding ; while the Twcnty-fifili Ohio, under the com- 
mand of Lieutenant-Colonel Ilichardson, formed the right. Between 
Milroy's right and Schonck's left lay the Sixtieth Ohio, Colonel Trimble, 
and Eighth Virginia, Cnlonol Looser, commanded by Colonel Cluseret, 
in addition to the Garibaldi Guards, of Blcnkcr's division. General 
Stahl's brigade, consisting of the Eighth, Forty-first, and Forty-Hfth 
New York, and Twenty-seventh Pennsylvania, with the invincible band 
of Bucktails, that survi\ ed the slaughter of Friday previous, formed the 
left. General Bohlen's brigade was to support StaLl, while the remain- 
der of Bleuker's division was a reserve. 

The battle lasted until about three o'clock in the afternoon, when, by 
the misinterpretation of an order, the left wing of the Union forces fell 
back, exposing the centre, and necessitating a retrogade laovement along 
the whole line. The enemy, intent only upon getting off, made no fur- 
ther advance ; and the worn and wasted ranks of the patriots reposed 
at night upon the field of combat. Euly next morning the Union line 
of battle was reformed, Schcnck taking the centre, and Milroy the right, 
and an advance was commenced, in the direction of Port Ptcpublic. As 
the National forces approached this point, which is on the Shenandoah 
river, a dense smoke was seen rising aliead, and it was soon found that 
the rebels had retired across the river, and burned the only bridge by 
which it was possible to pursue them. Thus did Stonewall Jackson, 
after a i^uccessful raid up the Valley, slip through the fingers of the 
Union commanders, and make good his escape — though not without 
sev.'re loss. The Union losses were upwards of six hundred in killed, 
wounded, and missing. The men behaved with great gallantry in this 
fight. Generals Milroy and Cluseret especially distinguished themselves. 



June 25, 18G3. 

T'.aiP passed on, diys len^tliening into weeks, and no decisive stop 
was taken, that is, no engagement of great moraeut with the enemy took 
plaee, for circumstances rendered it impossible. Tlie Chiekahomiiiy, al- 
ready so hi_'h as to render crossing it impracticable, was still further 
swollen by heavy rains on the niglits of Juno 3d, 4th and 7th, till finally it 
flooded all the bottom<» to the height of four or five feet, rendering the 
country, for the tims, impassable for eiiher artillery or cavalry. Gen- 
eral McClcllan meanwhile continued to urge upon the War Department 
at Washington the necessity for reinforcing his army ; and continued to 
push on the con-.truction of bridges across the river. It was his wish to 
place th.e two wings of the army, separated only by the river, in the most 
direct communication with each other. On the 10th and 11th June, Gen- McCall's troops commenced landing at the White House. On the 
25th, the bridi'es and intrenchments being at last completed, an advance 
of the picket lines was ordered, preparatory to a general movement for- 
ward. The advance was begun by Ileintzclman's corps, at about 9 
o'clock on the morning of the 25th, the object in view being to gain 
possession of a spot called Oak Grove, which had long been disputed 
ground. The enemy was in strong force all along the line, and stubborn- 
ly resisted the advance of the Union regiments, obliged at first to push 
forward cautiously, and with great difficulty through the heavy swamps. 
The rebel pickets were routed, and a brisk engagement opened with 
their supports. The battle soon became general, and it was impossible 
to distinguish any thing but smoke, and mounted officers dashing to and 
fro ai«mg the line. It was as easy to distinguish the firing of the enemy 
from our own, as it is to distinguish the sound of two voices from each 
other : for they were armed with Harper's Terry muskets, we carried 
Springfield and Enfield guns. The firing of our soldiers was sharp and 
ringing, that of the enemy slow and dull ; but on both sides heavy. 
In this fight. General Sickles commanded in turn each regiment of his 
brigade, encouraging his men, and leading, and inspiring them with hia 
own fi'.^ry ard.)r. The fire rapidly extended over Hooker's entire line 
to Hinks's "aiiking regiment, ever increasing in intensity, as reinforce- 
iiionts of the enemy joined those already engaged. The Union men be- 
haved splendidly. General Hooker's division merited and obtained great 
praise. At 5 o'clock the fighting v/as over ; the enemy was entirely driv 


en from their camps in front of redoubt No, 3 ; an;l the bravo soldiers 
rested on their laurels, haviiK^ achieved a dearly bought victory. 
Our loss was very heavy. The rebel loss was not so severe. 

June 2G, 1803. 

During the night information was received that Stonewall Jackson, 
having returned from his raid down the Valley of the i>henandoah, was 
ra{iidly moving down the peninsula between the Paiiiuiikey and the 
Chickahominy with the intention of attacking McClellan's right flank. 
This alarming intelligence put a stop, for a time, to any idea of an imme» 
diate advance toward Richmond. Our right win-^ consisted of the divi- 
sions of McCall, Morrell, and Sykes. At Vz o'clock on the morning of 
the 26th of June, the approach of the enemy was perceived. The posi- 
tion of the Union troops was a strong one ; extending alotig the left bank 
of Beaver Dam Creek, tlie left resting on the Chickahominy, and the 
right in thick woods beyond the upper road from iMechauicsville to Coal 
Harbor Seymour's brigade held the left of the line ; and Keynolds' 
the right ; the artillery occupied positions commanding the roads, and 
the open ground across the creek. 

At three o'clock in the afternoon the rebels advanced impetuously, but 
were bravely resisted by General Meynold.s ; and after a severe struggle 
forced back with heavy loss. A rapid artillery fire, with skirmishing, 
was maintained along the front, while the enemy about two hours later 
mass(!d his troops for another effort, but was again repulsed with severe 
slaughter, by General Seymour. At nine o'clock, p. m., the engagement 
was at an end, with entire success to the Union arms, while the enemy 
retired slowly and humbled by defeat. 

During the night General Porter led a portion of the Union troops 
across the Chickahominy, Seymour's brigade covering the movement ; 
and in the darkness it was successfully accomplished. The enemy 
appeared in front of our new line about noon of the 27th, at which time 
we were prepared to receive him In this engagement the rebels were two 
to one of the Union army ; their force numbered seventy thousand ; and 
that of the Federals thirty-five thousand. The loss of the latter under 
the tremendous fire of the enemy was appalling. At three o'clock in the 
afternoon the engagement had become so general and so severe that the 
whole second line and all the reserves were moved forward to meet the 
overwhelming nu.ui'r of the enemy, and to sustain the first line under 
the desperate assaults on the front. Glocum's division was brought into 
action to guard the weak points of our line, the uiDment it arrived on the 
field. On the left the rebels were repulsed with heavy loss ; while on the 


riglit Sykcs' regulars did ^ignal service in repelling many severe attacks. 
TLe positinn of the Union troops was becoming very critical; and, most 
of thom under arras for two days, and greatly exhausted, were being 
Bevercly harassed by the masses of fresh trcops constantly brouj.dit against 
thciii. To have the line jircssed at any one point now, would have been 
fatal ; and it was absolutely necessary. General Tortor being required to 
bold his position till night-fall, to divide Slocum's division, and send even 
single regiments if no more could be spared, to protect the points in the 
most danger from the enemy. 

The peril of the army was hourly becoming more imminent. 

At five o'clock the brigades of French and Meagher, Ilichardson'a 
division, third corps, were ordered to the support of General Porter. 

At six o'clock the enemy again attacked in great force, but failed to 
break the unwavering line of Union soldiers. 

At seven o'clock they rushed forward with increaseu fury, and finally 
gained the woods held by Porter's left. A general confusion followed, 
with more determined assaults from the enemy, forcing Porter's men 
from the po-itiou they had so nobly held, to a hill in the rear overlooking 
the bridge. It was now approaching night, and the hearts of the Union 
troops were heavy with dire apprehension, when the French and 3Ieagher 
brigades appeared, sternly driving before thom the strag,flers who were 
thronging in disorder toward the bridge. They advanced boldly to the 
front, and by their steady bearing and their brave example so animated 
the sinking troops that they rallied, reformed behind the welcome rein- 
forcement, and again advanced up the hill prepared to repulse any attack 
of the enemy. But what had renewed their courage had filled the rebels 
with dismay; having been many times in the course of the engagement 
repulsed with severe slaughter, and now hearing the shouts of the fresh 
troops, the enemy failed to follow up his advantage ; and in the gathering 
gloom of night the rescued regiments made good their retreat, crossed 
the bridge in safety, and destroyed it behind them. 

In this battle the rebels cajitured twenty-two guns, three of which were 
lost by being run otf the bridges in the final withdrawal. It is due to the 
aitillery to say that not until the last successful charge of the rebels 
were the cannoneers driven from their pieces, or struck d(.wn, and their 
guns captured. The batteries of Diedrich, Ranahan, and G imm took 
position in front of General Smith's line and aided by the First Con- 
necticut artillery, with a battery of siege guns, drove back the rebels in 
front of General Porter. 

'' k'i^mwM'f 




The weary hours of the sultry night following the battle of Gaines' 
Mill were heavy laden to the soldiers of the army of the Potomac — 
While the rear guard was taking positions to beat back the advance of 
the foe on the next day, the main body of the army continued a retreat 
which every man felt to be ignominious ; aud rolled backward, like a 
mighty stream turned from its source, toward the James river. 

On the evening of June '27th General McClellan assembled his corps 
commanders at his headquarters, and informed them of the proposed 
change in his base of operations, his reasons, his choice of route and 
method of execution. 

General Keycs was directed to move his corps across White Oak 
swamp, and to seize strong positions on the opposite side, in order to 
cover the passage of the troops and trains — a movement which he exe- 
cuted the following morning. 

General McClellan spent the day at Savage's Station, directing the 
withdrawal of the trains and supplies of the army. Orders were given 
to load the wagons with all the ammunition, provisions, and necessary 
baggage of officers and men that could be placed on them, and to destroy 
all property which could not be transported with the army. 

A proper number of surgeons and attendants, with a bountiful supply 
of rations and medical stores were left with the sick and wounded who 
could not be removed. 

A herd of beef cattle numbering twenty-five hundred head was trans- 
fered in .safely to the James river, by the Chief Commissary, Colonel 

The enemy opened on General Smiths' division from Garnett's Hill, 
from the valley above, and from Gaines' Hill on the opposite side of the 
Chickahoniiny, while General Franklin was in the act of withdrawing his 
command from Golding's farm. A short time after, a Georgia regiment 
made an attempt to carry the works about to be vacated, but were in- 
stantly repulsed by the Twenty-third New Jersey and Forty-ninth Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers, on picket, duty, aided by a section of Mott's battery. 

General Porter's corps was moved across White Oak swamp, and was 
so placed as to strengthen General Keyes' right. 

McCall's division, on the night of the 28th, was conveyed across the 
swamp to aid in covering the remaining trains and troops. 

During the same niglit General Sumner withdrew his troops to a poini 
on the railroad near Savage's Station; and Heintzelman and Smith took 
up positions in his close vicinity. The divisions of Sedgwick and Rich- 
ardson were already there on the railroad facin^' Kichmoud ; the first line 


of Richardson's division being held by GencrLil French, and the second 
supported by Gonernl Caldwell. 

General Slocum's division uf Fiauklin'3 corps was ordered to Savage's 
Station, to be held in reserve. 


Early on the morning of Sunday, June 29, it was observed by 
the keen and watchful eye of General Franklin that the onoiny had 
re-constructed the bridges across the Cliickahominy, and were 
advancing in large force on Savage's Station. He instantly commu- 
nicated the fact to General Sumner. 

At 9 A. M. the enemy furiously attacked General Sedgwick's right, but 
vias signally repulsed. They next attacked General Rieliardjon on the 
loft, attempting to carry the position of Colonel Brooks. ITazzard's 
bittery, afterwards replaced by Petlit's, was served with disastrous 
cfifect on the enemy. The Fifty-third Pennyslvania poured in a steady 
fire on the enemy, compelling them to retreat in disorder. Three times 
the enemy renewed the attack, and three times they were completely 

At half past 12 a. m., General Sumner, having united his forces with 
those of General Franklin, assumed command. 

It was about eleven o'clock when the rebels first made their appear- 
ance, and commoncod their attack by throwing shells into General 
Sumner's lines. Orders had been given to Generals Sumner, Franklin, 
and Ileintzclman to hold their position until dark : the latter was ordered 
to hold himself in readiness to retreat as soon as night fell. Sumner's 
and Franklin's commands were drawn up in line of battle in a large open 
field to the left of the railroad. General Brooks with his biig.ide held 
the wood to the left of the field, bearing himself with true soldierly 
heroism, and though wounded he retained his command. At 4 p. m., the 
rebels attacked on the "Williamsburg road, but were gallantly met by the 
brigade of the brave General Burns, supported reinforced by two 
lines in reserve and by the New York Sixty-ninth, Hazzard's and Pettit's 
batteries again doi ig most valuable service. The conflict continued to 
rage with unabated fury till eight o'clock at night. The enemy deeming 
their force irresistible, came dashing down now upon this portion of the 
line, and then upon that, but were invariably repulsed at every point, often 
•with severe slaughter. When night closed upon the combatants the Union 
soldiers remained unshaken at their posts, and the rebels were driven 
from the field, with broken, disordered lines, from their unsuccessful 


Under cover of the darkness these indomitable men. after their hard 
da^'s fight, from wl)ich thoy had gained only the ability to rotreat, fell 
back, resuming (heir unsatisfactory march, and crossed the "White Oak 
Swamp in good marching order bofi)re the moiniiig's dawn. l>y the 
morning of the 30th they had crossed Wliil^e Oak IJridge :i:id burnt the 
bridge after them, General French, with his brigade acting as rear-guard. 
The scene along the line of this precipitafe, and apparently unncces.^ary 
retreat begg;irs all description. Nothwithstanding every efTort made by 
General McCiellan, and his personal staff, the roads were Ihifked with 
wagons, and the greatest difficulty was found in keeping the trains in 

The following is an extract from General McClellan's official report, 
and gives in few words an accurate description of the state of affair? in 
his army at this point : 

" The engineer officers who.m I had sent forward on the twenty-eighth to 
reconnoitre the roads had neither returned nor sent me any reports or 
guides. Generals Keycs and Porter had been delayed — one by losing 
the road, and the other by repairing an old road — and had not been able 
to send any information. We then knew of but one road for the move- 
ment of the troops and our immense trains. 

" It was, therefore, necessary to post the troops in advance of this road 
as well as our limited knowledge of the ground permitted, so as to cover 
the movement of the trains in the rear. 

" I then examined the whole line from the swamp to the left, giving 
final instructions for the posting of the troops and the obstructions of tijc 
roads toward Richmond, and all corps commanders were directed t j hold 
their positions until the trains had passed, after which a more concen- 
trated position was to be taken up near James river. 

" Our force was too small to occupy and hold the entire line from the 
White Oak swamp to the river, exposed as it was to be taken in reverse 
by a movement across the lower part of the swamp, or across the Chicka- 
hominy below the swamp. Moreover, the troops were then greatly ex- 
hausted and required rest in a more secure position. 

"I extended my examinations of the country as far as Haxall's, look- 
ing at all the approaclies to Malvern, which position I perceived to be 
the key to our operations in this quarter, and was thus enabled to expe- 
dite very considerably the passage of the trains, and to rectify the posi- 
tions of the troops. 

" Every thing being then quiet, I sent aids to the different corps com- 
manders to inform them what I had done on the left, and tn bring me in- 
formation of the condition of affairs on the right. I returned frcHu Mal- 
vern to llasall's, and havin:^ made arrangements for instant communica- 
tion from Malvern by signals, went on board of Captain Kodgors'.s gun- 


boat, lying near, to confer with liim in reference to the condition of our 
supply vessels, and the state of tilings on the rivor. It was his opinion 
that it would be necessary for the army to fall back to a position below 
City Point, as the channel there was so near the southern shore that it 
would not be possible to bring up the transports, should the enemy occu- 
py it. Harrison's L:inding was, in his opinion, the nearest suit:ible 
point. Upon the termination of this interview I returned to J^Ialvern 
Hill, and remained there until shortly before daylight." 

June 30, 1803. 

Up to this time the rebels had felt no doubt of their ability utterly to 
destroy the Army of the Potomac, lying, as they supposed, at their 
mercy. Greatly to their surprise and disgust they now awoke to the 
fact that thtir prey was escapin<j them, and would soon be marshalled on 
the banks of the James, safe under the protection of the Federal gun- 
boats. Maddened with rage and disappointment, tl.jy pursued hotly, 
and it soon became evident that another battle was inevitable. On the 
morning of the 30th, General Heintzelman ordered the bridge at Brackctt*3 
Ford to be destroyed, and trees to be felled across that road and tho 
Charles City road. General Sumner had been ordered to take posiliun at 
a place known as Glendale, and sometimes as " Nelson's Farm." Aline 
of battle was formed, with Meade's brigade on the right ; Seymour's 
on the left, while Reynolds' was held in reserve, commanded by Colonel 
S. G. Simmons of the Fifth Pennsylvania. Ptandall's regular battery 
was placed on the right ; Kernis' and Cooper's batteries opposite the 
centre, and Diedrich's and Kannahau's batteries of the artillery 
reserve on the left — all in front of the infantry line. 

A little before one o'clock the rebels opened a fierce fire upon the 
divisions of Smith and Richardson and Naglce's brigade at "White Oak 
swamp bridge. Under cover of this fire, which continued throughout 
the day, they sent an infantry force across the creek. The Federal artil- 
lery, under Captain Ayers, was directed with deadly efi'cct, but the 
Union forces in return suffered great loss, especially Richardson's divis- 
ion. Ilazzard's battery was forced to retire, but not till it had lost 
many gunners, and Captain Hazzard himself was mortally wounded. 

At two o'clock a large force of rebels was reported advancing by the 
Charles City road ; and in half an hour afterward the attack was made 
on General Slocum's left, and the thunder of war heralded the enemy's 
advance as he pressed boldly on in the face of a heavy fire. The battla 


raged without interruption for two hours ; but at length the rebels were 
compelled to fall buck before the dreadful storm of death poured in 
upon them by both artillery and infantry. Having formed a dense 
column, in large force, comprising the divisions of Longstreet and 
Hill, the enemy made a furious charge upon General McCall's division, 
which was received with a shower of canister that tore its way through 
their ranks, leaving gaps on every side. They unhesitatingly closed 
up, and with desperate fury rushed forward again, forcing the devoted 
baud who had so bravely withstood them, to fall back before their over- 
whelming numbers. There was no running; the patriot troops retired 
slowly in good order, boldly disputing the ground as they fell back. 
The rebels numbered three to one of the Federals. It was now con- 
siderably past sundown, and the darkness of night was rapidly succeed- 
ing twilight. Reinforcements from the retreating line were sent back, 
to aid in presenting a successful resistance to the advancing enemy, and 
our gallant heroes, weary, worn, sleepless and hungry, awaited the ne.\fc 
attack from the powerful and exultant foe. 

Generals Sedgwick, Sumner, and Hooker, added new laurels to 
their well-won fame, in this battle. The latter being on McCall's left, 
by moving to his right, repulsed the rebels bravely, and with great 
slaughter to their well-filled ranks. Generals Sumner and Sedgwick, in 
the roar, drove back the enemy with artillery and infantry. The rebels 
wjou vigorously renewed the attack on Kearney's left, but were repulsed 
with severe loss. 

General Sumner says of this battle, that it was the most severe action 
since the battle of Fair Oaks, and adds, " The eneu»y was routed at all 
points, and driven'from the field." 

July 1, 1862. 

Led by General Franklin, the Union troops, during the night succeed- 
ing the battle of Nelson's Farm, retreated toward a point called Malvern 
Hill. The dawn of the morning of July 1st saw the army massed on this 
hill, engaged in selecting positions for their batteries. The point se- 
lected for resisting the further advance of the rebels on this day was on 
the left and centre of oui; lines, resting on Malvern Hill ; the right mean- 
while curving backward through a wooded country toward a point below 
Haxall's, on the James river. A heavy swell of pasture land, about a mile 
and a half by three-fourths of a mile in area, was the spot called xMal- 


vern Ilill. It was well cleared of timber ; and several intersecting and 
converi^'iiig roads ran across it. The ground sloped gradually toward tho 
north and east, leaving clear ranges for artillery iu those directions, and 
in front were many defensible ravines. It was evident from the enemy's 
position that the attack would come from the direction of Rich- 
mond and White Oak swamp ; and of necessity strike the left wing of 
the Union troops. For this reason the lines at that point were strength- 
ened by massing the troops, and collecting the principal part of the 

The left of the lines was held by Porter's corps, with the division of 
Sykes on the left and Morrell on the right ; the artillery of the divisions 
and the artillery of the reserve being disposed in such a manner that a 
concentrated fire of some sixty guns could be brought to bear on any 
point on the front or loft. 

After much praiseworthy exertion, Colonel Tyler had succeeded in 
getting ten of his siege guns in position on the highest point of the hill. 
To the right of General Porter was placed General Couch's division, and 
next to him came Kearney and Hooker ; then Smith and Slocum, and 
further to the right, the remainder of Keyes' corps, extending backward 
in a curved line that reached almost to the river. The flank was well 
protected ; a Pennsylvania corps was held in reserve. Along the entire 
front the line was very strong; and by slashing the timber plentifully 
and barricading the roads, the right was held as secure as possible. 

The flotilla on James river, iu command of Commodore Rogers, was 
so placed that the gunboats protected the army's flank, and commanded 
the approach from Richmond. 

It was about ten o'clock in the morning when the enemy made his first 
appearance, attracting the attention of the Union troops by light skir- 
mishing and occasional artillery as far to tho right as General Hooker's 
division. It was an hour of deep anxiety to the Union troops, and the 
heart of every man beat eagerly and anxiously, but fearlessly, when, at 
two o'clock in the afternoon a large body of rebels was seen approaching 
directly in front of Heintzelman's corps, but beyond the reach of our 
guns. The preparations made at once to meet its advance proved un- 
necessary, for it disappeared ; and it was generally supposed that ifc 
retired by the rear, and, later in the day, participated in the attack made 
on our left. 

About three o'clock the battle began in earnest ; a heavy fire of artil- 
lery was poured in on Kearney's left and Couch's division, which was 
speedily followed up by a sharp attackof infantry on Couch's front. The 
heroic Unionists were prompt to answer, and a roar of artillery replied 
to that of the enemy. The infantry of Couch's division remained lying on 
the ground till the advancing column of rebels was within short musket 


range, and then, springing to their feet, sent a death-dealing volley into 
their ranks, that broke the attacking force and drove them in disorder 
back over their own ground. The Union army availed then;selvcs of 
the opportunity by following up the advantage ; and they pursued the 
enemy till the right of its line had advanced some seven or eight 
h'judred yards, and rested upon a tliick clump of trees that gave them 
a stronger and more effective position. 

The whole line was now carefully surveyed during the lull of a few 
minutes that followed, while the Union soldiers waited eagerly for the 
next attack. The rebels now gathered their utmost strength to strike 
their heaviest blow. At six o'clock they suddenly opened a 
destructive ihe upon Couch's and Richardson's divisions ; and at the 
same time followed column after column of infantry from the woods, 
charging desperately, and evidently intending to take the field. 

General McClellan's report, in describing this part of the battle is as 
follows : " Brigade after brigade, formed under cover of the woods, 
started at a run to cross the open space and charge our batteries, but 
the heavy fire of our guns, with the cool and steady volleys of our 
infantry, in every case sent them reeling back to shelter, and covered 
the ground with their dead and wounded. In several instances our 
infantry withheld their fire until the attacking column, which rushed 
through the storm of canister and shell from our artillery, had reached 
within a few yards of our lines. They then poured in a single volley, 
and dashed forward with the bayonet, cr.pturing prisoners and colors, 
and driving the routed columns in confusion from the field." 

The position of Porter and Couch was every moment becoming more 
critical, as everything depended upon the successful resistance of what 
was felt to be the enemy's final assault. Sickles and Meagher were 
ordered to withdraw their brigades, as soon as it was considered 
prudent, and to reinforce the part of the line which was being so hardly 
pressed. Certain regiments of Porter's and Couch's division had en- 
tirely expended their ammunition, and their places were at once filled 
from the Sickles and Meagher brigades ; and batteries from the rear 
were pushed forward to supply the place of those who were exhausted. 
The enemy was slow to acknowledge himself beaten, and, until dark, per- 
sisted in unwearied efforts to take the position so tenaciously held by 
the patriots. Despite his vastly superior numbers, however, he was 
continually repulsed as often as he attacked, till darkness ended the 
battle of Malvern Hill, though artillery firing continued up to nine 

The loss sustained by General McClellan's army, in the course of 
those bloody engagements that marked the retreat from the Chicka- 
hominy to Harrison's Lauding was very heavy. McClcllan himsclt 


cimiputcd the loss at upwards of 15,000 men. Tlie stubborn resistance 
and gallant courago of the Union soldiers, at 3Ialv(;rn Hill, preserved the 
army from sad discomfiture, if not destruction. The witlulrawal to Harri- 
son's Landing was, however, regarded with great disfavor by many 
Union officers, and to the people of tlu- North was the occasion of much 
criticism and regret. Gloom succeeded cheerful hope, in the bosoms of 
juany patriots, at this juncture, and it was not until good news arrived 
fi oiu the west and south-west, that confidence in tlie success of the Union 
arms was again revived. The Army of the Potomac, meanwhile, took a 
short season of rest, preparatory to new movements. 

May 9, 18G2. 

On the night of the 9.'h of May, the rebels, believing that an attack 
was about to be made by the Union fleet, under Captain, now Commodore 
Purter, set fire to tiie Pensacola Navy Yard, Fort McKea, the Naval 
Hospital, "Warrington, and Pensacola itself. General Arnold, divining 
lluir destructive object, immediately opened fire from Fort Pickens, 
and kept up a heavy bombardment, for five hours, thus preventing the 
rebels from fulfilling their plan, which contemplated the destruction of 
the entire town. A demand was then made for the surrender of Pensa- 
cola, and, Mayor Bode cotnplying, the Union forces took possession of 
the place, capturing a quantity of valuable lumber, many thousand 
dollars' worth of oil, and rebel arms and equipments. The enemy, how- 
ever, had succeeded in destroying a good deal of property, and had 
then retired, about one thousand strong, led by General IJragg, to a 
camp, five miles outside of Mobile. 

On the Pith of May, immediately following the occupation of this 
point, President Lincoln issued a proclamation, announcing the ports of 
Beaufort, Port Royal, and New Orleans, to be open to commerce under 
the laws of the United States. 




J cm: 4-G, 1>>(;'J. 

DurinfT the time that Major-General McClellan was conducting his 
army in its retreat towards the James river, much, that was of 
great moment to the country, was taking place in other directions. The 
rebels bad fled from Corinth, leaving it in the possession of the Federal 
troops, under General Ilalleck. Forts Pillow and Randolph now became au 
easy prey, liaving been flanked, and. to a great degree, surrounded, by 
National troops, and having already had a large portion of their garri- 
sons withdrawn, to aid General Beauregard in his unsuccessful defence 
of Corinth. In this condition the rebels speedily decided that flight was 
the only safe course left to them, and, on the 4th of June, having 
previously destroyed every thing that could not be removed, they 
evacuated the two forts. 

All obstnictions to tho navigation of the river having been now re- 
moved, the National fleet, on the morning after the Federals had taken 
possession of the heights, descended the river to Memphis, and cast 
anchor, about two miles above the city. The fleet consisted of the five 
gunboats, Benson, Saint Louis, Cnrondelet, Cairo, and Louisville ; and 
the four rams, Lancaster, Monarch, Number Three, and Queen of the 
"West — the rams being under command of Colonel Charles Ellet, Jr. 
The rebel gunboats had also assembled at that point, from above and 
below — to dispute the further passage of the stream — making a formid- 
able fleet, which consisted of the iron-olads, Little Rebel, Jeif Thompson, 
Sumter, Beauregard, Bragg, Price, Lovell, and Van Dorn. The rebel 
fle«t was under the comm ind of Commodore E. Moutgomery. 

It was late in the evening when the Federal fleet anchored for the 
night ; and some of the most eager of the ofiicers, seeing there were no 
batteries to pass, were anxious to push on to Memphis at once, and were 
clamorous in asking why they must remain simply within view of the 
wished-for haven during the whole night. 

But the prudence of Captain Davis (in command of the whole National 
fleet) was amply justified, when the morning came. The whole rebel 
fleet, under full head of steam, was then discovered by two Federal vessels 
which were lying close to the shore. These two Union gunboats had 
steamed cautiously down the river, to reconnoitre the enemy's positiou ; 
and h.iving been satisfied with regard to it had, as cautiously, but with 
all possible speed, steamed back again to rejoin the fleet. The rebels 


hiving scon thcra, ami perceived the baste they made to return, sup- 
joscd them fleeing in terror, and sent some shots after them, which passed 
harmlessly, I'alliiig into the water beyond. Captain Davis lost no time in 
preparing his advance to meet the foe. He immediately signalled all his 
gunboats. In such a case as this transports and mortar-boats were 
utterly useless. The rams, ready, of course, to render all possible assis- 
tance, cuH'itituted an independent fleet ; and were, therefore, left solely 
to the command of Colonel Ellet, who was in no way subject to orderi 
from Captain Davis, but was required to report himself only to the Navy 

Then began one of the most exciting as well as fearful fights that can 
be witnessed in warfare. Majestically the Union and the rebel fleets 
approached in line of battle. When within a mile of each other, tho 
combatants opened fire ; and for an hour, the thunder of cannon, the flash 
of fire, and clouds of smoke filled the air. Each moment the two fleets ap- 
proached nearer and nearer, till, in a brief time they were but a few 
huudred yards apart, while broadside after broadside, following in 
vapid succession, was poured in from the black-mouthed cannon 
upon cither side. The combat had begun at a very early hour of the 
morning, and while it continued to rage the sun of a glorious day in Juno 
broke slowly through the crimson splendor of the eastern sky, and look^'d 
warmly down upon a scene, the like of which had long been too familiar 
to his gaze. 

The river, like a sheet of molten silver, lay smiling beneath the sum- 
mer sky, placidly reflecting its hues and colors and changes, while the 
sweet morning air rapidly grew thick, dense, and sulphurous with the 
smoke that hung like a great dark cloud, growing darker and darker, and 
shutting out the sun. 

An incessant roar of cannon, with flash and smoke, followed in rapid 
succession, and with deafening eff'ect, while the shot and shell that 
rattled and clattered against the armed ships' sides rebounded again, and 
breaking the face of the smooth river sank beneath its quiet waters. 

The guns had long since awakened the people of the city, who now 
crowded in a vast throng down to the edge of the blufi"s, upon which 
Memphis is built. The levee was literally swarming, and black 
with human beings, straining their sight to peer through the dense over- 
hanging clouds of smoke that was shutting the combatants out of view. 

A momentary lull now occurred in the fierce thunder of the battle. 
Intense anxiety was felt, on both sides, the Union men being hopeful in 
the strength of their own heroism, as they always were. In this case 
even from the first, they had been encouraged, by seeing the rebel gun- 
boats, gradually, and almost imperceptibly, fall back, as the Union vessels 
closely pressed upon them. Suddenly, a strange looking craft steamed 


arouoJ a bend in the river, and with extraordinary speed came up to tlio 
assistance of the Union gunboats. Soon another .similar luoking vessel 
fullovfed, and as the rebels caught .•)ight of ihcm, alarm and surprise 
seem to paralyze their efforts, For a moment they hesitated. Then 
turning slowly tlicy begun to fall back on the current of the river. On- 
ward, with almo-st lightning like rapidity, steamed the Monarch and 
tlie Queen of the West. Their gallant commanders had needed 
no stronger summons than the booming of the cannon to bring 
them into the heart of the combat. With extraordinary speed the 
Queen of the West plunged between the National gunboats, and 
having previously selected her victim, rushed into the midst of 
the rebel rams, and drove furiously upon the Beauregard. The pilot 
of the Boauregard adroitly avoidjd the coining foe, swung round, and so 
escaped the collision. But the Queen, determined not to lose the power 
she had crowded on for the destruction of the Beauregard, plunged for- 
ward upon the rebel ram Price, which received the advance with a well- 
directed firo. But the apparently invulner.'ible Union vessel, which 
shook shot and shell from her armed sides as though they had been drops 
of water, struck her opponent amidships with such a crushing, fatal blow 
as immediately stove in the Price's wheel-house, splintered her ribs of 
iron and oak, like glass, and crushed her side. All was thus over with 
the Price, which, barely able to reach the margin of the shore, sunk 
beneath the waves, a complete wreck. Again the Queen of the West 
challenged the Beauregard ; and, head to head, these tremendous iron- 
clads drove furiously against each other. Again the rebel avoided the 
death-stroke, and avenged himself by a heavy blow against the Queen's 
side, which stove in a gaping hole, that speedily disabled the brave ship 
for further contest. But, scorning to draw away, the dismantled Qaeea 
still held her place, to view the combat, and to watch the avenger of her 
injuries. She hal not long to wait. The Monarch, furious at the disaster 
of her consort, plunged directly into the Beauregard, and stove in the 
rebel's bows. The rushing flood of the mighty river poured in ; and, in 
another moment, the crushed vessel sank beneath the waters of the 

In the mean time the gunboat Benton had dealt destruction upon the 
rebel vessel Lovell : as the wreck settled down, the waters opened to 
receive their prey, and then rolled calmly over the spot where it had 
disappeared forever. Many of the wretched crew sank in the wreck; 
eome fifty or more, wounded and scalded, plunged into the river ; and a 
few of them were rescued by boats sent by the Union flotilla to their 
relief, as they struggled in the waters. The greater number of the un- 
fortunate beings were swept by the rapid current to the same watery 
grave whif-h had engulfed so many of their fellows. One after another 

58 TnK vTKv. Fon the uxton. 

the enemy's boats were crippled. The Jeff. Thompson was forced to 
run ashore ; and her crew escaping over her bows disappeared in the 
woods. Hardly had they escaped, when a shell was thrown on board, 
and exidoding, set the ship on fire. For the wounded there was no 
escape ; and they writhed in maddening agony, till a spark at length 
reached the magazine, and the ship, with a terrific explosion, was blown 
into innumerable fragments. The Uragg and the Sumter were also forced 
a»hore, crippled and disabled. Their crews escaped into the wooda. 
Of all the rebel fleet the Van Dorn alone escaped, being so swift in her 
speed down the river, that the fastest runners could not overtake her and 
so rclinqn'shed the hopeless pursuit. The Union fleet now came to 
anchor in front of the city of Memphis, and sent in a demand for its sur- 
render. The city, having no means of defense, was at once occupied by 
the Federal troops. 

Immediately upon the surrender of the city, the stars and stripes 
were placed over the post-office by order of Colonel EUet. 

Colonel G. N. Fitch was appointed Provost-marshal of the city ; and 
the Mayor showed his natural good sense by co-operating with him in 
every way to maintain peace and good order. 

The only loss to the Union fleet, in thi.s fierce naval encounter, was 
the injury to the Queen of the .West, and a wound to her brave 
commander, Colonel Ellet. This wound, at the time it was received, 
had not prevented Colonel Ellet from continuing at his duties, and it 
was hoped that it would prove slight ; but it grew more and more serious 
until it resulted in the death of one of the most brilliant and heroic men — 
to whom the nation owes the capture of the city of Memphis. Colonel 
EUet died at Cairo, on the 21st of June, 1862. 

Men)phis, of course, became one of the most important Union posts on 
the Mississippi river. 

August 7, 18G3. 

On the 23rd of July, 1862, Major-General H. "W. Halleck arrived at 
Washington, whither he had been summoned from the west, to assume 
the chief command of all the armies of the United States. It was felt by 
the government that there ought now to be a military head of affairs. 
McClellan was still on the James river. On assuming command, 
General Halleck visited General McClellan at Harrison's Landing, and 
took counsel with him, as to future movements. But the respective 
plans of the two generals did not coincide ; and, of course, the policy of 


General Halleck prevailed. McClellan wislied for reinforcements, and 
desired once more to advance against lliclimond. by way of the Pen-iisiila. 
General Ilalleck, however, ordered him to evacuate the Peninsula, and 
join his forces to those of the Army of Virginia. The latter had, 
meantime, been formed, by the consolidation of tlie forces under Panics, 
McDowell, and Fremont, its command being intrusted to General Pope. 
Tliis officer took the field on the 27th of July, being charged to protect 
the city of Washington, guard the valley of the Shenandoah against 
further rebel raids, and, by bold advances against Richmond from the 
north, to distract the attention of the foe from the projected movement 
of McClellan's forces, from Harrison's Landing to Acquia Creek. The 
Array of Virginia consisted, at this time, of iweiity-eight thousand men, 
and was stationed in the vicinity of Culpepper and Fredericksburg, on 
the northern bank of the Rapidan river. 

It was the 7th of August when General Pope learned that the rebels 
were crossing the Kapidan, in great force. Those of his troops which 
had been dispersed for the sake of observation, received orders to rally 
immediately at Culpepper. Crawford's brigade of Hanks's corps was, 
during the forenoon of the next day, dispatched towards Cedar Moun- 
tain, in order that it might, so far as possible, retard the movements of 
tlie enemy. General Banks, on the evening of the Stu, had arrived from 
Hazel river ; and early on Saturday morning he was sent forward with 
his corps of seven thousand men to join General Crawford. 

The rebels had already, on Thursday, the 7th of August, stationed 
themselves on an eminence near Culpepper Court House, called Cedar 
Mountain ; having crossed the Kapidan under command of General 
Stonewall Jackson. General Sigel, by forced marches, was hastening to 
the support of General Banks. 

About five o'clock in the afternoon the rebels assailed General l?aiiks 
with a destructive fire of both artillery and infantry. General Craw- 
ford's brigade was conspicuous in the battle. It consisted of the Tenth 
Maine, Twenty-eighth New York, Forty-sixth Pennsylvania, and Fifth 
Connecticut. The enemy's batteries wore stationed on Cedar Moun- 
tain, considerablv above the positions occupied by the Union troops. 
The two forces were about a mile from each other : and the battle was 
waged by artillery abme. The rebe's rapidly increased the number of 
their batteries, and concentrated a fire of terrible severity upon the Union 

At last, at six o'clock, the order was given to charge, and the troops 
sprang forward, at the full run, with bayonets ready for a desperate 
charge. Before they had proceeded far the enemy opened a most destruc- 
tive fire upon them, from his batteries. A v.a'ce of the dci-.d and the 


\vniindoi.l was loft in their track as thoy pressed heroically forwarj 
under tli" terrific tire of the rebels. But at length retreat became 
inevitable, and the brave patriots rehictantly retired. 

Night terminated a most unefjual conflict. General Pope's official 
account gave the number of General Banks' troops at 8even thousand ; 
while tho r<bcl accounts stated that the enemy on this occasion wore 
fifteen thousand strong. Both parties claimed the victory ; but assuredly 
it did not belong to the Union troops, though they might well feel satis- 
fied with their own conduct. They had held at bay a force outnumber- 
i ig their own two to one. 

Generals Banks, Pope, and Sigel held a conference at about midnight. 
They had selected for the night bivouac a hill which overlooked tho 
battle-field. Suddenly, while they conferred as to their future movements, 
the party were put to a flight by an unexpected shower of bullets from 
some rebel pickets, who had. unawares, crept quite near them. 

Sunday morning dawned upon the two armies, and saw each one in 
I'.ie same position which it had occupied on the previous night; but both 
tho Union and rebel army had suffered too severely to renew the fight 
i iimediately. Monday was a melancholy day ; and was spent in the 
.sad duty of bringing in the dead and wounded. The rebels were 
siovvly retreating, and left many of their dead upon the field. They 
vere pursued, as far as the banks of the Rapidun, by General l^uford 
v.ith a column of cavalry. The National loss on Saturday was fifteen 
hundred ; that of the rebels was much les.s. 

Dispatches of General Lee had been captured by the Federals, and it 
v/as ascert'xined by these documents that tho rebel general proposed to 
destroy General Pope's small army before he could get reinforcements ; 
n.nd the great strength of Lee's army, as compared with that of the Union, indeed ap[ialling. Already that immense army was crossing the Ripi- 
dan, and by tho 18'h of August its whole line confronted the forces 
under General Pope. 

General Po;te was obliged to retreat as far as the Rappahannock, 
where his army took a position beyond the north fork of the river. 

The enemy continued to advance, and on the morning of the 20th, 
drove in tlic Union pickets and made an effort to cross the river at 
Kelly's Ford. It was of the greatest importance to General Pope to re- 
tain communication with Fredericksburg, for by that way he was eagerly 
looking for reinforcements ; and, therefore, his army bravely resisted tl-.o 
efforts of the rebels to cross the river, keeping up the resistance for tw.> 
days. But the rebels slowly began to gain their object ; and ascending 
the river, endeavored to turn the right of the Union army under General 
Sigel. At Sulphur Springs, they effected a crossing. The position 
of the Union army at this time was very perilous. General Sigel hud 


orders to resist the rebels at every point below Sulphur Springs, and wm 
at the sauje time cxpoctel to extend his line toward Warrenton. Gen- 
eral Lee sent a large detaclimcnt of his men up the river, keeping the 
great ranks of the rebel army in front of General Pope's line. 

There remained one of three things for General Pope to do ; to retir: 
by Fredericksburg, and thus lose direct communieation with Washington ; 
to abandon the line of the Rappahannock, by falling b:ick on \Varrenton ; ur 
to bring his whole force to bear upon the rebel flank and rear, then 
marching up the river. He chose to light. The attack was made on th« 
2-)rd. in the morning, after a heavy rain, which had raised the 
Knppahaimock several feet, carrying away the bridges, and rendering (he 
fords impassable. General Sigel was ordered to attack the rebels at iS'il- 
j)hur Springs ; and he did so, driving them back over the river. They de- 
stroyed the bridges behind them. lie then moved down to Waterloo 
]>ridgo, whence General Pope's line extended to Warrenton. 

Further advances of the enemy were perceived on the afternoon of 
this day. A large force of infantry, cavalry, and artillery, belonging to 
Stonewall Jacksons command, were seen in the valley between Blue 
Ixidge and Bull Run mountains, steadily marching toward Rectortown. 
General Pope now abandoni^d his line of communication with Fredericks- 
burg, and made no attempt to oppose the rebels crossing at the Rappa- 
hannock Station. 

General Pope, however, deserves great praise for having, during eight 
days, resisted this advance of an overwhelmingly large army, But find- 
ing it impossible to with-stmd it on that line any longer, he chose a new 
position, well adapted for defence, extending his army from Warrenton to 

Reinforcements for General Pope's army had by this time arrived, so 
that his numbers were increased to fifty-five thousand. But the rebel 
army numbered one hundred thousand. Day after day, for about a week, 
raids, skirmishes, battles, surprises, marches and counter-marches rapidly 
followed each other ; and the rebels succeeded in seizing Manassas Junc- 
tion, where they captured a large amount of stores. 

A junction was now effected by the strong forcos of the rebel Generals 
Jackson and Longstreet, at a point east of the Bull Run mountains. 

Just before this junction General Pope had attacked Jackson at 3Ianas- 
sas ; and the engagement was a very fierce one. The conflict raged des- 
perately, and it was difficult to decide which side would win the day ;;but 
after a long and deadly fight the patriots were beaten back towards 
Gainesville. The rebel loss in this battle was very severe — more 
so than that of the Union army : but the exact numbers cannot be 
stated, for no oflicial report of the disasters was allowed to be publislu-d. 
The National troops lost six thousand men. During iLij tuue General 

62 THE wAi: Fou Tiiic rxiox. 

Ilnllock had sent many dispatches to General McClellan ordering rein- 
forcements to be sent to General Pope : which orders could not, at 
first, be obeyed, fur the reason that General McClellan's troops, after 
their Kmg lighting during the retreat, were not in a suitable condition to 
go into battle. 

General MeClellan, however, used all possible diligonco in send- 
ing on reinforcements, and telegraphed General Ilalleck on the 
morning of the 29th, " Franklin's corps is in motion ; started about six 
o'clock, A. M. I can give him but two squadrons of cavalry. 1 should 
Dot have moved him but for your pressing orders of last night." 

Quick dispatches passed between General Halleck and General 
MeClellan till the 30th ; by which it appeared clearly that General 
MeClellan's army was in no condition to send reinforcements to the aid 
of General Pope ; and that he deserved neither the accusations of tardi- 
ness, cowardice, or treason, which were hurled ag;iinst him. On 
the 29th and 30th the main body of the rebel army, under General Lee, 
was pressing forward through the mountains, elated with what they 
claimed as victories, strengthened by strong supports under Long- 
street, and confident that they were pursuing a resistless march 
for the invasion of the North. And they had good right to feel elated ; 
for the men who pushed forward, while they were poorly fed, half- 
starved, scantily clothed, with bare feet, torn and bleeding, were not 
made of stuff to anticipate defeat. 

The corps of Generals Sumner ard Franklin had now arrived to the 
assistance of General Pope, who could not refrain from bitter com- 
plaints that they had not reached him sooner ; but he was prompt in 
preparations to resist the enemy's advance upon Washington. 

The rebel army rapidly gathered all its force before the forces of 
General Pope. The centre was commanded by Colonel Lee ; the right 
by Longstreet ; and the left by Jackson. The Union troops spread out 
in a line that confronted the enemy ; the Union batteries crowned the 
hill which they had occupied in the disastrous battle of Hull Run. The 
more advanced portion of the line at Grovetown was composed of the 
corps of Generals Porter, Sigel, and Reno ; General Heintzelman held 
the right, and General McDowell the left. 

Already the pickets of the comjiatants, so close as to almost blend 
wiih each other, had engaged in a brisk skirmish ; but this was lost 
sight of in the destructive, murderous fire of artillery which, from 
opposite heights, hurled forward missiles dealing swift death upon the 
infantry alike of patriots and rebels. 

The Union forces on both right and left advanced in small numbers, at 
about one o'clock, to dislodge the enemy's sharpshooters, who were grad- 
ually forced to fall back ; but at the same time the Federal array was 


driven back by the enemy's artillery. Porter, who supported King's 
division, was ordered to advance by the road, and attack the enemy on the 
left. He took a position which covered the front of llcno and Sigel — 
the latter being near the centre, and next to Ileintzclman. Rickett's 
division was detached from Mt'Dowell's corps to aid in tlie niovoinent of 
G'jneral Porter, but when the rebel column prcss3d upon the Uuion left 
be was speedily returned to his former position. 

Porter advanced upon the enemy, who was behind breast works, at 
about four o'clock, and a furious fire from the rebels v/as immediately 
opened upon him. Pressing forward till they came within musket 
range, they fought fifteen minutes with the utmost desperation. A 
second and third line advanced from the woods, endeavoring with all 
thtir strength to press back the enemy, but the eflforts of the patriots 
proved incilVctuai. The rebels were plainly getting the advantage, and 
as the smoke from the continuous firing died away, the Union soldiers 
in ever increasing numbers could be seen scattering away toward the 
woods, Sigel received the men of Porter's repulsed columns, and they 
were reformed in the rear. It was about five o'clock, and the rebels 
vere exultantly advancing along the whole line. Jackson, notwithstand- 
ing he had suffered much from Porter's advance, came down heavily on 
SiLTcl's left. Milroy's brigade received him bravely, and he was boldly re- 
pulsed. Supports were being continually pushed forward to the assistance 
of both sides, and the battle raged furir.usly. But the rebels continued 
to gain the advantage, and pressed forward in concentrated masses. The 
Federals were mowed down as grass bofore the scythe : but they still 
dealt dreadful destruction upon the enemy, till they were finally com- 
pelled to retreat, which they did slowly and in good order. 

It was eight o'clock before the guns ceased to thunder forth from their 
fearful mouths, but the groans of the wounded and dying still continued, 
and made the air alive with a noise far more terrible than the thunder 
of war. 

It was a most complete victory to the rebels, and a bloody battle to 
all. The loss on both sides was very heavy ; but that of the Union much 
greater than the enemy. 

Shortly after midnight the whole Federal army had crossed Bull Iiun. 
No tiuie was lost in posting batteries to command the bridge ; and the 
rear guard bivouacked till daylight at a point two miles before reaching 
Centreville. Jackson at the same time led his troops to thf; north of 
Centreville, endeavoring to turn the Federals' right, that their connection 
with Washington might thus be cut ofi". General Pope, anticipating such 
a movement, had drawn back his troops to Germantown, where, on Sep- 
tember 1st, be fought a .-harp engagement with the rebels, fiercely re- 
pulsing them. General Kearney was killed in this engagement. As the 


darkness gnthereJ arouml the combatants, he rode forward to reconnoitre, 
and passing tlio Cn-on i)ickcts, approached so close to the enemy that a 
rifleman's bnllet pierced his body, and he fell to the earth, dead. , Here, 
also, fell Colonel George W. Pratt, of New York, while leading his regi- 
mont of Ulster county boys in its first charge. A more accomplisricd 
mind, or braver spirit, never yet was given to a country. 

The Army of Virginia was ordered to withdraw to Alexandria on the 
2nd of September, a movement which made it necessary for General 
Burnside to evacuate Fredericksburg. 

Falmouth Station, containing large quantities of commissary stores, was 
destroyed. Three bridges across the Rappahannock met a similar fate ; 
and Acquia Creek was shortly afterward abandoned, when the forces 
removed to Abxandria. 

At Alexandria, also, were concentrated the shattered divisions of the 
splendid Army of the Potomac, awaiting the arrival of Pope's Army of 


On the 3rd of August, General Halleck issued an order to General 
McClellan, directing him to remove his army from Harrison's Landing 
to Acquia creek. This order was received by McClellan on the 4th 
inst., and though protesting against this change of plan as impolitic and 
sacrificial, that officer took immediate measures to obey the unwelcome 
command. To retire under the eyes of a vigilant foe, was not, however, 
cither a safe or an easy task ; and it was not until the 14th of August 
that the general movement of the Army of the Potomac commenced. 
The occasion was, to the last degree, critical. Lee, as we have seen, 
had been imperiling the Army of Virginia, under Pope, since the 7th of 
August. Step by step that commander had yielded ground. The Capi- 
tal of the Republic was considered to be in jeopardy. Party feeling ran 
hiih. Congress was divided. General Pope, on assuming command 
had issued a very spirited address to his soldiers, giving them the 
assurance of certain victory, and reflecting, with unmistakable sarcasm, 
upon McClellan's campaign. Then came the discomfiture of Pope, 
which, of course, gave assurance to the partisans of McClellan. The 
tardiness of the latter in reaching Acquia creek, and reinforcing the 
army of Pope, was, in some quarters, confidently ascribed to a desire for 
that general's defeat. Danger and difficulty of transportation were 
in some measure the causes of his tardiness. The movement which 
commenced at Harrison's Landing on the 14th of August, continued 


during fen days. On the 24th inst., McClcllan's heiiJq lartcrs were es- 
ttiblislicd at Acquia crci.'k. From tli:it point ho held frequent c -niuiuni- 
cution with General Ilalleck at Washington, and thence, also, he de- 
tached the corps of Generals Franklin and Sumner to cooperate with 
General Pope — the latter receiving these reinforcements on the 30th of 
August. At this juncture, McClcllan was detached from the remains of 
his army, and transferred to the command of the defences of Washington. 
Ne arrived at the Capital on the 1st of September. On the following 
day, the Army of Virginia, led hy Pope, was ordered to fall back upon 
the defences of Washington. This it did, closely pursued by the bold 
and reckless enemy. The rebels disappeared, however, on the following 
(lay, and it soon became evident that they were operating in another di- 
rection, — that, in fact, they were making up towards Leesburgh, on tho 
south side of the Potomac. On the 7th of September, General Pope 
having been relieved of his command, General MeClellan left Washing- 
ton, leading an army to oppose whatever movement against that city might 
be intended by the rebel General Lee. His advance was made along the 
north bank of the Potomac, his left wing resting upon that river, his right 
upon the Baltimore and Ohio railroad. General Banks, meanwhile, was 
left in command of the defences around Washingtuu. On the 8th, the 
rebels, who had crossed the Potomac into iMaryland, were in the vicinity of 
Frederick, the main body being in front of MeClellan's advancing forces. 
Skirmishes now became frequent ; but it was not till the 14th of Septem- 
ber, that any serious collision occurred. That day, however, witnessed 
the desperate and important 


September 14, 18G2. 

At the point known as Turner's Gap, the South mountain is about one 
thousand feet in height, its general direction being from north-east to 
south-west. At a depression of about four hundred feet in depth the 
national road from Frederick to Hagerstown crosses the South mountain 
at right angles, tlirough Turner's Gap. On the north side of this road, 
the mountain is divided into two crests or ridgos by a narrow valle}', 
•which is quite deep at the pass, but becomes only a slight depression at 
about a mile to the north. There are two country roads, overlooking the 
principal road, the one on the right, the other on the left ; the latter is 
known as tho old Sharpsburgh road, and is nearly parallel to the princi- 
pal road, and about a half mile distant from it. When it reaches the 
crest of the mountain it bends off to the left. The other road, which is 
called the " Hagerstown road" passes up a ravine in the mountains about 
5 . 


a iiiilo from the direct ru;ul, and bending toward tbe left along the first 
ciist, enters the turnpike near the summit of the pass. There it was 
that General McClelian's army encountered the enemy, and contested the 
p:ias c:illud Tumor's ^^ap, where the rehels in very strong force resisted 
tlum bravely. The following is General McClellan's account of his 
army's i)osition, when about to fight the battle of South mountain. 

On the night of the l-'Uh the positions of the difl'crent corps were as 
f dlows : 

Keno's corps at Middlctown, except Hodman's division at Frederick. 
Hooker's corps on the Monocacy, two miles from Frederick. Sumner's 
Corps near Frederick. Banks' corps near Frederick. Sykes's division 
i:o;ir Frederick. Franklin's corps at Buckeystown. Couch's division at 

The orders from headquarters for the march on the lith were as 
follows : 

Thirfoenth, half past cloven, p. m. — Hooker to march at daylight to 
.Middletown. Sykes to move at six, a m. after Hooker, on the Middle- 
town and Hagerstown road. 

Fourteenth, one, a. m. — Artillery reserve to follow Sykes, closely. 

Tliirteenth, forty-five minutes past eight, p. m. — Turner to move at 
seven, a. m. 

Fourteenth, nine, a. m. — Sumner ordered to take the Shookstown 
road to Middletown. 

Tliirteenth, forty-five minutes past six, p. m. — Couch ordered to move 
to Jefferson with his whole division. 

On the fourteenth. General Pleasauton continued his rcconnoissancc. 
Gibson's battery and afterward Benjamin's battery (of Reno's corps) 
wore placed on high ground to the left of the turnpike, and obtained a 
direct fire on the enemy's position in the gap. 

General Cox's division, which had been ordered up to support General 
Ploasantun, left its bivouac, near Middletown, at six, a. m. The First 
brigade reached the scene of action about nine, a. m. and was sent up the 
old Sharpsburgh road, by General Pleasauton, to feel the enemy and 
asL-ertain if he held the crest on that side in strong force. This wus 
soon found to be the case ; and General Cox having arrived with tho 
other brigade, and information having been received from General Pt'^no 
thai; the column would be supported by the whole corps, the division was 
ordered to assault the position. Two twenty-pounder Parrotts of 
Simmons' battery and two sections of McMuUcn's battery were left in 
the rear in position near the turnpike, where they did good servico 
during the day against the enemy's batteries in the gap. Colonel 
So:iramon's brigade was deployed, and, well covered by skiniishers, 
moved up the slope to the left of the road with the object of turning the 


e icmy's right, if possible. It succeeded in gaiu'.ng tlio crest and 
establishing itself there, in spite of the vigorous elTorta of the enemy, 
who was posted beliind stone walls and in the edges of timber, and tin; 
fire of a battery which poured in canister and case-shot on the regimen-, 
on the right of the brigade. Coluncl Crooke's brigade marched in 
columns at supporting distance. A section of McMuUan's batterv, 
under Lieutenant Croome, (killed while serving one of his guns,) was 
moved up with great diffituiUy, and opened with canister at a very short 
range on the enemy's infantry, by whom (after having done considerable 
execution) it was soon silenced and forced to withdraw. 

One regiment of Crooke's brigade was now deployed on Scammon's 
left, and the other two in his rear, and they several times entered the 
first line and relieved the regiments in front of thoni when hard 
pressed. A section of Sumner's battery was brought up and placed in 
the open space in the woods, where it did good service duiing the re.-t 
of the day. 

The rebels made several ineffectual attempts to retake the crest, ad- 
vancing with great boldness, but were on each occasion completely re- 
])ulsed. Pretty hot fighting had now been going on for about si.K hours 
— the battle having began at six o'clock in the morning. About noon, a 
lull occurred in the contest. lasting nearly two hours ; during which the 
rebels had withdrawn their batteries considerably to the right, and formed 
columns on both the Union army's flanks ; while the rest of the Union 
f )rces were coming up. 

General Wilco.^'s division was the first to arrive, and took position on 
the right, having, however, sent one regiment to the extreme left to as- 
sist that point against the rebels, who were moving against it. 

The division of General Sturgis supported General Wilcox ; that of 
General Hodman was divided, the brigade of Colonel Fairchild being 
]'Ostcd on t4ie extreme left ; and that of Colonel Hanlan (under General 
Hodman's own supervision), on the right. 

The enemy continued to make strong efforts to regain the crest; at- 
tacking, chiefly, the right of the Union column under General Cox. This 
division was exposed to a fire directly in front, and also to the rebel 
batteries on the other side, through which runs the llagerstown main 
road. At four o'clock all the reinforcements were in position, and the 
order was given to either silence or take the rebel butteries, by advanc- 
ing the whole line upon them The advance was made with loud shouts 
and cheers, and the enemy's desperate resistance was met with fierce as- 
saults on the part of the Federals. The rebels charged on the advancing 
linos with yells of rage, but meeting such determination from the oppos- 
ing ranks, they retreated, and fell back in wild confusion. 

Wilson's division suffered the greatest loss ; the General gives the 

63 THK \V\li lX)li TlIK rNIOX. 

highost praise to tlic conduct of the Seventeenth Michigan in this nd- 
v;uu-c. Thut rcgiiiiciit had been organized less than a nioiitli ; but every 
man met tlic enemy like a veteran warrior. The Forty-fifth Pcnn^ylva 
nia also signalized themselves by their bravery in the sauie noble charg-. 

The batteries across the gap still kept up a C(jn.stant shower of shot and 
shell upon the Union lines. 

General Sturgis' division, at about twilight, was moved forward to the 
front of General Wilcox's position ; and about dark tht enemy made a 
buddcn, sharp attack upon it ; but was almost instantly driven back. 
Again, at seven o'clock, the rebels made another effort to regain their 
lost ground ; and for an hour sharp firing was kept up between the two 
sides. They were finally repulsed, and retreated under cover of the 
night. ^ 

In this engagement Major-General Uono waskillod, and General Cox was 
jilacod in command. In General R-no, the country lost one of its very 
best general officers. In recording the sad occurrence, General McClcl- 
lan says, " He was a skillful soldier, and a brave and honest man." 

The firing ceased entirely about ten o'clock, while the troops slept on 
their arms, ready to renew the fight when the morning of another day 
should dawn upon the battle-field. During the night the enemy retired 
from the front of the Union army, leaving their dead strewn over the 
field, and abandoning the wounded to their fate. 

The right of the column had been actively engaged under General 
Hooker, while these operations were going forward on the left. Hook 
cr's corps left the Monocacy early in the morning, and at one o'clock 
reached the Catoctin creek. As it approached the battle-ground, the 
greatest enthusiasm wus manifested for its gallant commander. Gener:il 
Cox. in his report, gives the following list of his casualties in this wcll- 
futight and bravely-won battle; and bestows merited commendation on 
both officers and men : 

" Early in the engagement Lieutenant-Colonel R. B. Hayes, colnmand- 
ing the Twenty-third Ohio, was severely wounded in the arm whilst lead- 
ing his regiment forward. He refused to leave the field for some time, 
however, till weakness from loss of blood compelled him. Major E. M. 
Carey of the Twelfth Ohio, was shot through the thigh late in the action, 
in which he had greatly distinguished himself by his gallantry and cool 
courage. Captains Skiles and Hunter, and Lieutenants Hood, Smith, 
N;iughton and Ritter of the Twenty-third Ohio, and Captains Ligget and 
"Wilson of the Twelfth Ohio, were also wounded in the engagement. 

Lieutenant Croome, commanding a section of McMullen's battery, was 
killed whilst serving a piece in the place of the gunner who had been 

" In the Ivaiiawlui division the casualties were five hundred and twcu- 



ty-eight, of which one hunJreJ and six were killed, three hundred and 
tliirtysix wounded, and eiglity-six missing, of all of which a full list will 
be iiinnodiately forwarded. 

" I take plca.suie in calling attention to the gallantry and efiit-icncy 
displayed in the action by Colonels Scamnion and Crooks, ctJiiiniand- 
iiig the brigades of ihe division. Tlic manner in which their commands 
were handled reflected great credit on them, and entitles them to the 
highest praise. 1 beg leave, also, to mention my i«de'jtedness to Cap- 
tain E P. Fitch, Captain G. M. Barcom, and Lieutenants J. W. Conine, 
and S L. Chrisiic, of my personal staff, for the devotion and courage dis- 
played by them in the laborious and hazardous duties of the day ; also 
to BrigadcSurgoon W. W. Holmes, medical director of ihe division, for 
his tireless activity and efficiency in his department. The conduct of 
both officers and men was every thing that could be desired, and every 
one -seemed stimulated with the determination not to be excelled in any 
soldierly (juality. 

" I cannot close this report without speaking of the meritorious con- 
duct of First Lieutenant H. Belcher, of the Eighth ."\Iichigan, a regiment 
belonging to another division. His regiment having sutFercd severely on 
the right, and being partly thrown into confusion, he rallied about one 
hundred men and led them to the front Being separated from the 
brigade to which he belonged, he reported to me for duty, and asked a 
position where he might be of use till his proper place could be ascer- 
tained, lie was assigned a post on the left, and subst-quently in suppdrt 
of the advanced section of Simmons's battery, in both of which places ho 
and his men performed their duty admirably." 

SEPTE.MnEii 1."), 1803. 

Every patriot in the land was filled with astonishment when he read of 
the surrender of Harper's Ferry. Tliis surrender was made by Colo- 
nel D. T. Miles, an officer who had received imperative orders to hold 
this important post, to the last extremity. A natural desire to sliow all 
possible gentleness, in judging the act of one no longer living, forbids 
us to criticise motives, or censure an act which proved a great loss to 
the country, and wiiich was one that history cannot well defend. 

The position of Harper's Ferry, at the junction of the Potomac auJ 


Shenandoah rivers, and on the Ohio and Baltimore railroad, gave it great 
military importance. Geiicral Wool had directed Colmcl Miles to Ibr- 
tifv Maryland IIoi<];hts, which \h the key to Harper's Ferry, and to hold 
the jKist till McClellan's arrival. The Heights, however, were left uiifor- 
tiGcd, and Colonel Thomas H. Ford, of the Thirty-second Ohio, was 
cntni.sted by Colonel Miles with discretionary power, for the abandon- 
ment of that important position. As soon as he was attacked, therefore, 
which occurred on the loth of September, Colonel Ford withdrew from 
the Heights, and retreated to the Ferry. This movement rendered the 
position at the Ferry untenable. The Heights were immediately occupied 
by the enemy, who, on the 14th, commenced cannonading the works at 
Harper's Ferry, General McClellan was, at this time, rapidly approach- 
ing to the relief of the garrison, which he had been assured by a mes- 
senger from Colonel Miles, could hold out two days longer. Eut though 
the victory at South Mountain had assured the coming of reinforcements, 
on the morning of the 15th, R,ftcr withstanding an attack which lasted 
from daybreak till seveu o'clock, he caused the white flag to be hoisted 
in token of the surrender of his position. But the firing did not imme- 
diately cease, and within the next half-hour Colonel Miles was shot, and 
mortally wounded. The reasons, whatever they may have been, for thus 
needlessly yielding to his country's foes the possession of so important a 
post, went with him to the grave. Eleven thousand five hundred and 
eighty-three men were thus captured by the enemy. At eight o'clock 
on the 15th of September, the rebels took possession of Harper's Ferry. 
A military commission, held long afterwards at Washington, to inquire 
into the conduct of the war, exempted all Colonel Miles' subordinate 
officers from blame, excepting Colonel T. H. Ford, and Major Baird of 
the One hundred and Twenty-sixth New York regiment, who were se- 
verely censured, 

The gallantry of General Julius White, in such defence of Harper's 
Ferry as was made, deserves to be recorded and honorably remembered. 


Septemuek 17, 1862. 

The victors of South Mountain slept upon the field of battle, on the 
night of September 14th. On the morning of the I5tli, at early dawn, 
the Union pickets were pressed forward, and it was found that the 
dejected rebels had retired under cover of the night. An immediate 
pursuit was ordered. The army moved forward at once, in three 
columns. The fiist, containing the main force of cavaliy, an J hid by 


Generals Pleasanton, Sumner, Hooker and MiinsficlJ, advanced along the 
national turnpiko road, by way of Bounsboro'. The second, led by Gen- 
erals Burusido and Porter, luuvcd by tlie old Sharpsburgli road. Tlie 
tliirJ, led by General Franklin, went by Pleasant Valley, to occupy 
llohersville, and relieve Harper's Ferry. The latter, had not gone far. 
however, when the cessation of firing in the direction of the Ferry, give 
notice that Colonel Miles had yielded his post. Still, in all directions, 
the advance pressed onward. It soon became evident that the rebels 
were taking up a strong position in front, and that a general battle was 
impending. General McClellan immediately went forward, examined 
the ground, to direct the formation of the Union line of battle. The 
rebels had fortified themselves on the west bank of Antietam creek, 
v.hcre they displayed their infantry, cavalry and artillery, in large force. 
The Union corps were massed on and near the Sharpsburgh road. Dur- 
ing the 1.5th and IGth, both armies maiitruvrcd for advantages of position ; 
but the general battle — one of the most important that was fought during 
the war — did not commence until daybreak of the 17th. At this time, 
the relative positions of the combatants were as follows : Hooker, with his 
corps, consisting of General Rickett's, Meade's and Doubleday's divisions, 
had crossed Antietam creek on the afternoon of the previous day ; and, 
after some sharp skirmishing with the enemy, had gained the desired 
po.-ition, and bivouacked fa- the night. General Mansfield's corps con- 
sisting of the divisions of William and Green, had crossed the creek 
during the night, and taken up position, a mile in rear of General Honker. 
On the right of the turnpike, near the creek, was posted a division of 
General Sumner's corps, under commimd of General Richardson ; and, 
on the left, in line with Richardson, a division of General Porter's corps, 
under command of General Sykes. The batteries of Captain Taft, Lan- 
grel, Von Kleiner, and of Lieutenant Weaver, each of twenty-pounder 
Parrott guns, were placed in front of the Sharpsburgh turnpike. Captain 
Weed's three-inch, and Lieutenant Renjamin's twenty-pounder batteries 
were on the crest of the hill, in the rear and right of bridge number three 
that crossed the creek ; and the division of General Couch with General 
Franklin's corps, in front of Brownsville, in Pleasant Valley, — with a 
large force of the enemy directly in front. 

The position of the enemy was a very favorable one. It is thus de- 
scribed by General McClellan : 

"The masses of his troops were still concealed behind the opposite 
heights. Their left and centre were upon and in front of the Sh.irps- 
burgh and Hagerstown turnpike, hidden by woods and irregularities of 
the ground ; their extreme left resting upon a wooded eminence near the 
cross-roads to the north of J. Miller's farm: their left resting upou the 


Potomac. Their line extended so.ith, tho rig'it ruiling upon the liills to 
the soutli of Sharpsburgh, near Shaveloy's farm. 

" The bridge over the Antictam, described as No. 3, near this point, 
wa.s strongly covered by riflemen protected by rifle-pits, stone fences, 
etc., and enfiladed by artillery. The ground in front of this line consisted 
of undulating hills, their crests in turn commanded by others in tlie 
rear. On all favorable points the enemy's artillery was po.ited, and their 
re rrves, iiidden from view by the hills, on which their line of battle was 
lormed, Could nianceuvre unobserved by our army, and f-oiu the short- 
ness of their line could rapidly reinforce any point threatened by our 
attack. Their position, stretching across the angle formed by the Poto- 
mac and Antictam, their flanks and rear protected by these streams, was 
one of the strongest to be found in this region of country, which is well 
a l.ipted to defensive warfare." 

At dawn of the llth, skirmishing by the Pennsylvania reserves opened 
tlie battle for the day. General H joker's entire corps was soon engaged. 
The right of General Kickett's line, and the left of General Meade's re- 
serve, opened fire at about the same moment. A battery was pushed 
forward into the middle of an open field, where some of the deadliest 
stru^'gles of the bloody battle subsequently took place. For half an hour, 
the line did not swerve a hair's-breadth from the right to the left. At 
the close of the half hour, the enemy began to fall slowly back. Their 
tirst receding movement inspired the brave patriots belbre them. For- 
ward I was the cry ; and the whole line moved forward, with a cheer and a 
rush ; while the rebels in full retreat, running over corn-fields, crossing 
roads and leaping fences, fled before them. 

Close upon the footsteps of the foe, passing over the dead and 
wounded — for these the rebels were compelled to leave in their wake — 
followed the soldiers of the Union, till at length the enemy disappeared 
within a wood. Still the Federals pressed on, and gallantly threw them- 
gelvcs upon the cover ; when suddenly, from out the gloom and shadow 
of the irees, wa.* hurled a fearful volley of fire, that caused their un- 
daunted front to waver, bend and break, and sent them, panic-stricken, 
many yards back. ]}ut, almost instantly closing up their shattered lines, 
they quickly recovered from this temporary confusion; and, though they 
could not attempt another advance, their ammunition being expended, 
those who were left to oppose the advancing masses of the enemy re- 
treated in good order, very slowly, their ranks so thinned that, whore 
brigades had been, scarcely regiments remained — little more than a 
brigiide, where had been a whole victorious division. A contemporary 
account of the battle speaks as follows of the unexpected reverse, there 
and then encountered by the gallant patriots. 

" In ten minutes, the fortune of the lay seemed to have changed ; it 


•wm the rebels now who were advancing, pouring out of tbo woods in 
endless lines, sweeping through the corn-field from which their com- 
rades had just fled. Hooker sent in his nearest brigade to meet them, 
but it could not do the work. He called for another. There was no- 
thing close enough, unless he took it from his right. His right might be 
in danger if it was weakened, but his centre was already threatened with 
annihilation. Not hesitating one monii^nf, be sent orders to Doubloday: 
' Give rae your best brigade instantly.' 

" The best brigade came down the hill to the right on a run, went 
through the timber in front swept by a storm of shot and bursting shell 
and crashing limbs, over the open field beyond and straight into the open 
corn-field, passing as they went the fragments of three brigades shatter- 
ed by the rebel fire and streaming to the rear. They passed by Hooker, 
whose eyes lighted as he saw these veteran troops, led by a soldier 
whom be knew he could trust. ' I ihinl-: they will hold it,' he said. 

" General Hartsuff took his troops very steadily, but, now that they 
were under fire, not hurriedly, up the hill from which llio corn-field be- 
gins to descend, and furmcd them on the crest. Not a man who was not 
in full view — not one who bent before the storm. Firing at first in vol- 
leys, they fired then at will with wonderful rapidity and effect. The 
wiiule line crowned the hill and stood out darkly against the sky, but 
lighted and shrouded ever in flame and smoke. They were the Twelfth 
and Thirteenth Missachusetts and another regiment — old troops all of 

"There, for half an hour, they held the ridge, unyielding in purpose, 
exhaustless in courage. There were gaps in the line, but it n.<where 
bent. Their General was severely wounded, early in the fight, but they 
f )ught on. Their supports did not come — they determined to win with- 
out them. They began to go down the hill and into the corn ; they did 
not stop to think that their ammunition was nearly gone ; they were 
there to win that field, and they won it. The rebel line for the second 
time fled through the corn and into the woods. I cannot tell bow few of 
HartsuS^s brigade were left when the work was done ; bat it was done. 
There was no more gallant, determined, heroic fighting, in all this des- 
perate day. General Hartsnff is very severely wounded, but I do not 
believe he counts his success too dearly purchased. 

" The crisis of the fight at this point had arrived. Rickett's division, 
vainly endeavoring to advance and exhausted by the eflbrt, had fallen 
baek. Part of MansfieM's corps was ordered to their relief, but Mans- 
field's troops came back again, and their General was mortally wounded. 
The left nevertheless was too extended to be turoed, and too strong to 
bo broken. Rickett sent word he could not alvatice, but c )'ild hold his 
ground. Doubleday had kept his guns at work on the right, and had 

71 tttt: -^'au for the tjniox. 

f mlly silenced a rebel battery that for half an hour had poured in a gal- 
lins; oiifibidiii!^ fire along Hooker's central line. There were woods in 
front of Doubledav's bill which the rebels held, but so long as those guns 
pointed toward thoni they did not care to attack. 

" With his left, then, able to take care of itself, with his right impreg- 
nablo, with two brigades of Mansfield still fresh and coining rapidly up, 
and with his centre a second time victorious. General Hooker determined 
to ndvance. Orders were sent to Crawford and Gordon — the two Mans- 
field brigades — to move forward at once, the batteries in the centre 
were ordered to advance, the whole line was called on, and the General 
himself went forward. 

" To the right of the corn-field and beyond it wns a point of woods. 
Once carried and firmly held, it was the key of the position. Hooker 
determined to take it. He rode out in front of his furthest troops on a 
hill, to examine the ground for a battery. At the top he dismounted 
and went forward on foot, completed his reconnoissanec, returned, and 
remounted. The musketry fire from the point of woods was all the 
while extremely hot. As he put his foot in the stirrup a fresh volley 
of rifle bullets came whizzing by. The tall, soldierly figure of the Gen- 
eral, the white horse which ho rode, the elevated place where he was, 
all made him a dangerously conspicuous mark. So he had been all 
day, riding often without a staff-officer or an orderly near him — all sent 
off on urgent duty — visible everywhere on the field. The rebel bullets 
had followed him all day, but they had not hit him, and he would not 
regard them. 

" Remounting on this hill, he had not ridden five steps when he was 
struck in the foot by a ball. Three men were shot down at the same 
moment by his side. The air was alive with bullets. He kept on his 
horse a few minutes, though the wound was severe and excessively pain- 
ful, and would not dismount till he had given his last order to advance. 
He was himself in the very front. Swaying unsteadily on his horse, he 
turned in his seat to look about him. " There is a regiment to the right. 
Order it forward I Crawford and Gordon are coming up. Tell them to 
carry those woods and hold them — and it is our fight I" 

" It was found that the bullet had passed completely through his foot." 

General Hooker being disabled. General Moade was placed in com- 
mand of Hooker's Corps. Gordon and Crawford were sent to the woods, 
where they fought slowly against a rebel force far out-numbering their 
own ; General Sedgwick's division was rapidly moving to the aid of 
Crawford and Gordon, who required the coming assistance, for rebel 
reinforcements were constantly arriving. Observing that the struggle 
for the works was about to recommence, General Sumner sent the 
divisions of French and Richardson to the left of Crawford. General 


Sedgwick, with the eye of praetir-cd generalship, quickly saw, as lie 
moved his troops in coluuin through the rear of the woods, that, with so 
broad a space as was between him and the nearest division, he stood in 
danger of being out-flunked, if the rebel line were compK-tcd. Under 
a dreadful fire he was obliged to order the Thirty-fourth New York to 
move by the left llauk, and the consequence was that the regiment 
broke. The cnoray, not slow to perceive his advantage, came round on 
th(; weak point, and obliged Crawford to give way on the right. The 
routed troops poured through the ranks of Sedgwick's advance brigade, 
causing great confusion, and fjrcing it back on the second and third 
lines; still the enemy's fire grew hotter, while they steadily advanced 
upon the disordered Union forces. Grencral Sedgwick, wounded in the 
shoulder, the leg, and the wrist, still bravel}^ kept his seat, nor thought 
of leaving the field while any chance remained of saving it. But the 
position could not be held ; and General Sumner, having in vain 
attempted to stop the confusion and disorder, himself withdrew the 
division to the rear, abandoning the field to the enemy. 

While the conflict to the right was hotly raging. General French was 
pushing the rebels severely on the left. This division crossed Antietam 
creek, in three columns, and marched a mile, to the ford. Then, 
facing to the left, it moved direct upon the enemy. The division was 
assailed by a brisk artillery fire, but it steadily advanced, driving back 
the rebel skirmishers, to a group of houses on a piece of land called 
Roulette's farm, where the Federals encountered the rebel infantry in 
large force, but soon drove them from their position. The brigade of 
G..'neral Kimball was next pushed forward, by General French, in 
obedience to orders received from his corps-commander. This brigade 
drove the enemy before it, to the crest of the hill ; but the rebels were 
there encountered in much stronger force, protected in a natural rifle- 
pit formed by a sunken road running in a north-westerly direction. 
Beyond this, in a cornfield, there was yet another body of rebels ; and, 
as the Union line came forward, a severe fire was poured upon them from 
the cornfield and from the rific-pit. When the Federals reached the 
crest of the hill, volleys of mu'^ketry burst from both lines, and the fight 
r:ig(xl hotl}', and with dreadful carnage. An effort of the enemy to turn 
the left of the line was met and signally repulsed by the Seventh 
"Virginia, and One Hundred and Thirty-second Pennsylvania Volunteers : 
on being foiled in this eR'ort, the rebels assaulted the Union front, but 
were again driven back with severe loss, the Unionists capturing three 
hundred men and several stands of colors. Another attack was made on 
the right of French's division, but was met by the Fourteenth Indiana 
and Eighth Ohio Volunteers, and by a storm of canister from Captain 
Tompkins' battery, First Rhode Island Ai tilicry. The enemy now gave 


up all attempts to regain this groun<l ; and the division, wliich had been 
umlei- very hot lire for more than four hours, and had expended nenrly 
all its aiuniuniation, took position below the crest of the heights wliich 
they had so nolily won. During this time, Richardson's division had 
brcn engaged on the left. General Richardson was badly wounded in 
the shoulder. General Meagher's brigade fought so as to increase its 
well deserved reputation for courage, and strewed the ground with the 
foe, till its ammunition gave out, and its brave leader was disabled by 
a wound, and by having his horse shot under him. The Irish brigade 
was then ordered to give place to that of General Caldwell ; and the 
second line was formed by General Brooks' brigade. 

Tiie ground over which Generals Richardson's and French's divisions 
were fighting was very irregular, intersected by numerous ravines, hills 
covered with growing corn, inclosed by stone walls, behind which the 
ononiy could advance unobserved upon any exposed point of our lines 
Taking advantage of this, the enemy attempted to gain the right of 
Richardson's position in a corn-field near Roulette's house, where tlie 
division had become separated from that of General French's. A 
change of front by the Fifty-second New York and Second Delaware 
volunteers, of Colonel Brooks's brigade, under Colonel Frank, and the 
attack made by the Fifty-ihird Pennsylvania volunteers, sent further to 
the right by Colonel Brooks to close this gap in the line, and the move- 
ment of the One Hundred and Thirty-second Pennsylvania and Sevcnih 
Virginia volunteers of General French's division before referred to, 
drove the enemy from the corn-tield and restored the line. 

The brigade of General Caldwell, with determined gallantry, pushed 
the enemy back opposite the left and centre of this division, but shel- 
tered in the sunken road, they still held our forces on the right of 
Caldwell in check. Colonel Barlow, commanding the Sixty-first and 
Sixty-fourth New York regiments of Caldwell's brigade, seeing a 
favorable opportunity, advanced the regiments on the left, taking the 
line in the sunken road in flank, and compelled them to surrender, 
capturing over three hundred prisoners and three stands of colors. 

The whole of the brigade, with the Fifty-seventh and Sixty-sixth New 
Y'ork regiments of Colonel Brooks's brigade, who Lad moved these 
regiments into the first line, now advanced with gallantry, driving the 
enemy before them in confusion into the corn-field beyond the sunken 
road. The left of the division was now well advanced, when the enemy, 
concealed by an intervening ridge, endeavored to turn its left and 

Colonel Cross, Fifth New Hampshire, by a change of front to the left 
and rear, brought his regiment facing the advancing line. Here a 
spirited contest arose to gain a commanding height, the two opposing 


forces moving parallel to each other, giving and receiving fire. The 
Fiiili gaining the advantage, faced to the right and delivered its 
volley. The enemy staggered, but rallied and advanced desperately at 
a charge. Being reinforced by the Kighty-first Pennsylvania, these 
regiments met the advance by a counter charge. The enemy ll'd, 
le;iving many killed, wounded, and prisoners, and the colors of the 
Fourth North Carolina, in the victors' hands. 

Another column of the enemy, advancing under shelter of a stone wall 
and corn-field, pressed down on the right of the division ; but 
]jarlo\v again advanced the Sixty-first and Sixty-fourth Now York 
against these troops, and with the attack of Kimball's brigade on the 
right, drove theui from this position. 

On the left of this part of the line, the Union troops having driven 
back a determined attack of the enemy, the rebels made a rush upon tho 
front, but were fiercely repulsed by two regiments under Colonel liar- 
hnv, who followed them tlirough the cornfield and into the orchard beyond. 
A building called Kiper's house was a strong point here ; and Colonel 
Jjarlow's advance gave the Union men possession of it, and they at once 
occupied it. A section of Robertson's horse-battery now arrived, and in 
good time, for Eichardson's division up to that juncture had been without 
artillery ; and subsequently Captain Graha'.n, First Artillery, ccmnianc- 
ing a battery uf brass guns, arrived, and taking a position on the crest of 
the hill, soon silenced the enemy's guns in the orchard. Heavy firing 
began immediately ; and while directing the firing of Captain Graham's 
battery, the gallant Richardson was mortally wounded. The place of 
General Richardson was supplied by General Hancock. Colonel Bunko, 
of tho Sixty-third New York, commanding General Meagher's brigade, 
was ordered to the centre. 

The battle raged with uninterrupted fury ; and on right and left, rebels 
and Unionists strewed the ground with gory corpses. The groans and 
cries of the wounded and dying tilling up every interval of the battle's 
roar. Dark and darker grew the aspect of affairs. The different battle- 
fields were shut out from each other's view, but all were visible from a 
centre hill, from which General McClellan, during the whole day, with 
his field-glass held to his eyes, watched eagerly and anxiously the figh:- 
ing of the several brave corps under his command. 

The afternoon was waning ; and things looked very black for the Army 
of the Union. At three o'clock General MoClelLin issued an order to 
General Burnslde to push forward his troops with all possible vigor, and 
carry the enemy's position on the heights. General Burnside rejdied 
that he would advance up the hill as far as he could, before being 
stopped by a battery, placed directly in his path. Upon hearing this, 

80 Tin: WAR for tuk union. 

Gt-tieral McClellan ordered IJiirusiJc to flunk the battery, storm it, and 
carry the luiglits. 

The advance was made most gallantly, the enemy utterly routed, 
and the heights carried triumphantly. Night was now approaching, and' 
the enemy was receiving strong reinforcements from Harper's Ferrj. 
General liurnside's troops were attacked on the left flank, and obliged to 
retire to a lower line of hills, near the bridge and the question as to 
whether the well-won position on the heights could be maintained, became 
a problem of vital importance Burnside's brigades were in close col- 
umns, and would not give way before a bayonet-charge ; and the enemy 
hesitated to dash in on the dense masses of Union soldiers. Then sud- 
denly the rebel left gave way, scattering over the field, but the rest 
stood firm, and poured forth a heavy fire upon the Federals. More in- 
fnitry came up, and General Burnsidc found himself outnumbered, out- 
flanked, and compelled to yield up the position he fought so bravely to 
win. He no longer attacked ; but, with unfaltering firmness, defended 
himself, and sent to General McClellan for help. 

McClellan already knew of the sore strait to which Burnside was re- 
duced, for his glass had not been turned away from the hard-pressed left 
of the field ; but to send assistance was out of his power. In the valley, 
Porter's fifteen thousand troops were impatient to join the fight ; but 
when the two Generals, McClellan and Porter, looked into each other's 
faces, each read in the other's eyes, "They are the only reserves of the 
army — they cannot be spared." As an answer to General Burnside's do- 
sire for reinforcements, the Commander in-Chief was obliged to reply : 

" Tell General Burnside this is the battle of the war. He must hold 
his ground till dark at any cost. I will send him Miller's battery. I 
can do nothing more. I have no infantry." Then as the messenger was 
riding away he called him back. " Tell him if he cannot hold his ground, 
then the bridge, to the last man 1 — always the bridge I If the bridge is 
lost, all is lost." 

Till Burnside's message reached McClellan, no one anticipared that 
the battle could be concluded on that day ; and few expected how near 
was the peril of total defeat. But suddenly and unexpectedly, the rebels 
halted, instead of pushing forward, and following up the advantage 
gained in recapturing the hill. As the twilight deepened into darkness, 
the fierce, wrathful cannonading ceased, and the long, desperately-con- 
tested battle of Antietam was over. For fourteen hours nearly two hun- 
dred thousand men, and five hundred pieces of artillery had been 
engaged in this memorable battle. The Army of the Potomac, notxith- 
Btanding the nwral depression consequent upon its late severe reverses, 
had achieved a great victory over an army elated by recent successes ; 
and, on the night uf September ITth, the soldiers of the Union slept in 


peace and triumph on a field won by dauntless bravery, and covered 
with the dead and wounded, friends and foes, patriots and rebels. 

On both sides tlic casualiies among olhcers in the battle of Antictam 
was unusually numerous. Among the rebel killed were Ijrigadier-Gene- 
rals Starke and Eranclie, and amung their wounded were Major-Goneral 
Anderson, Brigadier-Generals Anderson, Lawton, Wright, llipley. Ami- 
stead and liansome. 

The Union army was called upon to mourn the loss, among many other 
valuable uffieers, of Brigadier-General Isaac P. Rodman, of llhodc 
Island. lie had left the quiet pur.suits of business', and volunteered in 
defence of the Government. lie entered the service in one of the regi- 
ments of his native State as Captain, and was quickly promoted to a 
Colonelcy, and led his regiment in General Burnside's North Carolina 
expedition. He was made a Brigadier for services at Roanoke and New- 
born, and was mortally wounded while acting as division commander at 
Antictam. The loss of the Federal army in this terrible battle bears 
ample testimony to its courage and endurance. From the official records 
the total loss in killed was two thousand and ten ; missing, one thousand 
and forty-three ; total, twelve thousand and sixty-nine. The combined 
loss at South Mountain, Antietam and Harper's Ferry, was twenty-six 
thousand three hundred and ninety-four. 

The report of General McClellan estimates the rebel loss in Maryland 
at thirty thousand men. 

General Burnside, whose corps was stationed on the left of the Fede- 
ral lines, testitied before the investigating committee of Congress, that at 
half-past eight o'clock in the evening of the 17th, he went over to .Mc- 
Clellan's headquarters, and urged the renewal of the attack, saying that; 
with five thousand fresh troops to place beside his own, he was willing to 
commence the attack in the morning. As his corps had maintained the 
most critical position during the battle, and had defended the salient; 
points with remarkable bravery and endurance, while suffering heavy 
loss, it may not be amiss to record his testimony in this place. 

General Franklin, whose corps occupied a position on the right of the 
Federal lines, also gave testimony before the Commission in the follow- 
ing terms : 

" When General McClellan visited the right in the afternoon, I showed 
him a piisltiou on the right of this wood, which I have already mentioned, 
in which was the Danker church, which [ thought commanded the wood ; 
and that if it could be taken, we could drive the enemy from the wooJ, 
by merely holding this point. I advised that we should make the at- 
tack on that place the next morning from General Sumner's position. I 
thought there was no doubt about our being able to carry it. We had 
plenty of artillery bearing upon it. We drove the enemy from there 


that afternoon, find I had no doubt we could take the place the next 
uioiniiig, and I thought that would uncover the whole left of the enemy." 

No advance was made by the Federal forces on the 18tli, which passed 
away without any engagement. General McClellan was waiting for re- 
inforcements under Generals Couch and Humphreys, then on their way, 
and in the mean time, had ordered an attack on the 19th. A reconnois- 
sauce of the Federal cavalry advanced to the Maryland shore of the Po- 
tomac on the evening of the 19th, where they skirmished with the rear 
guard of the rebels, and captured six guns. General Lee had safely 
withdrawn his army to the Virginia shore, and was slowly conducting his 
retreat to the banks of the Kappahannock. 

Thougli the battle of Antietam can hardly be classed as a decisive vic- 
tory on the part of the Federal forces, in a strictly military point of 
view, it was conclusive in its results ; and General Lee retreated into 
Virginia with a full conviction of his inability to cope successfully on 
that ground with the army opposed to him, and thoroughly dispossessed 
of the confident expectation he had entertained, that the inhabitants 
would flock by thousands to his standard, when his forces should appear 
in their midst. Restricted as he had ever been in his commissariat, be 
had discovered that no dependence could be placed on obtaining supplies 
in a hostile territory, surrounded by a numerous and vigilant foe, wliose 
well-disciplined and eager cavalry would surely cut off any supplies 
from the Shenandoah Valley, long before they reached the banks of the 
Potomac. With a loss of thirty tliousand men, in killed, wounded and 
prisoners, he was compelled therefore to retrace his steps, which he was 
allowed to do, deliberately and securely. 

October 1-2G, 18G2. 

At this juncture in military aflfairs, the cautious policy of General 
McClelhm once more came into conflict with that of the United States 
Government, at Washington. It was McClellan's desire to reorganize 
the army, which had sufl"ered much under the command of General 
Pope, and which had just passed through two severe battles. Mary- 
land Heights and Harper's Ferry had been occupied and fortifled, and, 
as the Potomac was low, and easily fordable by rebel raiders, McClellan 
designed to stretch his forces along that river, from near Washington, 
to Cumberland, a distance of about one hundred and fifty miles, to 
prevent further incursions, and to make occasional sallies for reconnois- 

m'clellan's ARinr on the potomac. 83 

ancc or offensive operations, while the work of reorganization should be 
in progress. General Ilallcck, on the other band, represcntini^ the 
President and the War Department, denied the neces^ity for any delay 
and urtred an immediate onset. 

No onward movement was made until the 2Gth of October. In the 
meanwhile, President Lincoln, visiting the Army of McClellan on the 
first of the month, had discussed the whole canipaign with that officer, 
and had personally inspected the battlc-tield of Antictam ; then, return- 
ing to Washington, he had, through General Ilalleck, issued an order to 
General McClellan, directing him to cross the Potomac and attack 
General Lee. It was in pursuance of this order that the advance was 
commenced on the 26th — the intermediate days having been spent in 
the work of reorganization. But this work had not been accomplished 
without difficulty. On the 10th of October, the rebel General Stuart 
crossed the Potomac, at McCoy's Ferry, leading a force of two thousand 
cavalry and a battery of horse-artillery, and made a raid into Maryland 
and Pennsylvania. Means were immediately taken to cut off and 
capture those forces. All the fords of the river were ordered to be 
guardeil, and Generals Pleasanton and Sfconeman started in pursuit, 
(icneral Stuart, by his raid of the loth of June, into the rear of the 
Union armies between the Pavnunkey and the Chickahominy, had 
acquired great credit for boldness and celerity of movement. Hence 
the desire to capture him was all the more eager, on the part of the 
National troops. But the failure of a subordinate officer of General 
Stoneman's to seasonably occupy White's Ford, a point about three 
miles below the mouth of the Monocacy, unfortunately left open a chance 
of retreat, through which, on the 12t.h of October Stuart succeeded in 
making his escape, after a conflict with the Union forces, which lasted 
upwards of four hours. The fight took place near the mouth of the river 
IMonocacy, and, on the Union side, was conducted by General Pleasan- 
ton. The losses were slight, upon both sides. 

The plan of General McClellan's new campaign, commencing on the 
2Gth of October, may best be stated in his own language : 

" The plan of campaign I adopted during this advantage was to move 
the army, well in hand, parallel to the Blue Ridge, taking Warrenton as 
the point of direction for the main army ; seizing each pass on the Blue 
Ividge by detachments, as we approached it, and guarding them after we 
had passed as long as they would enable the enemy to trouble our com- 
munications with the Potomac. It was expected that we would unite with 
the Eleventh corps and Sickles's division near Thoroughfare Gap. We 
depended upon Harper's Ferry and Berlin for supplies until the ]Manas- 
sas Gap llailway was reached ; when that occurred, the passes in the 


rear were to be abamloncd, and the army niassoil ready for action or 
iijovcmcnt in any direction. 

It was my intention if upon reaching Ashby's or any other pass, I 
found that the enemy were in force between it and the Potomac in the 
valley of the Shenandoah, to move into the valley and endeavor to gain 
their rear. 

I hardly hoped to accomplish this, but did expect that by striking in 
between Culpepcr Court-IIouse and Little Washington I could either 
separate thiir army and beat them in detail, or else force them to con- 
centrate as far back as Gordons ville, and thus place the army of the Po- 
tomac in position cither to adopt the Fredcricksbiirgh line of advance 
upon Kichmond, or to be removed to the Peninsula, if, as I apprehended, 
it were found impossible to supply it by the Orange and Alexandria 
Railroad beyond Culpeper." 

On the night of November 7th, General McClellan received an order 
from Washington, relieving him from the command of the Army of the 
Potomac, and appointing General Burnside to be his sucpessor. This 
change was immediately consummated. The army, at this time, was in 
fine condition and spirits, and was strongly posted near Warrenton, its 
right wing being across the Rappahannock, and its left resting on Man- 
assas Junction, the front extending along the line of the Orange and Al- 
exandria Railroad. The rebels, under Longstreet, were massed near 
Culpeper, and it was apparent that a great battle could not long be de- 
ferred. Such was the posture of affairs, when General Burnside assumed 
command of the Army of the Potomac. 

The impressive and affecting words of General McClellan, in reference 
to this passage in our national history, ought here to find a place. 
They render a merited tribute to the noble army of patriots, which he 
had led through so many perils. 

" I am devoutly grateful to God that my last campaign with this brave 
army was crowned with a victory which saved the nation from the great- 
est peril it had then undergone. I have not accomplished my purpose if, 
by this report, the army of the Potomac is not placed high on the roll of 
the historic armies of the world. Its deeds ennoble the nation to which 
it belongs. Always ready for battle, always firm, steadfast and trust- 
worthy, I never called on it in vain ; nor Avill the nation ever have cause 
to attribute its want of success, under myself, or under other commmd- 
ers, to any failure of patriotism or bravery in that noble body of Ameri- 
can soldiers. 

"No man can justly charge upon any portion of that army, from the 
Commanding General to the private, any lack of devotion to the .service 
of the United States' Government, and to the cause of the Constitution 
and the Union. They have proved their fealty in much sorrow, suffer- 


ing, danger, and through the very shadow of death. Their comrades 
dead on all the fields where we fought, have scarcely more claim to the 
honor of a nation's reverence than their survivors to the justice of a na- 
tlun's gratitude," 

The situation of the respective forces was then as follows : The Federal 
army, reinforced by the divisions of Generals Sigel and Sickles, who had 
advanced from Washington, occupied all the region east of the Blue 
llidge, with tiie right resting on Harper's Ferry, and the left extendin" 
nearly to Paris, on the road from Aldie to Winchester. The centre was 
at Snickersville ; with Snicker's Gap in its possession. The Confederate 
line was on the south side of the Blue llidge, with the Shenandoah 
river imiuediatcly in its front, extending from Front Royal down to 
Charlestown, with the great body of iheir troops massed between Berry- 
ville and Winchester. On November 4th Ashby's Gap was occupied with- 
out opposition by the Federal troops. The cavalry corps, under Colonel 
Plcasanton, pushed on from Piedmont, and occupied Margaette, holding 
the approaches to Manassas and Chester Gap, on the left side of the 
Blue Kidge. The condition and spirit of the army at this time were 
unequalled by that of any force before organized. On the 6th General 
McClellan's head(jiartcrs were at Rectortown near Front Pioyal. The 
army was steadily advancing and the Confederate force falling back, 
with some skirmishing. Warrenton was occupied by the Federal 
troops on the same day. On the 7th a severe snow storm commenced, 
and continued throughout the day. On the 8th the bridge at Rappahan- 
nock Station was taken and held by General Bayard. 

The next day was devoted bj General McClellan to the transfer of 
his command to General Burnside. The most cordial feelings existed 
between the two officers, the latter of whom accepted a promotion which 
he had before twice declined, only upon the peremptory order of the 
War Department. On Sunday evening his officers assembled at his 
tent, for a final parting of commander and officers. It was such a 
scene of deep feeling as could occur only where officers reposed the 
highest confidence in their commander, who had led them successfully 
through some of the most fearful battles of modern wars. Monday was 
occupied in pas>ing among the various camps, reviewing the troops, and 
taking a final leave of both officers and men. A spectator of 
scenes has summed them up in these words : 

"As General McClellan, mounted upon a fine horse, attended by a 
retinue of fine-looking military men, riding rapidly through the ranks, 
gracefully recognized and bid a farewell to the army, the cries and 
demonstrations of the men were beyond boands — wild, impassioned, and 
unrestrained. Disregarding all military forms they rushed from their 


ranks and thronged around liim with the bitterest coinphiiiits against 
those who had removed from command their beloved loudei ." 

On the next day, the 10th, he withdrew, taking tlie railroad cars at 
Warrenton. On reacliinL' Warrenton Junction a salute was fired. The 
troops, which had been drawn up in line, afterward broke ranks, when 
the soldiers crowded around him and many eagerly called for a few 
parting words, lie said in response, while on the platform of the rail- 
road depot, " I wish you to stand by General Burnside as you have 
stood by mo, and all will be well. Good-bye." To this there was a 
spontaneous and enthusiastic response. 

The troops were also drawn up in line at Bristow's Station and 
Manassas Junction, where salutes were fired and he was complimented 
with enthusiastic cheers. On reaching Washington he proceeded im- 
mediately to the depot, and passed on to Philadelphia and Trenton, 
whore he arrived early on the 12th. 

What was now the military aspect ? The movement of General 
McClellan's army, after crossing the Potomac, was towards Gordonsville. 
This made a movement on the part of the Confederate general Lee 
necessary in order to prevent the Federal array from getting between 
him and Richmond. For this purpose he attempted to move from 
Winchester through the gaps of the Blue Ridge to Culpeper. The 
hirger part of his force had passed through, when the gaps were taken 
and held by General McClellan. A.t the same time General Sigel had 
advanced from Washington, and lay near the Blue Ridge, covering at 
once Washington, observing the gaps to the Rappahannock, and protect- 
ing the railroad communication to that river. The bridge at Rappahan- 
nock Station had already been seized by the cavalry, under General 
Bayard. The available force of General McClellan was about one 
hundred and twenty thousand men; that of General Lee consisted of 
about sixty thousand able men at Culpepper and Gordonsville, and 
thirty thousand in the Shenandoah Valley, near Strasburg. The 
distance from Warrenton to Gordonsville is about fifty miles, and from 
Warrenton to the Rapidan, thirty-five miles ; from Strasburg to Gordons- 
ville, by Staunton and Charlottesville, one hundred and thirty-five 
miles ; and by the only other practicable route, one northwest of Gor- 
donsville, and perpendicular to General McClellan's line of advance, 
about one hundred miles. In his position it was necessary for General 
Lee to defend the line of the Rajiidan, or endeavor to efl^"ect a junction 
with the force in the Shenandoah Valley, under General Jackson, or fall 
back upon Richmond, in a country without a line of defence, with 
General McClellan close upon him, leaving General Jackson to shift lor 
himself. The defence of the Rapidan was impracticable from the 
course of the river from the Alexandria railroad to the Blue Ridge. The 


efforts to join General Jackson would have uncovered Richmond, and 
the attempt to fall back on lliclimond would have at least iiazarded the 
demoralization of his army, and enabled General McClellan to turn the 
defensible parts of the Ilanp ihaiinock, and the line of the North Anna. 
The appoiutmcnt of General liurnside was followed by the organization 
of a portion of the army into divisions, and a movement to concentrate it 
at Fredericksburg. 

June to Skptember, 1802. 

Never in the history of the world has there been a war of such magni- 
tude as that waged by the loyal Unionists against the Southern insur- 
gents in the American Republic, and never have the divisions of military 
forces stretched over so wide a field of operations. While the Army of 
the Potomac was fighting in Virginia, the struggle of loyalty and treason 
was going on in Kentucky. The masses of the people there were in favor of 
the Union ; but their feeling was so cold, and had been operated on so 
strongly by Secession-sympathizing slaveholders, that as a body, they 
desired to remain simply neutral. The Governor of Kentucky, Beriab 
Magoffin, ado[)ted a position of strict neutrality, and in accordance with 
this unpatriotic spirit, the slaveholding Senate of the State passed a de- 
cree that the State " will not sever her relations with the National Gov- 
ernment, nor take up arms for either belligerent party." At the same 
time, while refusing to lend the National cause any assistance, the slave- 
holding aristocracy of Kentucky entreated the people of the loyal North 
to yield to the rebels and win them back by an)euding the Constitution, 
in si]ch a way as to make it a bulwark of negro f-Iavery. But all this 
manoeuvering was finally terminated, and the men of Kentucky were 
driven either to the protection of the national flag, or to the camps of 
the rebels. The battles before Ilichmond, Virginia, having paved the 
way for a general rebel advance, the enemy resolved on an effort to 
transfer the field of battle to northern soil ; and it was in pursuance of 
this plan that General Lee had invaded Pennsylvania ; but having been 
signally repulsed, he had, as we have seen, been obliged to abandon the 

Early in June guerrilla operations became troublesome in some of 
the lower counties of Kentucky. At Madisonville, in Hopkins county, a 
descent was made by a small body of them at night. The county clerk's 
office was broken open and the records of the court carried off or de- 


stroycd. In other places horses and other property were taten. Their 
own friends, cfpially with Union citizens, were robbed. In Jessamine, 
jMercer, Boyle, and Garrard counties bridges over the streams were 
burned. On the 5th of July Lebanon was taken. It is at the termina- 
tion of the Lebanon brancli of the Louisville and Nashville road. About 
the same time Murfreesboro', in Tennessee, was captured by a strong 
guerrilla force under Colonel Forrest. Vigorous opposition was, however, 
made by the small body of Federal troops stationiid there. The Ninth 
Michiiran regiment, however, was captured entirely by surprise, with 
IJrigadier-Gonerals Dufficld and Crittenden, of Indiana. 

At about this time the rebel Generals Bragg, Smith, Kirby and Van 
Dorn, had combined to invade Kentucky, their object being to capture 
Louisville, and then push forward and take possession of Cincinnati. It 
was the prosecution of this movement that led to the battles of Rich- 
mond, Tazewell, Murafordsville, Perryville, luka, and Corinth. In 
name, as we have seen, the State of Kentucky was still attached to the 
Union. She had contributed her full quota to the national army, and 
her whole territory was unoccupied by Confederate forces ; but the 
State was full of guerrilla bands, which, under cover of serving the rebels, 
plundered in all directions, on their own account. The chief of these 
guerrilla marauders, John Morgan, with his gang, took possession of the 
town of Lebanon, on the 12th of July, 1862. His troops continually in- 
creased till at last with a large force he advanced upon Cynthiana, which 
he attacked on the 18th. There a home-guard of three hundred and 
forty men, entirely undisciplined, made a desperate resistance, and were 
not overpowered till they had slaughtered many of the rebel invaders. 
This little band of patriots was commanded by Colonel J. J. Landrum, 
whose coolness and bravery deserves every commendation. 

A series of guerrilla attacks now succeeded each other, giving indica- 
tions of hostile movements of a more serious character. 

About the middle of August, it was reported that Frankfort, the State 
capital, was in danger from the approach of Morgan, and that the rebel 
General E. Kirby Smith was advancing with a well organized force, into 
Kentucky, from Knoxville, Tennessee. 

Morgan's force was subsequently overtaken near Paris, by General 
Green C. Smith, and defeated. About the same time Henderson was 
occupied by citizens from Kentucky and other States, acting the part of 
guerrillas, and the hospital and other stores carried off. Farther to the 
north. Newburg, in Indiana, on the Ohio river, was 03cupied by a band 
from Kentucky. They soon, however, left. The activity of the bands 
under Colonel Morgan produced a great excitement in the interior of 
the State. Many towns were visited and much plunder obtained. It had 
been his conviction that large numbers of the citizens would flock to his 


standard. In this he was greatly mistaken, and the indifference and 
hostility of the people, together with the preparations to resist him, 
checked his movements. Active operations continued in Tennessee, 
whither Colonel Morgan retired. Ohirksville was captured with largo 
military stores, and about the 22nd of August a considerable body of 
Confederate cavalry attacked the Federal force at Gallatin, and at'cer a 
severe contest repulsed the latter. 

At the same tim3, G-overnor James F. Robinson, wiio had succeeded 
Magoffin, appealed to the people in a stirring proclamation, dated August 
olst, to rally in defence of the State, against the rebel invaders. His 
language is that of a whole-souled patriot. 

" I appeal to you as Kentuckians, as worthy sons of those who rescued 
the dark and bloody ground from savage barbarity, by the memories of 
the past of your history, and by the future of your fame, if you arc but 
true to yourselves, to rise in the majesty of your strength and drive the 
insolent invaders of your soil from your midst. Now is the time for Ken- 
tuckians to defend themselves. Each man must constitute himself a sol- 
dier, arm himself as best he can, and raeet the foe at every step of his 
advance. The day and the hour, the safety of your homes and firesides, 
patriotism and duty, alike demand that you rush to the rescue. I call 
upon the people, then, to rise up as one man, and strike a blow for the 
defence of their native land, their property, and their homes. Rally to 
the st indard, wherever it may be nearest, place youselves under the com- 
manders, obey orders, trust to your own right arm and the God of battle, 
and the foe will be driven back, discomfited and annihilated. To arms I to 
arms! I and never lay them down till the stars and stripes float in 
triumph throughout Kentucky. I but perform my duty in thus summon- 
ing you to the defence of your State, and I am assured that it will be 
promptly responded to. I promise that I will share with you the glory 
of the triumph which surely awaits you." 

Cumberland Gap, Tenn., was at this time in possession of the national 
troops, under command of General G. W. Morgan ; and an attack of the 
rebels was made to drive General Morgan from his position; but, being 
fiercely repulsed by his advance at Tazewell, they turned toward the 
west, and proceeded over a difficult mountain road to a point known as 
Big Creek Gap. On the 9th of August, Governor Johnson, of Tennessee, 
received intelligence of this rebel invasion. Preparations were at once 
made, to withstand these combined armies. The United States govern- 
ment had no troops to spare for the defence of Kentucky, save undisci- 
plined recruits, raised under the President's call for three hundred thou- 
sand men, made on the first of July. Pope's campaign was at this moment 
in progress. Altogether, the time was full of danger, and trouble, and 
doubt. Happily Governor Tod of Ohio, and Morton, of Indiana, were 


loyal and energetic men, and to tlieir efforts at this juncture the State of 
Kentucky was mainly indebted for protection against her foes and the 
foes of the nation. Troops were immediately despatched into Kentucky, 
from those States. Greneral Boyle was in command at Louisville. Gen- 
eral Wallace, volunteering to serve in the capacity of a Colonel, was put 
in command at Lexington, which point was directly fortified. J. J. Crit- 
tenden, Leslie Coombs, and Garrett Davis, assuming positions on General 
Walhice's staff, rendered valuable aid, through their large popularity and 
influence, in bringing in recruits. General Wallace also organized a 
regiment of negroes, and employed them on the fortifications. All the 
while the rebels were steadily advancing. Before the armies met, how- 
ever. General Wallace had been relieved of his command. 

Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, and eastern Kentucky 
were organized into a military district, entitled the Department of the 
Ohio, General U. S. Wright being appointed to its chief command, and 
Major-General Nelson transferred to the command of the Array of 
Kentucky. The latter ofi&cer adopted tactics very different from those 
of his predecessor, and, as events presently demonstrated, far less pru- 
dent. Casting aside the spade, he at once advanced beyond his intrench- 
nients, to meet the enemy and give him battle. The result was a defeat 
at the 

August 30, 1862. 
Richmond, Kentucky, is a small village south of the Kentucky river, 
southeast of Frankfort, and about twenty-five miles from Lexington. 
Kichmond is the capital of Madison county, situated about fifty miles 
south-southeast of Frankfort, the capital of the State. The Federal 
force there consisted of one Ohio regiment, five Indiana regiments 
and part of a sixth, two Kentucky regiments, all raw troops, and a 
squadron of Kentucky cavalry, under the command of Brigadier-Generals 
Mahlon D. Manson and Crufts, with nine field-pieces, making in all 
six thousand five hundred men. The number of the enemy's 
forces, known to be in front, could not be ascertained. Informa- 
tion was brought to General Manson, Friday, August 29th, that the 
enemy were approaching in large force. General Manson at once sent 
a dispatch to Colonel 3Iunday, commanding a small detachment of cavalry 
in the neighborhood of Kingston, directing bin to hold the enemy in 
check ; and, if possible to ascertain his strength and position. The first 
brigade was then ordered to stand to arms, and hold themselves in read- 
iness to act at a moment's notice. 


Four additional companies were sent forward, to strengthen the pick- 
ets at the fort of ]Jig Hill, under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Wolfe, 
of the Sixteenth Indiana. 

At two o'clock, General Manson received intelligence that the infantry 
picket, the cavalry of Lieutt-nant-Coloncl Miinday, and a similar force 
under command of Colonel Metcalf, were retreating with all speed toward 
the camps, hard pressed by a rebel force numbering four or five thou- 
sand men. Without loss of time, General Manson ordered out the 
First brigade, consisting of the Fifteenth, Fifty-fifth, Sixty-ninth and 
Seventy-first Indiana regiments ; and the artillery under command of 
Lieutenant Lamphcre. After an advance of three-quarters of a mile, 
General Manson descried a heavy column of rebel cavalry, hardly a mile 
east of the road, and ordered a section of the artillery into position, to 
fire upon the enemy. The firing was commenced with such excellent 
eftcct, as to scatter the enemy in every direction. General Manson then 
contiuund his advance, bivouacking for the night at Rogersville. 

On the morning of the 30th he met the enemy. By this movement he 
had placed a distance of four miles between himself and General 
Craft's brigade. The din of battle at once began, Kirby Smith attacking 
the National troops, with the whole rebel force. General Cruft, hearing 
the cannonading, moved to General Manson's support, without waiting 
for orders ; and found the battle already raging with fierceness and 
fury. The new troops were hastily formed in line, under heavy fire, 
and they fought bravely, against a foe of almost double their own num- 
bcrs. But the slight confusion of forming them into line had alrcacy 
been taken advantage of by the enemy, who pressed forward in heavy 
force, and outflanked the Union troops, by gaining the cover of a large 
corn-fiold and the woods ; and making a dash upon the left wing, it 
gave v,ay, and fell back in the utmost confusion. General Manson 
had maintained his position for upward of three hours ; and the artillery 
had kept up an almost unceasing fire. The Sixteenth, Fifty-fifth, Sixty- 
ninth, and Seventy-first Indiana regiments, under command of, respec- 
tively. Colonel Lucas, Colonel Mahan, Lieutenant-Colonel Korff, and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Topping, occupied prominent positions during the 
engagement, and were constantly exposed to the enemy's fire. As the 
rout of the Union forces became general, three regiments of General 
Cruft's brigade, with the Eighteenth Kentucky, Colonel Warner, in 
advance, came up, and made a determined and desperate efi'ort to check 
tke advancing enemy. For twenty minutes they contended man- 
fully with an overpowering rebel force, but were at last obliged to fall 
back before overwhelming numbers. But the Union forces were not 
yet defeated ; they retreated about three-quarters of a mile, and once 
more formed into line of battle. General Cruft's bri/rade was ordered to 


the right, to talre position on an elevated part of the ground ; two regi- 
ments were phiced on the extreme right, within cover of a piece of 
wood ; and two behind a fence, fronting a field of corn. The First 
brigade was placed on the left of the road, and formed in line behind 
fences. The rebels, secure in numbers, and triumphant from recent vic- 
tory, came dashing forward exultantly and with luud cheers, and threw 
themselves upon the left flank of General Manson's little army. This 
niovenient occasioned an immediate change of front ; in the attempt to 
cflfoct it the Union troops were again thrown into confusion, and 
completely routed. General Manson and General Cruft rode forward, 
and made a last effort to rally the scattered remnants of their twice de- 
feated troops ; and General Nelson at this moment coming up, a third 
time the line was formed, under the combined efforts of these oflacers : 
but the day was against the Union soldiers. After a short, sharp contest, 
lasting but a few minutes, the patriot line was repulsed, defeated, and 
scattered in confusion. The archives of the State and about one million of 
treasure from th j banks of Kichmond, Lexington, and Frankfort were 
transferred during the night to Louisville. 

The increase of guerrilla operations in Kentucky about the 1st of 
September, with the manifestations of the existence of a Confederate 
force, indicated some hostile movements. It was soon known that tho 
Confederate General E. Kirby Smith was approaching from Knoxville in 
Tennessee. On tlie 2'2d of August he left Jacksborough with a train of 
one hundred and fifty wagons, and passed through Big Creek Gap. So 
difficult were some parts of the route in Tennessee that for two or three 
days the rear of the trains was only able to reach at night the point from 
which the advance started in the morning. Rations failed, and the men 
were obliged for several days to subsist on green corn. Hungry, 
thirsty, footsore, and choking with dust, his men marched steadily on to 
a land of plenty. The ordnance stores were brought safely through with- 
out the loss of a wagon. 

There was now i.o obstacle in the way of the rebel advance. On the 
2ud of September, General Kirby Smith led his victorious followers into 
Lexington, and on the Gth he took possession of Frankfort. His suc- 
cesses, of course, occasion jd great consternation, but they did not 
paralyze the preparations of the Unionists, to resist his advance and 
drive him back. General Nelson had withdrawn to Louisville. General 
"Wallace was once n.ore called into active service and put in command at 
Cincinnati. Both these points were liable to attack, and both accordingly 
were as strongly fortified as time and ciicurastances would permit. The 
prompt and effective action of General Wallace, at this time, was mainly 
instrumental in stemming the tide of invasion. Troops flocked to his 
standard, from all directions. Confidence was restored. The rebels 


unJfir Kirby Smith reconnoitred Cincinnati, but found it too strong for 
attack, and after a brief time, slowly and sullenly withdrew. 

Ski'temueh 11-10, 18G3. 

The advance of the rebels under General Bragg, into the State of Kcn- 
tnoky, commenced shortly after that of Kirby Smith. General Bragg 
had been opposed by General Buell, in Tennessee. But, slipping away 
from the Union commtuulcr — never a very active officer — General Bragg 
had, on the 23rd of July, surprised and captured Murfrecsboro, and had 
then passed around Nashville, and pushed on into Kentucky, intending to 
cooperate with Kirby Smith. How the latter fared we have seen. Our 
attention is now due the operations of the former. That he was imme- 
diately followed by General Buell, may be premised. 

On the loth of September the rebel advance reached Munfordsville, 
where it was met by Colonel J. T. Wilder. Again the Sabbath sun 
looked down on one of the fearful contests of this dreadful war ; and it 
may here be mentioned, how frequent during the war for the Union, bat- 
tles of great moment to the country were fought upon the Sabbath day. 
With the first light of Sunday morning, the advance of Bragg'sarmy, 
under General Chalmers, made a fierce attack on Munfordsville. The 
rebels had conceived an iiJea that the Federals had fled, and came 
rushing on to what they anticipated as certain victory, when the patriots, 
making no sign till the enemy was close upon them, opened a sadden 
and furious fire from their well-aimed guns. Utterly confounded, the 
rebels reeled back before the unlooked-for shower of death, and fled to 
the woods in great confusion. A similarly fierce attack had been made 
on the right, while the above was made on the left ; and under the 
dreadful fire of the rebels, the Union flag was pierced with one hundred 
and forty bullets. The enemy was completely repulsed, and, at a little 
before ten, they ceased firing. No more fighting ensued during that day. 
In the mean time, a reinorcement of six companies had been sent to 
Colonel Wilder ; and dispatches for more had been sent to Louisville 
and Bowling Green. But Louisville was in great trouble, and could spare 
no troops ; and for reasons utterly inexplicable. General Buell did not send 
any assistance, though his entire army was stationed at Bowling Green. 
On Monday the battle was renewed fiercely, and kept up during the 
day. Evening came, and with it General Bragg and the bulk of his army. 

On Wednesday moruing, the place was surrendered by Colonel C. L. 


Dunham, who had arrived with his regiment, and then had com- 
mand. The troops surrendered consisted of the Seventeenth, Six- 
tieth, Sixty - seventh. Sixty - eiglith, Sixty - ninth Indiana, a com- 
pany of Louisville cavalry, a part of the Fourth Ohio, and a 
section of the Thirteenth Indiana battery ; amounting in all to 
about four thousand five hundred men, and ten guns. Both 
officers and men were at once paroled. General Bragg, unmolested by 
General Buell, continued his march northward, and before reaching 
Louisville, turned his troops toward the centre of Kentucky. General 
Buell marched straight to Louisville, whero, having encamped, he left 
Bragg in the heart of the State, to despoil it, and pick up everything ia 
the way of suppUes that could in the future be of value to him. 

October 8, 1862. 

After a long period of extraordinary inaction, and after General 
Bragg had commenced his retreat from Kentucky, General Buell sud- 
denly roused to the necessity of doing something, and moved from Louis- 
ville. His army was divided into three corps : the first, under command 
of Major-Goneral A. McDowell McCook; the second under Major-Gen- 
eral Crittenden ; the third under Major-General Gilbert, 3Iajor-General 
Thomas being second in command, moved with the second corps ; and 
General Buell himself with the third. 

The army advanced in pursuit of the enemy, and it was thought that 
the rebels would concentrate at Danville — but instead of doing so, find- 
ing themselves bard pressed, they made a stand at Perryville ; whore 
on the evening of the 7th they stubbornly resisted General Buell's 
advance. This point became the field of a bloody battle, which took its 
name from the spot on which it was fought. General McCook did not 
receive orders to march to Perryville, till three hours after midnight ; 
and though his troops began to advance before dawn they did not reach 
the battle-field till ten o'clock on the 8th. General McCook formed a 
junction with General Gilbert's corps ; and in person reported to 
General Buell for orders. General Buell, appearing to anticipate no 
serious fighting, gave no orders for immediate attack ; and the rebels, 
taking instant advantage of his indisposition for opening the engagement, 
resolved to take tbe initiative before the remaining corps under General 
Crittenden could arrive. General Bragg drew together his entire force. 


and impetuously hurled them on Gencnil McCook's corps, who met the 
unexpected assault with the greatest bravery, and stood like adamant 
before the furious enemy. From two o'clock till niglitfall the battle con- 
tinued to rage with unexampled violence ; and both generals — Union 
and rebel — have recorded it as one of the bloodiest of the war. At 
General Buell's headquarters the cannonading was distinctly heard ; aud 
he proved himself a most inefficient officer, in not sending the other two 
divisions to the immediate assistance of General McCook ; whose 
solitary corps of fifteen thousand men was withstanding a force of at 
least tliree times their own number. There can be no doubt that the co- 
operation of the three corps would have insured certain victory; instead 
of which the brave division, fearfully cut up, after a superhuman con- 
test of many hours was comjtelled to retire before the superior numbers 
of the enemy. Having completely overcome the troops under General 
McCook t'lc rebels followed up their advantage by falling with all their 
strength on the corps of General Gilbert, which was still waiting orders 
from the commander-in-chief to hasten to the assistance of General McCook. 
The battle was instantly renewed with trebly increased fury ; the large 
numbers of the enemy, like a great ocean sweeping on to what they con- 
sidered an easy victory. But the flood was met and momentarily 
cheeked by a brigade under Colonel Gooding ; and the Union forces rally- 
ing, the rebels retreated across the valley, never pausing till they had 
reached the protection of their batteries. Then began the carnage to the 
patriot band, who charged bravely upon the rebel batteries : but being 
unsupported, and flanked on either side, they were obliged to fall back 
and take up a position near the town — when night ended the conflict. On 
both sides the loss of officers was heavy ; the loss of men on the Union 
side far outnumbered that of the rebels. 

In the morning it was found that tlie rebel force, with their leader, 
fearing a renewal of the battle, had taken flight during the night ; and 
pursuit was ordered ; but was abandoned after a chase of about ten 
miles. And thus the invasion of Kentucky by General Bragg was 
ended, with results by no means wholly satisfactory to the rebels. 

General Buell's extraordinary tactics during the battles of Munfords- 
villc and Perryville had entirely lost him the confidence of his army ; 
and as the murmurs against his generalship grew louder, and deeper, he 
was on the 30th October again relieved of command ; and Major-General 
V. S. Rosecrans was appointed to the position of commander-in-chief of 
the Army of the Ohio, subsequently known as the xVrmy of the Cumber- 


September 19, ISGi. 

A brief backward glance is here necessary at the operations of tbc Army 
of the IMississippi, iinmcdiatcl}'^ preceding the transfer of General Ruse- 
crans from that army to the command of the Army of the Ohio. Corinth, as 
wc have seen, had been captured by the national forces on the COth of May, 
18t»"i. Its importance as a military position, (early recognized by the 
rebel General Beauregard) continually tempted the rebels to undertake 
its recapture. Many endeavors to effect this had been made, during the 
summer of 1SG2. One of these occr.sioned severe engagements at Boli 
var Station, on the 30th and 31st of August, and at Britton's Lane, on 
the 1st of September. The rebels lost heavily in these fights. 

The rebel strategy at this time contemplated severing the railroad com- 
munication between Memphis and Corinth. To prevent that disaster, 
and effectually to check the advance of the in^^urgents, General Rose- 
crans, on the 19th of September, gave battle to the rebels under General 
Price, attacking them near the village of luka. The battle commenced 
toward evening, the attack being made by two brigades of Missouri cav- 
alry, commanded by General Stanley and General Hamilton, supported 
by the Fifth Ohio, Colonel Matthias — an excellent officer and a brave 
man — and the Eleventh Ohio battery. The latter, placed in position on the 
brow of a hill, commanded the road in front, and did great service. The 
Fifth Ohio and the Twenty -sixth Missouri occupied a position on the 
right under cover of woods. On the left of the road and slightly in ad- 
vance of the battery, was stationed the Forty-eighth Indiana. The rebel 
forces, comprising eighteen regiments, were commanded by General 
Price, in person. 

The rebels, largely outnumbering the Unionists, hurled themselves, at 
the outset, in a dense mass upon the front of the National line, and 
strove to break it. To bring up new troops to its support was impos- 
sible. At first, it appeared that the Federals would give way ; great 
confusion prevailed ; but just at the critical moment General Stanley 
pushed to the front, to aid General Hamilton in reforming the disordered 
troops. His presence had a magical effect; and when at length the 
Eleventh Missouri, a part of his division, was pu^^hed to the right, where 
it united with the Twenty-sixth Missouri and the Fifth Iowa, a gallant 
and successful stand was made against the enemy, who was finally driven 
back with great loss. Fi-om this time, until darkness put an end to the 
battle, the rebels, confident in their great numerical strength, made re- 



peated and desperate attacks upon the National forces— attacks whioli, 
iu every instance, were bravely met, and successfully repulsed. 

The brunt of the battle was borne by General Hamilton's regiments, 
who well deserve the honor due to dauullcss bravery. General Stanley's 
division, being in the rear, was, with the exception of the Eleventh .Mis- 
souri, before named — which rendered signal service — prevented from 
taking an active part in the coiiilict. 

On the morning of the 20th, it was found that the rebels had fled — in 
a southerly direction. General H'linilton and General Stanley imme- 
diately started in pursuit with cavalry, following the foe fur fifieeu miles. 
Then, worn out with labor and fighting, and famished fur want of food, 
they discontinued the pursuit and returned to camp. 


OCTOUKU 3 AND 4, 1862. 

Immediately after the battle of luka, the rebel forces of Price and Van 
Dorn formed a junction, for the purpose of making another attempt upon 
Corinth General Rosecrans, meanwhile, always watchful and energetic, 
speedily divined their plans, and at once made the requisite preparations 
to check their advance. Nor was the collision long deferred. On tho 
morning of the 3rd of October, the Union forces were attacked by a body 
of insurgents, largely superior in numbers, (officially stated at thirty-eight 
thousand,) and on that clay and the next was fought one of the bloodiest 
battles of the war, which is known as tho battle of Corinth. The rebel 
force was commanded by Generals Price, Van Dorn, Ljvell, Villlpigue 
and Rusk. 

The following was the disposition of the Union troops, on the 3rd of 
October : General McKean with his division occupied Chewalla ; General 
Davis with his division, occupied the line between the Memphis and 
Columbus road : General Hamilton, with his division, had taken position 
between the rebel works, on the Purdy and Hamburgh roads ; and Gen- 
eral Stanley held his division in reserve, near the old headquarters of 
General Grant. This disposition of the troops placed General Hamilton 
on the right, General McKean on the left, and General Davis in the 
centre. 3IcKoan had an advance of three regiments of infantry, and a 
section of artillery under Colonel Oliver, oa the Chewalla road, beyond 
the enemy's breastworks. 

On the morning of the 3rd, the advance under Colonel Oliver, took a 
strong position on a hill, near an angle iu these breastworks : and at about 



nine o'clock they were strongly pressed ly the enemy, who manoeuvred 
to outflank them. A.t ten o'clock General llosecrans was informed that 
Colonel Oliver was imperatively in need ot reinforcements, and must 
yield liis position unless they were furnished. The hill would bo of 
great value to the enemy ; and it was therefore necessary that the Union 
forces should hold possession of it ; and two regiments of Colonel Davies' 
bri'ude were sent to Colonel Oliver's assistance. It was presently de- 
monstrated that Brigadier-General Arthur had taken up four more regi- 
ments from McKean's division ; and Colonel Oliver's position upon the 
hill was being strongly contested. An advance, leaving an interval 
between McArthur's and Davies' left, was now made upon the enemy's 
breastworks ', but the rebels cleverly pushed on behind Davies' left, and, 
after a fierce and determined resistance, forced the brigade to a rapid 
retreat of nearly a thousand yards, in which movement it lost two heavy 
guns. Of the fighting, in this eugagoment, on the ord of October, Gen- 
eral llosecrans speaks thus : 

" Our troops fought with the most determined courage, firing very 
low. At one p. m. Davies having resumed the same position he had 
occupied in the morning, and McArthur's brigade having fought a heavy 
force, it became evident that the enomy were in full strength, and meant 
mischief. McKean with Crocker's brigade had seen only skirmishers ; 
there were no signs of any movement on our left, and only a few cavalry 
skirmishers on our right. It was pretty clear that we were to expect 
the weiffht of the attack to fall on our centre, where hopes had been given 
of our falling back. 

'• Orders were accordingly given to McKean to fall back to the nest 
ridge beyond our intrenchuaents, to touch his right on Davies' left, for 
Stanley to move northward and eastward, to stand in close echelon, but 
nearer town. General Hamilton was ordered to face toward Chewalla 
and move down until his left reached Davies' right. Davies was in- 
formed of these dispositions, told to hold his ground obstinately, and 
then, when he had drawn them in strongly, Hamilton would swing in oa 
their front and rear and close the day. Hamilton was carefully instruct- 
ed on this point, and entered into the spirit of it." 

The result of this day's battle was not favorable to the National troops ; 
the fighting of each and every division engaged was superb, but the 
number of the enemy so far exceeded that of the Union army that when 
the engagement fur the day was closed by the approach of night, the 
whole National force was driven back, and had lost a great mauy men. 
General Oglesby was wounded, and General Hackle man was killed. 

Very early on the following morning the opening of fire from the 
enemy's artillery gave imlications of a very hard fight to come. 

At seven o'clock the heads ot the rebel column were seen, emerging 


from tlie woods in front of the Union forces, and slowly bearing down 
upon their centre — first on Davis, next on Stanley, and last on Hamilton. 
The rebel force was so overpowering that the jaded and worn troops of 
the Union fell back before it. A contemporary correspondent de- 
scribing this portion of the buttle on the 4th, writes as follows : " It was 
perhaps half-past nine o'clock when the bitter tragedy began to develop 
in earnest. A prodigious mass, with gleaming bayonets, suddenly 
loomed out, dark and threatening on the cast of the railroad, moving 
sternly up the Bolivar road in column by divisions. Directly it opened 
out in the shape of a monstrous wedge, and drove forward impetuously 
toward the heart of Corinth. It was a splendid target for our batteries, 
and it was soon perforated. Hideous gaps were rent in it, but those 
massive lines were closed almost as soon as thoy were torn open. At 
this period the skilful management of General Piosecrans began to 
develop. It was discovered that the enemy had been enticed to attack 
precisely at the point where the artillery could sweep them with direct, 
cross and enfilading fire. He had prepared for such an occasion. Our 
shell swept through the mass with awful effect, but the brave rebels 
pressed onward inflexibly. Directly the wedge opened and spread out 
magnificently, right and left, like great wings, seeming to swoop over the 
whole field before them. But there was a fearful march in front. A 
broad turfy glacis, sloping upward at an angle of thirty degrees to a 
crest fringed with determined, disciplined soldiers, and clad with terrible 
batteries, frowned upon them. There were a few obstructions — fallen 
timber — which disordered their lines a little. But every break was 
instantly welded. Our whole line opened fire, but the enemy, seem- 
ingly insensible to fear, or infuriated by passion, bent their necks down- 
ward and marched steadily to death, toifh their faces averted like men 
striving to protect theynsclves against a driving storm of hail. The 
Yates and Burgess sharpshooters, lying snugly behind their rude breast- 
works, poured in a destructive fire, but it seemed no more effectual than 
if they had been firing potato-balls, excepting that somebody was killed. 
The enemy still pressed onward undismayed. At last they reached the 
crest of the hill in front and to the right of Fort Richardson, and General 
Davies's division gave way. It began to fall back in disorder. General 
llosccrans, who had been watching the conflict with eagle eye, and who 
is described as having expressed his delight at the trap into which 
General Price was blindly plunging, discovered the break and dashed to 
the front, inflamed with indignation. He rallied the men by his splendid 
example in the thickest of the fight. Before the line was demoralized 
he succeeded in restoring it, and the men, brave when bravely led, 
fought again. But they had yielded much space, and the loss of Fort 
Richardson was certain. Price's right moved swiftly to the head- 


quarters of General Kosecrans. took possession of it, and posted tlir'm- 
Bclves under cover of the portico of the house, and behind its corners, 
whence they opened fire upon our troops on the opposite side of the 
public square. Seven rebels were killed within the little inclosurc in 
front of the General's cottage. The structure is a sort of sieve now — 
bullets have punctured it so numerously. But the desperate men got 
no further into town. 

" Battle was raging about Fort Richardson. Gallant Richardson, for 
rhom it was named, fought his battery well. Had his supports fought, 
as his arfilK-rymcn did, the record would have been different. The 
rebels gained the crest of the hill, swarmed around the little redoubt, 
and were swept away from it as a breath will dissipate smoke. Again 
they swarmed like infuriated tigers. At last a desperate dash with a 
y«ll. Richardson goes down to rise no more. His supports are rot at 
hand. The foe shouts triumphantly and seizes the guns. The horses are 
fifty yards down the hill toward Corinth. A score of rebels saize them. 
The Fifty sixth Illinois suddenly rises from cover in the r;ivine. One 
terrible volley, and there are sixteen dead artillery horses, a dozen dead 
rebels. Illinois shouts, and charges up the hill, across the plateau into 
the battery. The rebels fly out through embrasures and around the 
wings. The Fifty-sixth yells again and pursues. 

"The rebels do not stop. Hamilton's veterans, meantime, have been 
working quietly — no lung-work, but gun-work enough. A steady stream 
of fire tore the rebel ranks to pieces. When Davies broke it was neces- 
sary for all to fall back. General 'Eosecrans thought it well enough to 
get Price in deeply. A rebel soldier says Van Dorn sat on his horse 
grimly and saw it all. 'That's Rosecrans's trick,' said he ; 'he's got 
Price where he must suffer.' Maybe this is one of the apocrypha of 
battle. A rebel soldier says it's true. But Hamilton's division receded 
under orders — at backward step, slowl)% grimly, face to the foe, and 
firing. But when the Fifty-sixth Illinois charged, this was changed. 
Davies' misfortune had been remedied. The whole line advanced. The 
rebel host was broken. A destroying Nemesis pursued them. Arms 
were flung away wildly. They ran to the woods. They fled into the 
forests. Oh ! what a shout of triumph and what a gleaming line of steel 
followed them. It is strange, but true. Our men do not often shout be- 
fore battle. Heavens I what thunder there is in their throats after vic- 
tory. ' They ' report that such a shout was never before heard in 
Corinth. Price's once ' invincible ' now invisible legions were broken, 
demoralized, fugitive, and remorselesslv pursued down the hill, into the 
swamps, through the thickets, into the forests. Newly disturbed earth 
shows where they fell and how very thickly." 

During this hot fighting on tbe right, General Van Dorn, with his 


corps arranged in four dense columns, made an attack on tbe Union loft, 
advancing on Battery Ki)binette. As the rebels came on they were re- 
ceived with a volley of grape and canister ; and as they drew nearer, 
a murderous fire of musketry, from the Ohio brigade, met thorn directly 
in the front, and caused them to reel back in confusion to the woods in 
their rear. But the enemy were not yet defeated ; they reformed imme- 
diately, and boldly advanced to the charge again, led on by Colonel 
Rogers, of the Second Texas ; but a second time the dread musketry of 
the Ohio brigade broke over tliem in a perfect shower of death. The 
rebels held their ground with a front of desperate bravery, but wlien the 
Twenty-seventh Ohio and the Eleventh Missouri, at the order to charge, 
rushed forward upon them, their thinned ranks broke into fragments, 
and they fled wildly back to the shelter of the woods, pursued by the Union 
Soldiers, and the battle of Corinth was over — an entire and triumphant 
victory to the National arms. 

The enemy's loss in killed was one thousand four hundred and twenty- 
three officers and men ; their loss in wounded amounted to five thousand 
six hundred and ninety-two. The Unionists took two thousand two hun- 
dred and forty-eight prisoners, among whom were one hundred and 
thirty-seven field-officers, captains, and subalterns, representing fifty- 
three regiments of infantry, sixteen regiments of cavalry, thirteen batter- 
ies of artillery, and seven battalions, making sixty-nine regiments, six 
battalions, and thirteen batteries, beside separate companies. 

The National troops took also fourteen stands of colors, two pieces of 
artillery, three thou.sand three hundred stand of arms, four thousand five 
hundred rounds of ammunition, and a large lot of accoutrements. The 
encrny blew up several wagons between Corinth and Chewalia, and be- 
yond Chewalla many ammunition wagons and carriages were destroyed, 
and tlie ground was strewn with tents, officers' mess-chests, and small 

When it was finally ascertained that the enemy, utterly routed, were 
in full retreat, General llosecrans ordered preparations for an immediate 
pursuit. General Grant also sent a force under General Ord and Gene- 
ral Hurlbut to intercept and cut off the enemy's retreat ; and thus, when 
the rebels reached llatchie river, they found themselves completely 
hemmed in — caught between two rivers — the Hatchie in front of them, 
the Tuscnmbia behind them. For a time the capture of the entire rebel 
army seemed inevitable, pursued as thry were by General Rosecrans, 
and assailed in front by the reinforcements from General Grant. Un- 
fortunately, the Union army was too much exhausted by its recent 
severe efforts, to follow up the advantage ; and General Price, always ac- 
complished in carrying out a retreat, made a successful attempt to cross 
the Hatchie a few miles above the point where his first effort had been 
disputed, and so escaped with his imperilled army. 



NOVEMKEU 10, 1803. 

On the r2tli of November General Burnside issued the following 
address to the army : 


In accordance with General Orders, No. 182, issued by the President 
of the United States, I hereby assume command of the Army of the 
Potomac. Patriotism, and the exercise of every energy in the direction 
of this army, aided by the full and hearty cooperation of its oflSeers and 
men, will, I hope, under the blessing of God, insure its success. 

Having been a sharer of the privations, and a witness of the bravery of 
the old Army of the Potomac in the Maryland campaign, and fully 
identified with them in their feelings of respect and esteem for General 
McCIollan, entertained through a long and most friendly association with 
him, I feel that it is not as a stranger I assume command. 

To the Ninth army corps, so long and intimately associated with me, I 
need say nothing. Our histories are identical. With diffidence for my- 
self, but with a proud confidence in the unswerving loyalty and deter- 
mination of the galhmt army now intrusted to my care, I accept its con- 
trol, with the steadfast assurance that the just cause must prevail. 
[Signed] A. E. BURNSIDE, 

Major-General Commanding. 

This was a position that was by no means covctel by General Burn- 
side, lie well knew the difficulties and responsibilities of the office, and 
expressed his misgivings of his ability to perform its duties. But he 
was a brave and gallant soldier, and had already won the confidence of 
the Government, and the admiration of hi? companions-in-arms. It was 
only after mature deliberation, and the consultation and advice of the 
principal corps-commanders that he consented to take upon himself the 
chief command. In this determination he recognized the soldier's duty 
of obedience as a paramount consideration. 

On the 12th the general-iu-chief, (Ilalleck) and General Meigs pro- 
ceeded from ^Yashiogton to the headquarters to confer with General 
Burnside. On the same day the advance of the army was across the 
Bnppahannock and fifteen miles south of Warrcuton. On the 14th 
General Burnside issued the following order reorganizing a portion of 
army : 


IJeadquarters, Aumy of the Potomac, > 

Warrenton, Va., Nov. 14, 18G2. \ 
General Order, No. 181. 

First. The organization of a part of this army in tlircc grand divis- 
ions is hereby announced. These grand divisions will be fornicd and 
commanded as follows : 

The Second and Ninth Corps will form the right grand division, and 
will be coramandod by Major-General E. V. Sumner. 

The First and Sixth Corps will form the left grand division, and will 
be con)mnndcd by 3Iajor-General W. B. Franklin. 

The Third and Fifth Corps will form the centre grand division, 
and will be commanded by Major-General Joseph Hooker. 

The Eleventh Corps, with such others as may hereby be assigned to it, 
will constitute a reserve force, under the command of Major-General 
F. Si-cl. 

Assignments of cavalry and further details will be announced in future 

By command of Major-General BURNSIDE. 

S. Williams, A. A.-G. 

Meanwhile the mass of General Lee's forces retired to Gordonsvillc. 
On the 16th the forces of General Burnside began to move for Freder- 
icksburg, as had been previously determined in consultation on the l2th 
between Generals Ilalleck and Burnside. On the l5th the evacuation of 
Warrcnton and the adjacent places was commenced, and by the 
morning of the 18th it was entirely completed. The advance was led by 
General Sumner. At the same time supplies were sent to Acquia Creek, 
and the repairs of the railroad track to Fredericksburg commenced, and 
the army concentrated at Falmouth, opposite Fredericksburg. 

The march to liichmond was to be made by the route from Fredericks- 
burg. This city i.s on the south bank of the Ilappahannock, and sixty- 
five miles distant from Richmond. It is connected with the latter place 
by a railroad, of which there is a double line nearly to Hanover Junction, 
twenty-three miles from Richmond. The railroad crosses the Matapony 
river at Mil ford, thirty-seven miles from Fredericksburg, and the 
Pamunkcy, twenty-five miles from Richmond, besides a number of smaller 
streams. Between Falmouth, where the Federal army concentrated, and 
Richmond, there are two niain and two minor lines of defence. The first 
that of the Rappahannock river. Above Falmouth its abrupt banks, 
which are lined with hi;:h hills, difficult of access, and its narrow fords 
and rocky bottom render a rapid crossing for a large force almost impos- 
sible. Below, the valley of the river expands, spreading often into spa- 
cious plains, while the winding course of the stream forms numerous necks 


of Innd, easily commanded frcra the north side, and giving secure cross- 
ing i)laccs, and ample ground for the formation of troops. At Fredericks- 
burg tho north cummnnds the south bank, and much of the distance, which 
is a mile and a half, to the frowning hills or table land beyond. But 
those heights equally command this intermediate plain, and are unas- 
sailable in front except by infantry. Next in the rear, and twelve miles 
distant, is the line of the Po river and Stannard's M irsh, which is hardly 
available except to hold a pursuing foe in check. The N(jrth Anna is 
about forty miles from the Rappahannock, and affords another principal 
line of defence. It is a deep and rajiid stream, with a narrow valley. 
The table-land on its north bank is about one hundred feet above the bed 
of the river, and about one hundred and fifty feet on the south bank. The 
extension of its line after it turns to join the South Anna, and becomes 
the Pamunkey, presents scarcely less obstacles than the river itself, so 
well is the ground guarded by swamps and flanked by streams. The last 
and a minor line of defence is the South Anna river, with the southern 
commanded by the northern bank, and too near the North Anna for a 
second formation by a force that has been badly defeated. Numerous 
small streams parallel to the line of advance present suitable points for 
resistance, and protect foes attacking the line communication, while 
the bridges over them are weak points necessary to be securely 

By the 20th a considerable force had reached Falmouth. General 
Sumner on the nest day sent a summons to surrender, which eli'jited a 
correspondence from Mayor Slaughter, showing that the town was at the 
mercy of the combatants, and beyond the control of the city authorities. 

As General Burnside's army concentrated on the north bank. General 
Lee's forces concentrated on the heights in the rear of Fredericksburg. 
Had the pontoon bridges been at hand when the advance reached 
Falmouth, the line of the Ptappahannock would have been taken without 
opposition. Then, with proper supplies and bridges, thirty of the sixty 
miles to Richmond would have been placed within the reach of General 
Burnside, and poihaps a lodgment have been effected on the banks of 
the North Anna. Nearly thirty days elapsed before the pontoons 
arrived and the bridges were completed. 

It was the design of General Burnside that the pontoons should leave 
Alexandria on November 11, and arrive at Falmouth at the same time 
with the advance of his army. The right grand division reached Fal- 
mouth on November 17. The pontoons left Alexandria on November 
19, and arrived at Fredericksburgh after the movements of General 
Burnside had not only become known, but after General Lee had ad- 
vanced his forces from Gordonsville to the heights in the rear of Fred- 
ericksburg, and had torlified ihcm. They were not used until the night; 


of December 10, owing to material changes in the plan of the command- 
er-in-chief, necessitated by now mivements of the encm}'. 

During the night of the lOth of December, therefore, the pontoons 
were conveyed to the river, and the artillery to the number of one hun- 
dred and forty-three pieces was placed in position opposite the city. Be- 
tween four and Kve o'clock on the morning of the llth, the work of 
building four bridges was commenced. One was to be made at the 
point where the railroad bridge formerly crossed, and two otlicrs oppo- 
site the city but nearer Falmouth, and the fourth nearly two miles be- 
low for the crossing of the left wing under General Franklin. A dull 
haze so obscured the movement, that it was not discovered for some 
time by the Confederate pickets. The bridges were thus partly coa- 
stiucted, when a brisk and deadly fire of musketry from along the banks 
of the river and windows of the hou.«es was opened, which conjpellod the 
workmen to stop. They fled to the cover of the surrounding hills where 
llicy formed again, and about six o'clock the work was recommenced. 
The Confederates had now become aroused to a sense of what was "oin-r 
forward, and with reinforcements of sharpshooters swarmed the opposite 
bank and houses. The pontouniers, nothing daunted by the hot fire 
poured upon them, went bravely to work. A storm of bullets covered 
them. The planks and boats were riddled by every volley. Once more 
they were compelled to withdraw, and again fell back to the cover of the 
ri(li:e of hills running parallel with the river. Orders were now given 
to tlic artillery to open fire on the city. The Federal batteries cora- 
mcuced an almost simultaneous bombardment, directing their fire chiefly 
at the houses in which the sharpshooters had concealed themselves. At 
the first fire they became untenable, and the riflemen retreated to the 
rear of the town, and toi k shelter behind the buildings unharmed. The 
fire of the artillery, which commenced at seven o'clock, was continued 
incessantly until one o'clock. The fog somewhat obscured its results 
but bodies of the Confederates with great stubbornness still kept within 
the city. The Confederate ba.teries on the heights in the rear continaod 
silent. Not a gun was fired. About ten o'clock, the workmen were 
again formed for a third attempt to build the bridges. Volunteers joined 
them from the Eighth Connecticut. Some planks were seized and car- 
ried out to the end of a string of boats and placed in position, when a 
galling fire from sharpshooters in rifle pits near the edge of the water 
again interrupted them, and they were recalled. Meantime the bombard- 
ment was continued, and several houses in the city had taken fire. In 
the afternoon, several pontoon boats, loaded with volunteers from the 
Seventh Michigan and Nineteenth Massachusetts, were sent over. They 
chased the Cnnfodcrate sharpshooters from their hiding places, and the 
bridges were finished without further interruption. On the other side a 


scene of destruction proseiited itself. The walls of houses were breached, 
rout's hud fallen in, and the interiors were destroyed. 

No sooner were the bridges completed than the troops began to cross, 
and before dusk General Sumner's grand division had gone over, and a 
sec: ion of General Hooker's. All had rations for three days, and 
blankets for a bivouac. The grand division of General Franklin, consist- 
in" of the corps of General Reynolds and Smith, crossed over at the 
h)wcr bridge, which was built earlier in the day, without interruption, as 
there was a plain before it which the artillery could have easily swept. 
The troops commenced crossing again early on the morning of the 12th 
without molestation. Some sharp resistance had been made by the Con 
federate soldiers to those who crossed on the previous day, but those 
were driven out of the city, or killed. During the afternoon fire was 
opened upon the city by the Confederate batteries on the nearest heights, 
which was replied to by the Federal batteries, and soon ceased. 
The occupation of Fredericksburg had now been successfully made. 
No greater opposition had been presented by the forces of General Lee 
than was sufficient to tempt the Federal troops to press forward with 
greater ardor. 

The next movement was to drive the Confederate forces from their 
positions on the heights. These positions consisted of two lines of bat- 
teries, one a mile in rear of the other, and both overlooking the city. 
They extended, in the form of a semicircle, from Port Royal to a point 
about six miles above Fredericksburg. Their right wing, under Gen- 
eral Jackson, extended from Port Royal to Guinney's Station on the 
Richmond and Fredericksburg railroad ; the centre, under General 
Longstreet, extended to the telegraph road ; tlie left, under General 
Stuart, was west of Ma-^saponax creek. A reserve corps was commanded 
by General A. P. Hill. This -was the force which had fought at Rich- 
mond and in Maryland. 

Friday night and Saturday morning, the 13th, were spent by General 
Burnside in making a proper disposition of his forces. The left was oc- 
cupied by General Franklin with his grand division, the centre by Gen- 
eral Hooker, and the right by General Sumner. 

The right of General Franklin rested on the outskirts of the city, his 
centre was advanced about a mile from the river, and his left was on the 
Rappahannock, about three miles below. The action commenced on the 
extreme left by an annoying lire from a rebel battery, which the Ninth 
New York was ordered to charge and capture. In this attempt they 
were repulsed. A brigade was brought to their aid by General Tyler, 
and another attempt made, but the fire was so deadly that it failed of 
success. The battle now became more general, and another attempt was 
made to capture the battery. No advantage was gained at this time, but 


a severe loss was sufTorod. The conflict now extended along the whole 
line of tlie left, and a desperate effort was made to drive the Confeder- 
ates across the Massapoiiax creek by turning their position. Tlie gruund 
was contested most obstinately, but the Confederates gradually fell back, 
occasionally making a most desperate stand, until night, when General 
Franklin had succeeded in gaining nearly a mile, and his troops occupied 
the field. The right of Gcuoral Franklin's division, under General Rey- 
nolds, encountered the fire of the Confederate artillery on the heights, 
and although the conflict was most deadly, no adv.mtage was gained. 

On tlie right, under command of General Sumner, the action com- 
menced about ten o'clock and was furious during the rest of the day. 
The Confederate forces occupied the woods and hills in the rear of the 
city, from which it soon became evident they could not be driven except 
at the point of the bayonet. The charge was ordered to be made by the 
division of General French supported by that of General Howard. 
Steadily the troops moved across the plain, until they were within a 
dozen yards of the ridge, when they were suddenly met by a galling fire 
from the Confederate infantry posted behind a stone wall For a few 
minutes the head of the column exhibited some confusion; but quickly 
forming into line it retired back to a ravine within musket shot of the 
rebels. Here they were reinforced by fresh troops who fearlessly ad- 
vanced to their aid under a most destructive fire of artillery. The line 
of assault was now formed again, and with bayonets fixed and a double 
quick step, they rushed forward to seize the Confederate artillery. 
From the first step they encountered a terrific fire of infantry and artil- 
lery. No veterans could face that shock. They were thrown into con- 
fusion and brought to a sudden halt. At this juncture the centre quiv- 
ered, faltered, and fled in disorder, but was afterwards rallied and 
brought back Three times was the attack thus made to dislodge those bat- 
teries. But each time it was in vain. The ranks of the storming party, 
shrunk to small limits, retired. The entire force of his artillery was 
now brought by General Sumner to bear upon the enemy, and thus tho 
contest was kept up until dark. At night the Confederate force occupied 
their original position, and the wounded and the dead remained where 
they had fallen. Every attempt to remove them by the Federal troops 
was defeated by the rebel infantry. 

In the centre under the command of General Hooker, skirmishing 
commenced early in the morning ; and during the forenoon, while the fog 
prevailed, a terrific contest, chiefly with artillery, was kept up on both 
sides. The Confederate position appeared to be invulnerable to artillery, 
and about noon preparations were made for storming it. The troops 
marched steadily up within musket shot of the batteries, and were there 
met by such a destructive firo of artillery and rifles as drove them back 


with a heavy loss, lleinforccmcnts were obtained, and the attempt to 
take the b;itterics was repeated in the afternoon, but without success. 
The contest continued with great ticrceness until night. About half past 
five the firing of the musketry ceased, but that of the artillery continued 
until long after dark. 

On ihe next day, Sunday tlie 14th, both armies remained comparatively 
quiet. Some skirmishing and artillery fire took place for a short time. 

On Monday, both armies cuntinued in the same position. The Confed- 
erates had strengthened some of their works. During the ensuing 
night, the army evacuated Fredericksburg and retired across the river 
to its former position. The artillery crossed first, followed by the in- 
fantry, the last of whom left about daylight. The pontoon bridges were 
then removed and all communication cut off. The movement was not 
perceived by the Confederates until it was too late to do any injury to 
the retreating force. The following is the despatch of General Burnside 
announcing this movement : 

Headquauteus Army Potomac, ) 
Six o'Clock, p. m., December 16, 1«G2. ) 

Major-General Halleck : The army was withdrawn to this side of the 
river because I felt the position in front could not be carried, and it was 
a military necessity either to attack or retire. A repulse would have 
been disastrous to us. The army was withdrawn at night, without the 
knowledge of the enemy, and without loss either of property or men. 

Major-General Commanding. 

The Federal loss was as follows : General Sumner's division on the 
right, killed, four hundred and seventy-three ; wounded, four thousand 
and ninety ; missing, seven hundred and forty eight. Total, five 
thousand three hundred and eleven. 

General Hooker's division on the centre, killed, three hundred and 
twenty-six ; wounded, two thousand four hundred and sixty-eight ; miss- 
ing, seven hundred and fifty-four. Total, three thousand five hundred 
and forty-eight. 

General Franklin's division on the left, killed, three hundred and 
thirty-nine ; wounded, two thousand five hundred and forty-seven ; miss- 
ing, five hundred and seventy-.six. Total, three thousand four hundred 
and sixty-two. Grand total, killed, one thousand one hundred and thirty- 
eight ; wounded, nine thousand one hundred and five; missing, two 
thousand and seventy-eight. Total, twelve thousand three hundred and 

The Confederate loss was comparatively small, having been sheltered 
by their works. 


General Butnside in bis report to the gcnoral-lii-ohief, thus explains 
his defeat : 

" How near wo came to the accomplishment of our object future reports 
will show. lint for the fog, and the unexpected and unavoidable delay 
in building the bridires, which gave the enemy twenty-four hours to con- 
centrate his forces in his strong position, we would almost certainly have 
succeeded, in which case the battle would have been, ia my opinion, far 
more decisive than if we had crossed at the places first selected. As it 
was, wo came very near success. Failing in the accomplishment of the 
main object, we remained in order of battle two day.s, long enough to 
decide that the enemy would not come out of his strongholds to fight mc 
with his infantry, after which we recro.>sed to this side of the river un- 
molested, without the loss of men or property. 

" As the day broke our hmg lines of troops were seen marching to their 
different positions as if going on parade — nut the least demoralization or 
disorganization existed. 

" To the brave officers and soldiers who accomplished the feat of thus 
recrossing in the face of the enemy, I owe everything. For the failure 
in the attack, I am responsible, as the extreme gallantry, courage, and 
endurance shown by them were never exceeded, and would have carried 
the points had it been possible. 

*' To the families and friends of the dead I can only ofi'er my heartfelt 
pympathies, but for the wounded I can offer my earnest prayer for their 
comfort and final recovery. 

" The fact that I decided to move frou AVarrenton on this line rather 
against the opinion of the President, Secretary of War, and yourself, and 
that you have left the whole movement in my hands, without giving mo 
orders, makes me the more responsible." 

Thus closed the third campaign against Richmond. No further hostile 
demonstrations were made by either army daring the year. 

I)ECKMni;u 31, 18G3. 

On the 25th of OctCTber General Rosecrans was ordered to Cincinnati 
to take command of the Army of the Ohio, which consisted of what re- 
mained of the splendid army formerly commanded by General Bucll. 
The Army of the Ohio was at this time — October 30, 1862 — concen- \ 
trated at Bowling Green, Kentucky ; and there General Rosecrans took 
up his headquarters. This General's first step was to organize and dia- 


cipline the army, which had been, in a measure, demoralized by its 
reverses, under the couimand of General Buell. This was a task of mag- 
nitude, requiring both time and energy. It was accomplished, however, 
and on the 10th of November, General Rosecrans transferred his head- 
quarters from Bowling Green to Nashville, Tennessee. 

Six weeks of unavoidable delay occurred, during vhich time the Army 
of the Ohio did nothing to retrieve its past disasters. General Rose- 
crans was one hundred and eighty-three miles from Louisville, his base 
of supplies ; and the only communication between his present head- 
quarters and tlie capital of Kentucky was a single line of railroad, not 
yet completed from Mitchellsville to Nashville, a distance of fifty miles. 
The completion of this piece of railroad occupied three weeks ; and after 
it was in perfect running order, it required still another three weeks to 
collect supplies, sufficient to make it safe for the army to attempt any 
movoment in advance. Much skirmishing between the patriot troops 
nnd the rebels meanwhile occurred ; in most of which the former were 
victorious. The only disaster of any moment, that occurred to the Union 
army, at this period, was the capture of Colonel Moore's brigade, at 
Ilartsville, by the rebel guerrilla. General John A Morgan, with a 
cavalry force, and mounted infantry, numbering about five thousand men. 

General Rosoeraus proceeded with indefatigable energy in his prepar- 
ations to meet the enemy ; but, with the utmost dispatch and patience 
combined, it was almost the end of December before he was in condition 
to offer battle to the rebel Bragg, who was stationed at Murfreesboro', 
having made his headquarters there, after his escape from Kentucky. 
The army under General Rosecrans bore no comparison in numbers with 
that of Bragg ; but its organization was perfect. Being compelled to 
leave a large force at Nashville, for the protection of that city, General 
Rosecrans* force, when he advanced, was less than forty-seven thousand 
men ; while that of General Bragg numbered sixty-five thousand. 

General Rosecrans divided his army into three corps ; one under com- 
mand of General McD. McCook ; another under command of General 
George H. Thomas ; and a third under command of General Thomas L. 
Crittenden. The corps of General McCook consisted of three divisions 
under Generals Johnson, Davis and Sheridan; General Thomas' corps 
consisted of two divisions, under Generals Rousseau and Negley. The 
corps of General Crittenden was composed of three divisions, under 
Generals Van Cleve, Wood and Palmer. General D, S. Stanley was 
chief of cavalry. 

The rebel forces under Bragg were also divided into three corps, 
commanded respectively by Generals Hardee, Polk and E. Kirby Smith. 
In addition General Bragg had two cavalry brigades, under command of 


General Forrest and General ^lurgun ; ctich of these brigades contained 
five thousand men. 

The moment for attack had come, in the judgment of General E,oac- 
crans. The rebel cavalry force had been sent north, on a raid, in con- 
sequence of incorrect information received by Bragg, concerning tho 
movements of Rosecrans. 

General McCook received orders to advance upon General Ilardce, 
who occupied a position on the Nolensvi'dc road. General Tliomas was 
ordered to the Franklin road, so as to threaten Hardee's flank ; and, by a 
crossroad, to form a junction with McCook. And General Ciittendon 
Avas ordered to advance on the Murfrcesboro' road, as f;ir as Lavergne. 
These movements being carried out caused the retreat of II irdee toward 
Murfrcesboro'. Encountering considerable opposition from the rebels, 
and being compelled to feel their way over a totally unknown and wood- 
ed country, the National force had all crossed over to the Murfrcesboro' 

On the night of Tuesday, the 30th of December, General Rosecrans 
had liis line formed. The relative positions of the armies were then ag 
follows : 

The rebels were intrenched in a thick wood about two miles in front 
of Murfrcesboro' ; their lines extending along both siJcs of a stream, the 
right under command of General Polk, the left commanded by General 
Ilardeo, and the centre by General Suiith. 

The line of battle of the National troops was drawn up directly oppo- 
site that of the rebels, with General Crittenden holding the left, which 
rested on Stone River ; General McCook the right, and General Thomas 
the centre. 

While General Rosecrans was deciding the method of attack, and ex- 
plaining it to his corps commanders, the rebel General had decided to 
take the aggressive. 

The rebel attack was cleverly managed. Without any demonstration, 
the enemy suddenly emerged from the woods in which they had .-een 
concealed, at about seven o'clock on the morning of the 31st of Decem- 
ber, and steadily and noiselessly advanced toward the National line. The 
troops had fallen in line on the Crst news of the enemy's approach, and 
quietly awaited their coming ; but notwithstanding this, however, 
the unexpected nature of the attack threw the Union troops into confu- 
sion, in a very short time the infan-try breaking and retreating with- 
out a single shot. There was much brave but fruitless fighting. The 
dense masses of the enemy bore down upon the enfeebled Nation il line, 
and were bravely met ; but continued resistance was impossible. 
A large part of McCook's ammunition and subsistence trains were 
captured by the enemy. The day was plainly against the Federals ; 


and, for the time, it niiglit have been said that General Rosecrans was 
tUfoatcd even before his attack had begun. Unless the battle-field was at 
onje given up to the rebels, it became evident that a complete and im- 
mediate change of plan was essential to the maintenance of even a show 
of resistance to the enemy. General MeCook's army was almost broken 
up; and upon the centre the firing only increased in fury. 

General Rosecrans, with the energy, bravery, and promptness that 
ever characterized him, saw the danger of defeat, and instantly de- 
termined on a means of retrieving his fortunes. Having sent his staff 
along the lines, lie dashed right into the furious tire upon the centre, and 
Bcni forward Beatty's brigade. Immediately a scorching fire was 
opened from six batteries at once ; and as a loud, prolonged cheer 
burst from the Union troops, it was plain that the rebels were falling 
back before them. This so encouraged the patriots that every man bent 
with renewed vigor and enthusiasm to the work before him. A large 
force of cavalry, which had been sent down the Murfrcesboro' road, 
had arrested the flying men of McCook's division, and sent them back 
to their regiments. General Rosecrans continued to urge his encouraged 
troops forward, and the rebels fled before them for nearly a mile. The foe 
now prepared to fall upon the left of the Union line; and although that 
portion of the army had already received orders to charge upon the enemy, 
before the advance could be made, the rebels had meanwhile again burst 
upon the centre, which had begun to break. The breech was instantly 
filled by the gallant General Rousseau, at the head of his division, and the 
enemy was beaten back into the cedar thicket in their rear. 

Once more the rebels fell upon the Union right, driving it back ; and, 
as the men, fled in disorder before the attack, the sight was very dis- 
couraging : but happily no panic ensued. General Rosecrans now 
massed his divisions against the rebel left, crossed the river, and gave 
them despera^te battle for the space of two hours, during which time the 
rebels had all the advantage of position and attack till they were at last 
checked by a terribly destructive fire of musketry and artillery. " The 
scene at this point," says a correspondent of the day, " was magnificently 
terrible. The whole battle was in full view, the enemy deploying right 
and left, bringing up their batteries in fine style — our own vomiting 
smoke and iron missiles upon them with awful fury, and oar gallant 
fellows moving to the front with unflinching courage, and lying flat upon 
their faces to escape the rebel fire until the moment for action. Shell 
and shot fell around like rain. General Rosecrans was himself inces- 
santly exposed. It is wonderful that he escaped. His cliief-of-staff, the 
noble Lieutenant-Colonel Garesche, had his head taken ofi" by a round 
, shot, and the blood bespattered the General and some of the staff. 
Lieutenant Lylam Kirk, just behind him, was thrown out of his saddle 


l)y a bullet which shattered his left arm. The enemy at about six 
o'clock took up a position nut assailable except by artillery; and being 
evidently exiiausted by the repeated and rapid assaults, the firing on 
both sides gradually slaekeucd, and ceased entirely as the darkness 
deepened, — the battle having continued almost without intermission for 
eleven hours. The losses on both siJes were heavy. Major llosengarten 
and Major Ward were both killed, during a cavalry charge : General 
Rousseau at the head of his splendid division, was wounded, after 
having made two bayonet charges, and fuught during five hours. Gen- 
eral Stanley and General Palmer were also wounded. 

At dawn of the following morning, General llosecrans opened fire 
furiously upon the enemy, with his left endeavoring to beat him back 
from the right. The enemy met the attack bravely, holding their 
ground ; and the battle continued in that direction for several hours. 
Matters did not look favorable for the National army ; but at twelve 
o'clock new supplies of ammunition were received, the batteries were 
replenished and massed, and a murderous fire was opened upon the rebel 
line. It began to give way : and, with General Thomas pres.sing on its 
centre, and General Crittenden on its left, was handsomely repulsed. 

For the remainder of the day, the battle changing from one point to 
another, continued to rage with varied success — now the Unionists were 
victors, and now the rebels ; till night again closed the conflict, and no 
decisive victory had been gained on either side. 

The next day, Friday, began quiet along both lines : the dead lay un- 
buried on the field, already become objects of loathing and horror, nor 
could their comrades of yesterday spare the time to lay them beneath 
the moist, and bloodstained earth. The day wore slowly away, both 
Unionists and C)nf'd;rite3 miking p.-eparatious for more ti^'atin^ 
but up to three o'clock in the afternoon there seemed no prospect of the 
battle being resumed during that day. At half past three the rebels 
made a furious and sudden attack upon the left wing of the National 
army. Colonel Beatty's division, (in command since General Van Clere 
bad been wounded) with the evident intention of cutting it off from the 
rest of the line. But Beatty was not wholly unprepared, and met tlie 
overwhelming force hurled against him, with skill and gallantry. The 
rebels were three columns deep, and consisted of the divisions of Breck- 
inridge, Claiborne, and Anderson. Beatty's three brigades defended 
themselves with desperate bravery ; and in return for the flood of shot, 
shell, and Minnie sent into their ranks, they sent back a perfect storm of 
lead that caused the first rebel column Breckinridge's division, to fall 
back instantly, mowed down by the fierce fire of the Union brigades. 
The place of the retreating column was instantly filled by another 
formed of Claiborne's division ; which met with better success than its 


prcilcccssor ; as Bcatty's division, after the severe treatment it had just 
roccivcil could not hope to stand before an entirely fresh column of the 

The I'liion bri'^ados fell slowly back, and recrossed the river, pursued 
ti) tlie very banks by the rebels, pouring in upon them a steady lire, and 
then immediatuly forming llicir line in the deserted positi m. The rebel 
artillery was moved, and from both sides of the stream a heavy fire was 
poured into each force by its opponents. 

Tlierc was still a Union reserve ; for a wise purpose cf his own. Gen- 
eral Ilosecrans had not yet permitted Neglcy's men to be sent forward ; 
but by the General's order they were now ordered to come up, which 
they did, closely followed by General J. C. Davis's division. "Wilh 
shouts of enthusiasm they pressed forward toward the aid of Bcatty's 
left ; and having reuched the banks of Lytlc's creek, they opened a 
furious and destructive fire upon the rebel force beyond. Two batteries 
were set to work, and a severe volley of grape and shrapnel poured in 
on the enemy's line. The effect was perceived at once — they fell back 
slowly; and Davis'.? division was ordered to cross the stream in pursuit. 
The Seventy eig'ith Pennsylvania sprang forward, plangcd in, and were the 
first to cross, led by the gallant Colonel Sirwell. Immediately the Nine- 
teenth Illinois and the rest of the two brigades followed, Davis also crossed, 
speedily followed by Beatty ; and one of the most brilliant and desjierate 
charges of the day was executed. Davis pressed through his ranks, and 
taking off his hat placed it on his sword, and with a loud hearty shout to 
his men to Charge ! led them himself to the top of the hill. The rebel 
line broke before the gallant charge, and fled in the greatest confusion. 
Negley perceiving the advantage gained by the troops across the stream, 
followed it up without an instant's loss of time, by ordering his batteries 
to cross, which, together with a captured- rebel battery were put to work, 
pouring death into the enemy's retreating line. General Negley now 
sent word to General Rosecrans that he was driving the rebels before 
him, and that they were almost compelled to a complete and disgraceful 
ro it. "Drive 'em!" was the enthusiastic response of the Union Gen- 
eral ; and he immediately ordered t,he whole of the National line to be 
advanced; and on the instant after one sheet of flame burst from right to 
left along the entire front, and the shouts of victory rose high above 
every other sound. 

The rebel resistance was desperate, but useless; and Polk's entire 
division fled before Negley, who never slackened in pursuit til! the 
enemy was driven far beyond their outer works, when the coming on of 
night saved them from utter destruction. General Negley now ordered 
a halt, and sent a dispatch to General Ilosecrans that darkness had over- 
taken him within three-quarters of a mile of Murfreesboro', but he would 




alvance no further till he had received orders from the General in 

The order fur advance was not sent; and the tired soldiers bivouacked 
within sight of Murfrecslioro'. It was evident that the battle was 
over, and the morning would prove the enemy completely defeated. 

On Saturday it rained; and General Rjsecrans determined to keep 
his powder dry. Knowing that success was certain, he permitted nothing 
to be done except shelling the enemy, and this was kept up during tho 
day. About two o'clock, at night, the rebel redoubt in front of lloussoau 
gave considerable trouble by opening an artillery fire. General Rousseau 
sent to General llosccrans for permission to take the works, and having 
received it, he detailed the Third Ohio and Eighty-eighth Indiana for the 
duty. In the face of a heavy fire they advanced and took the works at 
tho point of the bayonet. They also captured fifty prisoners. 

During the night came reports that the rebels were already evacuat- 
ing Murfreesboro' ; and although the intelligence was scarcely credited 
at first, morning proved its correctness, for the enemy was gone I It now, 
only remained to take possession of Murfreesboro', and at eleven 
o'clock on Stmday morning, General Rosecrans entered the village, with 
the main army. 


Notwithstanding the brilliant victories by the army and navy of tho 
Union in the early part of this year over the Confederate forces in North 
Carolina, but little, if any impression had been made on the stern spirit 
of opposition and defiance which was here as everywhere else manifested 
by the leaders of the rebellion. 

The brave and indomitable army led by Burnside, and the no less val- 
iant and victorious naval forces under Commodore Goldsborough, had 
unitedly subdued and captured all the defensible positions on the coast; 
and the capture of Roanoke Island and the Confederate navy in thoso 
waters, bad opened the Albemarle sound and its tributaries to the unmo- 
lested passage of the Federal fleet, and placed Nevvbern, EJenton, Win- 
ton, Beaufort, Elizabeth city, and many other towns in possession of tho 
Union forces. 

The magnitude of the operations on the Peninsula of Virginia, at a 
later period of the year, overshadowed these earlier movements, which 
were only designed as supplementary by the Federal government. Tho 
military operations for the remainder of the year were not therefore of a 
character demanding an extended notice in this history. 

Colonel Vance was elected Governor of the State in August by a large 


mnjorit)' ; and in Lis message in November, urged a vigorous prosecution 
of ihe war. In this lie was seconded by the Legislatiiro, who by resolu- 
tii)n> declared the separation of the State from the Federal Union as final, 
and pledged all the power and resources oT the commonwealth to maintain 
the Confederate government. 

As an important part of the State had now come under Federal control 
by conquest, the authorities at Washington determined to appoint a Pro- 
visional or military Governor, as had previously been done in Tennessee 
b}' the appointment of Andrew Johnson. 

Edward Stanley, formorly a distinguished citizen of North Carolina, 
was tendered that office by President Lincoln, and accepted the trust. 
lie arrived at Ncwbcrn on the 2Glh of May, and entered upon his duties. 
On the 17th of June he made. an address to the people of Washington, 
N. C, which citizens from all parts of the State were permitted to pass 
through the Federal lines to attend. Men were present from seventeen 
counties to hear him ; but the result showed that so long as the Confed- 
erate Government retained its organization and power, tlie citizens were 
powerless, and dare not oppose it. 

Governor Stanley endeavored by wise and conciliatory measures to 
win the confidence of the people, and thus restore peace to the State. 
To that end he proposed a conference with Governor Vance ; but that 
faiictionary refused to meet him, and referred Stanley to the Confederate 
Government at Kichmond. 

'i'housands of slaves flocked within the Federal lines, five thousand 
having collected in Newborn alone within three moaths after its occupa- 
tion by the Union army. 

Simultaneous with the campaign against Pvichmcnd undertaken by 
General BarnsiJe, efforts were made to cut the rebel lines of communi- 
cation between Richmond and the southwestern states. There are three 
lines of railroad running south and southwest. One running southwest, 
passes through southwestern Virginia, eastern Tennessee, northern Ala- 
bama, and connects with roads to western Tennessee, and to New 
Orleans. A southerly line connects Richmond with Wilmington, Charles- 
ton, Savannah, and parts of Alabama ; while another southerly line 
passes through North and South Carolina. By cutting the former of 
these roads at Cumberland Gap, reinforcements and supplies could not 
be brought from the southwest for General Lee ; neither could Lee aid 
General Bragg's army at Murfreesboro'. By cutting the second the 
most direct communication between Richmond and the principal cities 
of the Confederate States was destroyed. 

When General Rosecrans was preparing to move from Nashville to 
attack the Confederate army at Murfreesboro', an expedition was sent 
into East Tennessee to destroy the railroad, and so prevent reinforcements 


from Hiclimond from reaching General I'ragg. General Carter with a 
force of one thousand cavalry left L)ndon in Kentucky, December 21st, 
and entering Virginia Ictwecn Cumberland Gap and Pound Gap, advanced 
within six miles of Uristol, burned the bridges across the Ilalston and 
Wataugo rivers, and took up portions of the track, destroying the rails 
for a distance of one hundred miles, almost to Jonesboro'. They cap- 
tured five hundred prisoners, seven hundred stand of arms, and a large 
amount of stores. They reached Manchester, Kentucky, on the Gth of 
January, having lust only ten men in their hazardous but successful eu- 

The expedition against the second line of railroads was undertaken iu 
North Carolina, and forms the only subsequent military movement of im- 
portance in addition to those hitherto described in the department during 
the year. It was a march against Goldsborough and the destruction of 
the railroad at that place, which is the line connecting Charleston and 
Savannah with llichmond. 

General J. G Foster, who commanded the department after the de- 
parture of General IJurnside, took charge of the expedition. 

The force consisted of four brigades under Colonels Wessels, Amory 
Stevenson and Lee ; the Third New York and First Uhode Island bat- 
teries ; also sections of the Twenty-third and Twenty-fourth New York 
Independent batteries, and the Third New York cavalry. It left Nev7- 
beru on the morning of December 11, and moved on the Kingston roud 
fourteen miles. Soma parts of the road were obstructed by felled trees. 
On the next morning it advanced to the Vine Swamp road, having some 
sharp skirmishing with a small Confederate force. At this point three 
companies of cavalry were sent up the Kingston road as a demonstration, 
and the main force took the Vine Swamp road, thereby avoiding the ob- 
slruction-^ and the Confederate forces. It was delayed to build the 
bridge over Beaver creek, where the Fifty-first Massachusetts and a sec- 
tion of artillery were left to hold it, and support the cavalry on the maiu 
road, and halted at a distance of four miles. 

The next morning the main column advanced, turning to the left, and 
leaving the road it was upon to the right. At the intersection the Forty- 
sixth Massachusetts and a section of a battery were left as a feint and to 
hold the position. 

On reaching Southwest ercek a Confederate force was found posted 
on the opposite bank, about four hundred strong, and with three pieces 
of nrtlllcry. The creek was not fordable, and ran at the foot of a deep 
ravine. Under the protection of a battery the Ninth New Jersey 
effected a passage and formed on the '..pposite bank, where it was after- 
ward supported by the Eighty-fifth Pennsylvania. This caused the Con- 
federate force to retire with some skirmishing. 


On the next day an advance upon Kinston was made, and the Confed- 
erate force found posted in a strung position about one mile from the 
place. An attack was at once made with the Ninth New Jersey in 
advance, and the position taken. The Confederate force retired across 
the Neuse river, with a loss of four hundred prisoners. On cros.sing, 
the bridge was set on fire, but soon extinguished by the advance of Geii- 
eral Foster. The bridge was immediately repaired, and the column 
crossed, and occupied the town of Kinston. With constant skirmishing, 
the force of General Foster continued to advance until the ITtli, when it 
reached Goldsborough. Here it burned two trestle-work culverts, de- 
stroyed a train of four railroad cars, water station, depot, etc., and somo 
small arms which it was unable to carry off. After destroying other 
bridges, and capturing some small positions that had been occupied by a 
Confederate force, the expedition successfully returned to Newbern. 

These expeditions, although successful, secured no important advan- 
tages, as the great movement on llicbmond had, in the mean time, been 
suspended. They were useful reconnoissances, and the former may have 
delayed the arrival of reinforcements- from General Lee to General Bragg 
before the battle of Murfreesbero'. 

On the 6th of September a body of Confederate troops surprised the 
garrison at Washington in the department of North Carolina. A vigor- 
ous resistunce was made, and the attacking party was repulsed with a 
loss of thirty-three killed, and nearly one hundred wounded. The Fed- 
eral loss was eight killed, and thirty-three wounded. 

UCTOBEK 23, 18G3. 

A severe engagement occurred on this day in the Department of the 
South, where the military operations of the year, not previously detailed, 
had been unimportant. General Mitchel, the renowned man of science 
and brilliant commander, whose untimely death at a short subsequent 
period, filled the whole country with sorrow, was at that time commander 
of the department. An expedition was sent out from Port Royal to de- 
stroy the trestle work bridges of the Charleston and Savannah railroad 
across the Pocotalico, Tullifinny, and Coosawhatchie, tributaries of the 
'Broad river, and to make a recounoissance of these streams. The expe- 
dition was under the command of Generals Brannan and Terry. The 
main body of the troops was landed at .^lackey's Point, about fifteen miles 
from the railroad, and marched seven miles inland, where the Confeder- 
ates were mel in force. After a sharp fight of an hour they retired to a 


point two miles distant, and made a second stand. From this point flicy 
again fell back to the vilhi^'o of Pocotalico, and having burned the lung 
bridge across the stream, they were inaccessible. 

Miunwliile Colonel Barton, with three hundred and fifty men, pene- 
trated to the railroad at Coosawhatchie, and destroyed some of the rails, 
cut the telegraph wires, and fired upon a train containing troops. The 
engagement by tht- main force was severe, and the Federal loss was 
thin^-two killed, and one hundred and eighty wounded. The Union 
force retired on the next day, having failed in the object of the expedi- 
tion, except the reconnoissance. 

August 5, 1SG3. 

Another important engagement took place on the above date, which 
our general plan will not permit us to engross in its historical connec- 
tion. On the 5th of August an attack was made on I>atuu llouge, in the 
Department of the Gulf, which was under the government of General IJut- 
lor. The Federal force at this city was under command of JJrigidicr- 
General Williams. The Confederate army making the attack was under 
tlie command of General John C. Breckinridge. The contest was sharp 
and bloody, and the attack was successfully repulsed. The Federal loss 
was ninety killed, and two hundred and fifty wounded. Among the 
killed was General Williams. Three hundred of the Confederates were 
reported to have been killed and buried by the furce of General Wil- 
liams. The city was subsequently evacuated on August 16, by com- 
mand of General Butler. 

General Williams was a graduate of West Point, and an officer of 
great merit and promise. He was a native of Connecticut, but received 
his appointment in the army from Michigan. 


Early in April, 18G2, General Ilallock having departed for Corintli, 
Miss., General Schofield was left \vt command of the largest portion of the 
State of Missouri, General Price having been driven, after his disas- 
trous defeat, at Pea Ridge, to a point south of the Boston Mountains, 
where he remained, no longer pursued by the troops of General (yuriis, 
in the hope of obtaining reiufyrccaiorit.s, and recovering from his losses. 


On the 5th of April a rimior that General Price was moving ufon 
GpriiigGeld, Jlissuuri, caused General Curtis to march in that direction. 
During a march of two days his army accomplished thirty-eight miles, 
and reached the junction of Fhit Hock with the James River. The 
river could not be crossed at that point ; but a crossing was subsequently 
eflcctcd at Galena. In another march of two days, after a heavy rain 
storm, twenty nine miles were accomplished; and the rebels, under Gen- 
eral Price were found to be encamped on the other side of the river 
about five miles farther south. 

No engagement took place between the two armies. All remained 
quiet in Missouri for some weeks. 

On June 3d ihe State Convention met : the financial condition of the 
State was found to be in a very unsettled condition ; and the civil condi- 
tion not much better. Although in many parts of tiie State courts of 
justice were open and the laws properly administered, in many other 
parts every species of disturbance and crime was perpetrated under the 
name of guerrilla warfare. 

From this time till the middle of the month the Convention was 
variously occupied in receiving and passing bills, in repealing ordinances, 
&c. On the IGtli a Mass Convention of emancipationists assembled at 
Jefferson City. Immediately after the dissolution of the two Conven- 
tions the State was threatened by an unusually terrible guerrilla out- 
break. The largest part of the National forces being absent, the guer- 
rillas, consisting in most part of the returned troops of General Price, 
fjlt themselves safe in repeating the raids of the previous year. 

General Schofiold on June 22d issued an order holding rebels and 
rebel sympathizers responsible in their property, and, if need be, in 
their persons, for damages thereafter committed by guerrillas or marau'l- 
ing parties. This order produced no lasting effect. About the middle 
of July the entire northern and western parts of Missouri were con- 
stantly disturbed by intelligence of guerrilla raids and outrages. Col- 
onel Porter and Colonel Qaantrell had already began to gather followers 
about them ; but the former had been defeated at Cherry Grove in 
Schuyler County, and his band dispersed. The increasing rumors of 
raids, and a general fear that the guerrilla -aprising would be followed 
by another invasion from the south made vigorous measures necessary 
for defence. On the 2'id July the Governor of the State, H. R. Gamble, 
issued an order authorizing Urigader-General Schofield " to organize the 
entire militia of the State into companies, regiments, and brigades ; and 
to order into active service such portions of the force thus organized as 
he might judge necessary for the purpose of putting down all marauders 
and defending peaceable citizens of the State." On the same day Gen- 
eral Scholield issued the necessary orders ; and the militiu was organized 

op::k.vtiox3 in misoOuui. 125 

nipidly and energetically ; so that the State \va3 soon prepared at all 
j.iiiits f.ji- u vi^'orous opposition to guerrilhi attacks. Colonels Purler 
and Cobb, rebel commanders, attempting a raid, were defeated, July 23th, 
in Callowiiy County ; but on the 31st Colonel Porter captured Newark in 
Knox County, and took prisoners two comj/anics of National troops. 
About the same time, and during the Crst week in August a new guer- 
rilla leader, Colonel Poindcxter, sprang into notice in the central Mis- 
souri Cotintic"', and, together with Q;iautrell i# the Vv'est, caused the Na- 
tional commanders to take addili.jnal precautions to repel the daring 

On the Gth of August, Colonel Porter was defeated with great loss by 
Colonel McNeill at Kinksvillo, in Adair county. The warfare was now 
shifted to the central and western portions of Missouri ; and Colonel 
Coffee and Cjlonel McBride went to the assistance of QuantrelL 

On the l.'Uh, an attack was made by threo guerrilhv bands ; in which 
the National troops were severely defeated. On the 15;h, eight hun- 
dred men of the State militia were drawn into an amnush by Colonel.3 
Q:iantrell end Coffee, but were rc-cued by reinforcements from Kansas^ 
undjr Crcncral Blunt. 

No =ooner was the southwest cleared of guerrillas, than their raids 
upon the north were renewed with great activity. The town of Palmyra 
was plundered by a gang of these marauders on the liith of August, the 
Union garrison there being overpowered. It was at (his time that the 
rebels seized the person of Andrew Allsman, a Unionist, and an old and 
much respected resident of Palmyra. Subsequently, when tlie Unionistii 
again occupied Palmyra, General McNeill demanded the return of Alls- 
man, within ten days from the 8th of October, on peril of the lives of ten 
rebel prisoners. The man was not returned, and, on the ISih of October, 
ten rebel prisoners were publicly shot at Palmyra. Long before this the 
State had been cleared of guerrillas. Quantrell made some trouble, in 
the month of September, but he was speedily defeated and chased across 
the border. An election took place in Missouri, in November, resulting 
in victory to the emancipation wing of the Union p;irty. The State was 
thus pledged to the Government. The war-cloud iirif(.ed away from it, 
and from that time to this it has been loyal and free. 



A general review of the naval operutions to the close of the 3'car 1862, 
not heretofore described iu the first volume of this work, will now be 
given, whith we will preface by a description, and the names of the cora- 
mandors of the several squadrons. 

The North Atlantic squadron was under command of Rcar-Admiral 
L M. Guldsborough until September 5th, at which time he was succeed- 
ed by Acting llear-Adniiral S. P. Loc. The Virginia and North Carolina 
coasts were assigned to this squadron. The South Atlantic squadron, 
blockading the coasts of South Carolina, Georgia, and the north-east 
coast of Florida, was commanded by Rear-Admiral S. F. Diipont. The 
Eastern Gulf squadron was under Acting Roar-Admirals Lardiier and 
Bailey, and the Western Gulf squadron was commanded by Pwear-Admiral 
Farragut. The western flotilla on the Mississippi, was under command 
of Rear-Admiral A. H. Foote from May 9th to October 15th, at which 
date Rear Admiral D. D. Porter succeeded him. The Potomac fl(jtilla 
was commanded by Commodore Harwood, and the James river flotilla 
was under Commodore Wilkes. 

May 15, 18G-2. 

The destruction of the rebel iron-clad Merrimac threw open the James 
river to the gunboats of Commodore Goldsborough ; and on the loth of 
May, the iron-clads Galena, Monitor and Naugatuck, ascended to Ward's, 
on Drury's Blufi", about eight miles below Richmond, where they en- 
countered a heavy battery and two separate barriers formed of piles and 
sunken vessels. The banks of the river were lined with sharpshooters, 
who efTectually prevented any attempt to remove the obstructions. The 
Galena ran within about six hundred yards of the battery, and opened 
fire ; the Monitor attempted to pass ahead of her, but found her heavy 
guns ineffective at close range, as they would not admit of sufl&cient ele- 
vation to bear on the position of the enemy. The Aroostook and Port 
Royal, wooden vessels, were attached to the flotilla, but, of course were 
not adapted to an attack on fortifications of this nature, though they 
bravely took part in the distance. 

After an engagement of over three hours, the Federal vessels were 
compelled to relinquish the attack, without having produced any apparent 
effect upon the battery. The Naugatuck was disabled by the bursting 


of her lOOpounJ Parrott rrnn, and the Monitor was struck several ♦inies 
but rcecived no injury. The Galena was not so fortunate. Tliir*een 
shot penetrated her iron sides, startini( the knees, planks, and timbers, 
and killing or woundin;^ about twenty-five of her crew. Commodore 
Morris of the Port Royal was wounded in tlie engagement. 

The gunboat Ellis, Lieutemnt W. P. Gushing, captured the town of 
Onslow, on Now River Inlet, N. C., on November 23r(l, destroying the 
salt works and securing three schooners and ten whale boats. The Ellis 
ran agro;ind and was blown up by her commander, who scoured bis 
prizes witho'it loss. 

May to Dec ember, 18G2. 

Commander Palmer of the Iroquois, took possession of Paton Rou'^e 
on May 7th, which place was subsequently occupied by the military 
forces under General Williams. 

After the brilliant operations of the United States naval forces under 
Commodore Farragut which resulted in the capture of New Orleans, im- 
mediate steps were taken by that commander to ascend the river, and 
occupy such positions as would enable him to cooperate with important 
army movements then in contemplation. Seven vessels were sent up 
the Mississippi under Captain Craven, while the smaller steamers under 
Captain Lee were ordered to ascend as high as Vicksburg. 

Commander S. P. Lee with the advance of the squadron, arrived near 
Vicksburg, May 18, and in reply to his demand for surrender, received 
a defiant refusal. FlagOfficer Farragut arrived a few days afterwards, 
accompanied by a column of troops under General "Williams. A<lditional 
naval forces soon afterwards arrived, including Commodore Porter's 
mortar fleet, which had done much effective service in the reduction of 
Forts Jackson and St. Philip, at the mouths of the river. Porter opened 
the bombardment on the night of June 26-27, directing fire partly 
against the town and partly against some formidable batteries on the 
heights. On the morning of the 27th, the Owasco, Lieutenant Guest, 
ran up abreast of the town and threw in some incendiary shells, which 
failed to explode. At three o'clock on the morning of the 28th the 
squadron made a move to pass the batteries, the mortar fleet supporting 
them as at the battle of Forts Jackson and St Philip, The Hartford 
and several other vessels succeeded in parsing the range of batteries, 
which extended full three miles, and did this loo in the face of a strong 
current, but as there was not a sufficient land force to cooperate in the 
attack, no substantial benefit resulted from the movement. The enemy 


were several times Jrivon from their batteries, but returned to tLcir 
guns as soou as the ships had passed. 

Forming a junction with the western aunboat flotilla of Flnir-Officer 
C. 11. Davis, Farragiit concertod with that officer and General Williams 
an expedition up the Yazoo River, consisting of the gunboats Carondclet 
and Tyler, and the ram Queen of the West, strengthened by sharp- 
shooters from the army. Tliey started on the morning of July 15, 
and near the mouth of the river encountered the Confederate ram 
Arkansas. A severe fight ensued, in which both the Carnndelot and the 
Tylor were partially disiblod, and the Arkansas then entered the Mis- 
sissippi and passing boldly th-ough the surprised fleets of Farragut and 
Davis, took refuge under the guns of Yick.sburg. 

Farragut now determined to repass the batteries for the double pur- 
pose of supporting the rest of his squadron nnd destroying the Arkansas 
in passing ; to assist in which Fiag-Officer Davis added to his force the 
ram Sumter, Lieutenant Commanding Erben. Toward evening, Davis 
opened a bombardment, for the purpose of covering the movement, and 
Captain Farragut succeeded in getting below Yicksburg again witli little 
loss of life, but his designs against the Arkansas were defeated by the 
darkness of the night. 

On the 22d, Commander W. D. Porter, with the iron-clad gunboat 
Essex, and Lieutenant-Colonel Ellet, with the ram Queen of the West, 
made another attempt to destroy the Confederate vessel, but the attack- 
though executed with great gallantry under the fire of the batteries, did 
not succeed. The Essex ran down to Farragut's fleet, and Farragut 
having been instructed by the navy department to drop down the river 
before the water got too low, it was arranged that Commander W. D. 
Porter should remain below Yicksburg with the Essex and Sumter. 

On the 28th of July, Farragut arrived at New Orleans, leaving the 
Katahdin and Kineo at Baton Rouge. On tbc 5'h of August, the Con- 
federates made a vigorous land attack upon the latter place, which was 
repulsed after a severe contest. The gunboats were not able to assist 
until toward the close of the action, when they threw their shells directly 
into the midst of the enemy with great eirect. The Arkansas had 
dropped down the river to take part in the attack, but was not brought 
into action, one of her engines having broken down. The next morning. 
Porter, who was then at Eaton Rouge with the Es-ex, moved up to attack 
her, but before the fight had fairly begun her other engine gave way, and 
.'-he wns run ashore, abandoned, and set on fire by the crew. About an 
hour afterward she blew up. On the 11th, Farragut sailed for Ship 
Island and Pensacola, which latter place, having been evacuated by the 
Confederates, was now made the depot of the Y^estern Gulf Squadron. 

Commander W. D. Porter remained at Baton Rouge until August 23, 


wlion, the town having beon evacuated by the Federal troops, he pro- 
ceeded up the river to reconnoitre batteries reported in progress at 
Port Hudson, and thence ascended to Bayou Saia to obtain cual, where 
his boat's crew was fired upon by guerrillas. Some of the buildings were 
thereupon burned, and a few days afterward, as the firing was repeated, 
I lie rest of the place wus destroyed. Afterwards a boat's crew from tlie 
Essex, sent ashore at Natchez to procure ice for the sick, was attacked, 
by some two hundred armed citizens, one of the sailors being killed, and 
an officer and five men wounded. Commander Porter immediately 
opened fire on the town, set a number of houses in flames, and continued 
the bombardment for an hour, after which the mayor surrendered. On 
her way down to New Orleans, the Essex had a brisk engagement, on 
September 7th, with the Port IIud.son batteries. 

In the mean time, several vessels of Captain Farragut's squadron had 
been employed on the coast of Texas, where acting volunteer Lieutenant 
J. W. Kittredge, with the bark Arthur, the little steamer Sachem, and a 
launch, captured Corpus Christi, after several spirited engagements with 
the enemy's batteries, but was unable to hold the town, and was himself 
made prisoner, September 14, while on shore exploring. 

On September 2G, Acting Master Crocker, with the steamer Kensing- 
ton and schooner Rachel Seaman, and Acting Master Pennington, with 
the mortar schooner Henry Janes, captured Sabine Pass, taking a 
battery of four guns without loss. 

On the 4th of October, Commander W. B. Renshaw, with the steamers 
Westfiold, Harriet Lane, Owasco, and Clifton, and the mortar schooner 
Ilenry Janes, captured the defences of the harbor and city of Galveston 
without the loss of a man. The resistance was feeble : the first shell 
from the Owasco burst immediately over a heavy 10-inch Columbiad 
mounted on Fort Point, causing a panic in the fort, and depriving the 
defenders of their main reliance. 

Toward the end of October, Lieutenant Commander T. McKcan 
Buchanan, with the steamers Calhoun, Estrella, Kinsman, and Diana, 
and the transport St. Mary's, ha\ ing on board the Twenty-first Indiana 
regiment, was sent to the Atchafalaya river. La., to cooperate with a 
land force under General Weitzel. On Nov. 1, near Brashear City, he 
captured the 'Confederate despatch boat A. B. Seger, and the next day 
had an engagement with an iron-clad gunboat and .some land batteries on 
the Bayou Teche. The batteries were silenced, but the gunboat, being 
behind a row of obstructions across the channel, escaped up the river. 
Lieutenant Commander Buchanan then returned to Brashear City to 
repair damages. On the Gth, the Kinsman discovered and burned two 
steamers in one of the small bayous in the neighborhood. 

Early in August, an expedition was concerted between Flag-OfEcer 

130 THE WAliVuR TirK UNION. 

Davis and General Curtis, which moved up the Yazoo, and captured a 
battery of heavy guns, field pieces, munitions of war, &c., besides taking 
the Cunfodorato transport Fairplay, loaded with one thousund two 
hundred Enfield rifles, four thousand new muskets, four field guns, 
mounted howitzers, small arms, a quantity of fixed ammunition, &c. 

On the 2Gth of September, the ram Queen of the West and two trans- 
ports having been fired into by the Confederates at Prentiss, Miss., the 
town was shelled and burned. 

On Deceniber 13th the gunboat Cairo, while ascending the Yazoo, was 
blown up by a torpedo, and sank in fifteen minutes after the explosion. 
It is remarkable that none of the crew were killed, or even seriously 


.Tanuauy 2G, 1803. 

After the disastrous battle of Fredericksburg, General Burnside's 
army remained inactive at Falmouth for several weeks. The Army of 
the Potomac was then as strong in numbers as it had over been. An 
important movement on the 2Gth of January was frustrated by a severe 
storm, and the army after marching fifteen miles, was compelled to return 
to its original position. General Burnside then tendered the resignation 
of his command to the President, which was accepted. 

On the 26th of January, 18G3, the command of the Army of the Poto- 
mac was transferred from General Burnside to General Hooker. On 
the same day, Generals Sumner and Franklin were removed from the 
command of the right and left divisions of the army. 

At this period the extreme cold rendered it impossible for any move- 
ment to be made cither by the Army of the Potomac or by its opponent, 
at Fredericksburg. Occasional rebel raids, and cavalry movements were 
the only operations taking place on either side. The cavalry of the enemy 
made a raid, marked with considerable success, as far inside the Union 
lines as Fairfax Court-House, in Virginia. This occurred about March 
12th, and the rebels carried off Brigadier-General Stoughton, whom they 
surprised in bed, besides capturing a detachment from his brigade, with 
horses and other property. 

Five days later, a sharp fight took place between a body of cavalry, 
under General Averill, and a force of the enemy's cavalry, near Kelly's 
ford. Nothing more of special interest transpired until April 13th, 
when an expedition of cavalry, artillery and infantry, from the Federal 
army proceeded in detachments to Bealton, Warrenton, llappahannock, 
and Liberty, with Major-General Stoneman in command. Thence, Gen- 


eral Stonoman moved to the Rapidan ford's, and took possession of them; 
these operations being in advance of a grand movement to cross the 
Eiippahanuock, and attack (ieiieral Lee on the opposite side. 

May 1, 1«03. 

The storms whicli ensued prevented active movements b}- General 
Stoncman until the 29th of April. On that day he crossed at Kelly's 
Ford. The division of (ieneral Averill moved to the Orange and Alex- 
andria railroad, and encountered two regiments of the enemy, who re- 
tired towards Cordonsville. Thence he proceeded to Culpeper, and 
dispersed a force of the rebels there, capturing their rear guard, and 
seizing a large amount of flour, salt, and bacon. The enemy were pur- 
sued by way of Cedar Mountain toward the Rapidan. Here he received 
a di.spatch from General Stoneman, desiring him to push the enemy as 
vigorously as possible, and keep him occupied. On the 1st, scoutin"' 
parties were sent up and down on both sides of the Rapidan. On the 
2d, orders were received by him to join General Hooker at United 
States Ford, at once. 

General Stoneman, after crossing at Kelly's Ford, moved the main 
body of his command across Fleshman's creek, and encamped for the 
niL'ht in an open field On the next clay, the 3d, General TJuford crossed 
the Rapidan, two miles below Racoon Ford, and drove a body of infantry 
from t,he ford, where General Gregg crossed later in the day. A 
lieutenant and thirteen privates of an artillery company were captured 
here. At night, the whole force bivouacked one mile from the river. 
On the next day the march was commenced, and at Orange Sprinor, 
a force of the enemy, approaching by railroad, barely escaped capture. 
That night, the command encamped at Greenwood, one mile from Louisa 
Court House, through which the Virginia Central railroad passes, con- 
necting Gordonsville with Richmond. On the next day. the 2d of Mav, 
a squadron of the Tenth New York, under Colonel Irwin, was sent five 
miles above the town, and another of the same regiment, under Major 
Avery, was sent the same distance below, to destroy the track of 
the road, while Colonel Kilpatrick took possession of the town. The 
track was torn up for some distance, the telegraph cut, and some 
commissary stores seized. In the afternoon, the command moved 
to Thompson's Four Corners. From this place, as headquarters, .-several 
expeditions were sent out. On the next morning, Colonel Wyndham 
proceeded to Columbia, on the James river, where the Lynchburg 


nnd Riclimond Canal crosses the river. An unsucccessful attempt wag 
made to tlcstroy tlie aqueduct. Five locks were injured, three canal 
boats, loaded with coniniissary stores, and five bridges, were burned, and 
the canal lock cut in several places. A large quantity of commissary 
stores and medicines in the town were also destroyed. Another detach- 
ment, under Captain Drummond, of the Fifth United States Cavalry, de- 
stroyed the bridge over the James river, at Centre ville. Other small 
parties were sent out in different directions, and some skirmishing took 
place with small parties of the enemy. At the same time, a force, con- 
sisting of tlie Tenth New York and First Maine, with two pieces of artil- 
lery, was sent out under General Gregg, to destroy the railroad bridge 
at Ashland, while Colonel Kilpatrick, with the Harris Light, and Twelfth 
Illinois, Lieutenant-Colonel Davis, were to go between Ashland >nd 
Eichmond, destroying the railroad, bridges, &c. General Gregg de- 
stroyed the railroad bridge across the South Anna, on the road from 
Columbia to Spottsylvania ; thence he moved east, and destroyed the 
road to Beaver Dam Station. He then turned north to the llich- 
mond and Gordonsville turnpike, sending out a detachment to burn 
the Ground Squirrel bridge. That night he bivouacked eight miles 
from Ashland. A detachment sent out to burn the bridge at Ashland 
found it too strongly defended. Some portions of the railroad track, 
however, were destroyed, Leaving Colonel Kilpatrick and Lieutenant- 
Colonel Davis, General Gregg returned on the next day to General 
Stonenian. On the night of the 4th, General Gregg moved near Yaucey- 
ville, and was followed the nest day by General Stoncman and G-eneral 
Buford's command. On the 5th, the retrogade movement commenced, 
and crossing Racoon Ford, on the Rapidan, the command arrived at 
Kelley's Ford on the North Fork. Meantime, the advance of Colonel 
Kilpatrick was made, and thus subsequently reported by him : 

"By direc ions from Major-General Stoiieman, I left Louisa Court 
House on the morning of the 3d instant, with one regiment (the Harris 
Light Cavalry) of my brigade ; reached Hungary, on the Fredericksburg 
railroad, at daylight on the 4th •, destroyed the depot and telegra]ih 
wires and railroad for several miles ; passed over to Brook turnpike, 
drove in the rebel pickets ; down the pike, across the brook, charged 
a battery, and Ibrced it to retire within two miles of the city of Rich- 
mond ; captured Lieutenant Brown, aiJ-de-camp to General Winder, and 
eleven men within the fortifications ; passed down to the left of the 
Meadow bridge on the Chickahoniiu}', which I burned ; ran a train of cars 
into the river ; retired to Hanovertown on the peninsula ; crossed and 
destroyed the ferry boat just in time to check the advance of a pursuing 
cavalry force ; burned a train of thirty wagons loaded with bacon; cap- 


tnr jd thirteen prisoners, and encamped for the night five miles from the river. 

" I resumed my march at 1 r. m. of the 5th ; surprised a furce of three 
huii'lred cavalry at Aylett's ; captured two officers and thirty-three men ; 
burned fifty-six wagons, the depot, containing upwards of twenty thou- 
sand bushels of corn and wheat, quantities of clothing and commissary 
stores, and safely crossed the Mattapouy, and destroyed the ferry again 
just in time to escape the advance of the rebel cavalry pursuit. Late in 
the evening I destroyed a third wagon train and depot a few miles above 
and west of the Tappaliannock on the Rappahannock, and from that poiit 
made a forced march of twenty miles, being closely pursued by a 
superior force of cavalry, supposed to be a portion of Stuart's, from tLe 
fact that we captured prisoners from the Eighth, First, and Tenth 
Virginia cavalry. At sundown di.>«covered a force of cavalry drawn up 
in line of battle about King and Queen Court House. Their stren"th 
was unknown, but I at once advanced to the attack, only to discover, 
however, that they were friends — a portion of the Tenth Illinois cavalrv, 
who hr.d become separated from the command of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Davis, of the same regiment. 

" At ten A. M,, on the 7th, I found safety and rest under our own brave 
old flag within our lines at Gloucester Point. This raid and march 
around the entire rebel army — a march of nearly two hundred miles — 
has been made in less than five days, with a loss of one officer and thirty- 
sevrn men, having captured and paroled upwards of three hundred men." 

At the same time, Lieuteuant-Colimcl Davis, of the Twelfth Illinois, 
was ordered to penetrate to the Fredericksburg railroad, and, if possible, 
to the Virginia Central, and destroy communications. If he crossed the 
Virginia Central he was to make for Williamsburg on the peninsula. 
Leaving the main body on the South Anna, on Sunday, M:iy od, he 
parsed down the bunk of that river, burning a bridge, and, dispersing a 
mounted party of the enemy, struck the railroad at Ashland. Here he 
cut the telegraph, tore up some rails, and burned the trestle-work 
bridge south of the town. At the same time a train of cars, tilled with 
sick and wounded, arrived, and was captured. The prisoners were 
paroled, and the locomotives disabled. Twenty wagons, with horses, 
were destroyed, and several horses taken. Leaving at 6 p m., a train of 
eighteen wagons was met and destroyed, and Hanover Station reached at 
8 p. M. Here thirty prisoners AVcre captured, and the railroad line 
broken. The depot, storehouses, and stables, filled with government 
property, were destroyed, also a culvert and trestlcwork south of the 
station. Among the property destroyed were more than one hundred 
wagons, a thousand sacks of flour and corn, and a large (juantity of 
clothing and horse equipments. The command then moved down within 
seven miles of Ilichmond, and thence marched to Williamsburg, and 


then proceeded to Gloucester Point, having destroyed property of the 
eneuiy valued at a milliou dollars. Colonel Davis's loss was thirty -five men. 


The weather now became very inclement ; and storms succeeded each 
other f.>r several days. It was not till the 27th that the movemeut to 
cross the R:ipp;>hannock was finally effected. 

General Ilor.kor's army nuinhe-ed about one hundred and twenty 
thousand men, who were divided into seven separate corps. The army 
of General Lee numbered about seventy thousand men ; it held a line 
running from northwest to southeast, with its right wing extending to Port 
Hudson on the Rappahannock, and its left resting above Fredericksburg. 

General Hooker's plan of attack was as follows : three corps were 
massed below Fredericksburg, and, crossing the river at West Point, 
were to make a feint attack upon the enemy ; having duDC this, the two 
corps were to return instantly, and join the remaining four coips, and 
with them recross rhe river at ten or twenty miles above Fredeiicks- 
burg, thus moving down upon the left of the enemy ; and, according to 
General Hooker's idea, forcing the rebels to a battle outside their iu- 
trenchments, which would compel them to fall back on llichmond. The 
following description will give a clear idea of the position, at that time, 
of the Army of the Potomac : Falmouth, the position occupied by Gene- 
ral Hooker's army, is nearly opposite Fredericksburg on the north 
bank of the Rappahannock. About twelve miles above, the Rapidan, a 
small river, unites with a stream hitherto called the North Fork, to form 
the Rappahannock. Lately, however, the North Fork had been called 
the Rappahannock, and the Rapidan had been spoken of as a tributary. 

The United States Ford is about one mile below the mouth of the 
Rapidan. Banks's Ford is about midway between the United States 
Ford anl Fahmmth. Kelly's Ford, where the four corps crossed the 
North Fork, or the Rapidan, as it was now called, is about twenty miles 
above Falaiouth. Gcrniauia Ford, where the same force crossed the 
Rapidan, is about twelve miles south of Kelly's Ford, at a place calied 
Gerinania Mills. 

On Monday morning, April 27th, three corps under Major-General 
Howard, Major-General Slocum, and Mnjor-General Meade, marched to 
Kelly's Ford, which was reached on the afternoon of the following day, 
by General Howard, who was in advance. Porti/os of the Seventy-third 
Pennsylvania, and One Hundred and Fifty fourth New York, amounting 
to two hundred and fifty men, crossed in boats, and took position on the 

hooker's advance. 135 

opposite side of the river. No enemy was to be found, except a few 
pickets, who retired before the skirini.shers sent out to reconnoitre. Dur- 
ing the evening the remainder of General Howard's corps crossed the 
river ; General Slocum's bivouacked on the shore, and General Meade's 
crossed the river some miles further down. On Wednesday morning 
General Slocum's corps also crossed over ; and on Thursday the last day 
of April, the three corps advanced to Chancellorsville, and were massed 
at night at the point where the Culpeper road joins the Orange Court- 
Ilouse road. General Hooker arrived there at nightfall, and made the 
place his headquarters. On the 29th the second corps under eonnnand 
of General Couch, had taken up a position five miles above Fredericks- 
burg, at ]>aaks's Ford. General Sliernian's cavalry was sent to cut off 
the railwav communication between General Lee's army and Richmond. 
I^Ieanwliile, the remaining tliree corps of the army under Major-Generals 
Sickles, Sedgwick, and lleynolds, had left camps on 3Ionday night, and 
taken up i position two miles below Fredericksburg. On Tuesday morn- 
ing, one division of General Sedgwick's corps crossed the river at this 
point ; and one division of General Keynolds' corps crossed about a mile 
urther down. General Sickles' corps was detached from the remaining 
two on Wednesday, and ordered to join General Hooker at Clianccllorsville. 

This was the position of General Hooker's army on Friday, May 1st. 

With the exception of some slight skirmishing, which took place at 
the seizure of the Fords, there was, up to this time, no fighting. It was 
impossible to judge at what time, or from what direction, the enemy 
would first advance ; but every possible preparation was made to guard 
a^xainst a surprise. At two o'clock in the afternoon, a large force of the 
enemy was discovered approaching from an easterly direction, and com- 
ing along what had been a turnpike road ; and also along a planked road. 
Both tliese roads entered Ghancpllorsville at right angles; and joining, 
form one direct road from a building called Tabernacle Church. General 
Hooker, who had himself headed a cavalry party for the purpose of recon- 
noitring, immediately on learning of the enemy's appro.ach returned to his 
h'-adquartcrs at Chancellorsville, and made ready to meet them. It be- 
ing uncertain from which of two points, the south and east, the enemy's 
attack would be made, both points were intrenched against them. Gen- 
eral Meade's corps was formed on the front, facing the east ; the division 
of regulars occupying a point north of the old turnpike road, and the 
other two divisions placed to the left of U|is on line of Bank's Ford 
road. A division of General Sickles' cor^^ under General Berry, sup- 
ported the left wing of this line ; and General Couch's corps support(,'d 
the right wing. General Howard's and General Slocum's corps were 
placed iu front, at the side ficing the south. General Slocum's corps be- 
ing formed in double column, with its left resting on the plank road ; 


nnd General Howard formed in line on the right of it. As supports for 
tins lino, the two remaining divisions of General Sickles' corps were 
ordered up, under General Whipple, and General Birney. 

May 1-4, 18G3. 

The moment of attack had come. Soon the brisk cracking of rifles and 
muskets announced the rebel proximity, and the Union skirmishers, in 
compliance with orders, gradually fell back upon the main line of battle. 
This manoeuvre had the desired effect, and drew forth the enemy in pur- 
suit, yelling and shouting like fiends broken loose. Matters Goon began 
to look serious, for as rebel column followed column, and they advanced 
directly upon General Meade's second division, under General Sykes, it 
seemed as if the small body of Union men would be instantly overwhelmed 
bv the large Confederate force. General Lee was always distinguished 
for his skill in hurling a large force upon his opponents ; and the present 
manoeuvre bade fair to be one of his many successes of the kinJ. 

The rebel force, as it charged out of the woods, was certainly three 
times as large as that of General Sykes ; yet the latter showed no dis- 
position to quail ; but, after giving a moment's glance to satisfy their 
curiosity, every soldier brought his musket to his shoulder, and five 
thousand bullets were sent into the rebel line. Such steadiness appalled 
them. They were unprepared for it. Their front rank quailed before 
it. The sudden thinning of their numbers amazed and frightened them. 
They discharged their pieces recklessly and broke in confusion. But 
there was no flight for them. The heavy bodies behind them, to whom 
the front ranks had been a bulwark, protecting them from the murderous 
volley of the Union regulars, were steady and determined. They 
absorbed the front rank in the second, and still moved forward — firm, 
unshaken, confident. Jleantime the Union men reloaded their pieces, 
and simultaneously a volley was fired from both sides ; and then, from the 
brow above, the Union artillery opened with canister and grape, shooting 
over the heads of the National troops and dealing destruction and confu- 
sion to the enemy. And as the loud cannon continued its work with fear- 
ful rapidity the order was giv^ to " fire at will " — an order that was 
copied by the enemy — and thSpontinuous roar of musketry that followed 
almost deadened the reports of the artillery. It was the first fight of the 
great battle, and for nearly twenty minutes both parties stood firm, as 
though nothing could lead them to give the prestige of a first success to 
the other. But, although outnumbered, General Sykes' division had an 




advantage in tlie support of artillery, wbic"h, while his infantry held tho 
rebels in check, made huge gaps iu their ranks. Still they yelled and 
shouted defiance, and attempted charges and continued their firing, rank 
after rank of them being broken and thrown back in confusion, while 
their officers shouted, and ordered, and stormed, and cursed, in tho vain 
effort to rally them to a persistent, determined charge. They fought 
well. They fought as none I at Americans can fight. But with mus- 
ketry alone they could not contend against both artillery and musketry. 
It was simply murder on the part of their officers to attempt to bold them 
to it ; and tiieir officers began to appreciate tho fact when nearly half 
their column had been placed Jtors dc combat ; and then the order was 
given to retire. 

Shouts and cheers from the Union column proclaimed the enemy's re- 
treat ; and even the Avounded stnggered to their feet, leaning against 
their comrades, and joined in the triumphant cry. But the triumph 
must bo followed up, and pursuit was ordered — an order that was quickly 
and gladly obeyed. For upwards of a mile the victorious troops followed 
closely on the heels of the vanquished rebels ; till, coming upon a second 
line of the enemy, in very strong force, General Sykes deemed it impru- 
dent to contend against new and fresh troops, and gave his men orders 
to retire. 

The rebels immediately prepared to give chase ; but instead of flying 
before the overwhelming numbers of the enemy, General Sykes' men 
wheeled and sent a heavy volley into their ranks, which determined 
them not to follow up tiie chase ; and the much shattered division was 
quietly permitted to retire. Immediately upon the termination of tho 
rebel engagement with Sykes' division. General Lee massed a large body 
of his troops in the woods opposite Sloeum's division ; and with groat 
suddenness came down like an avalanche upon it ; but the troops met it 
bravely, and with a half dozen volleys sent the rebels back. General 
Howard's corps was also engaged on the left with some light skirmishing 
which did not amount to anything serious, although the rebels unmasked 
one battery, and discharged a few shells upon the artillery men at work 
some distance below it. The Union artillery opened in reply ; and the 
enemy immediately withdrew their pieces ; and no further demonstrations 
were made on either side during the remainder of the day. 


Many changes were made in the position of the national forces during 
Friday night. The Second corps was thrown down the Banks's Ford road, 
holding the extreme left of the line, and, with a portion of the Fifth. 
completed the line on the east up to the plank road supported by tho 


Sicond division of tlic third corps (Ccneral Sickles) wliicli was restiti!? on 
tlic direct road to the United Stnes Ford. The Secund division, General 
Geary's, of the the Twelfth (General Slocum) held the left of the Union 
centre, its left resting on the planlc road in front of the head- 
quarters, and extending along the entire front of the field. General 
"Williams' division of the same corps was formed on the right of this 
line, facing to the southwest, its (xtrcmc right resting in the edge of 
the woods facing a little cleared field, situated about two miles south- 
west from headquarters. The Eleventh corps (General Howard) was 
originally directed to take position on the right of General Williams, with 
its right extending as far down towards the WiUlcmess road as consis- 
tent with a proper strengthening of the position. Birney's division of 
the third corps was ordered to take position on the plank road as a re- 
serve both to the Eleventh and Twelfth ; but General Sickles, discover- 
ing an advantageous opening in a cleared lield about a quarter of a mile 
south of the plank road, and a mile and a half west of general head- 
quarters, obtained permission to advance Birney to this place, which 
brought him between the Eleventh and Twelfth corps. At this point he 
deployed ofF to the right around the field, General Williams occupying 
the other side in the opening. In the general disposition of the forces 
for Saturday, both Berry's and Whipple's divisions of the Third corps 
were held in reserve, though Bordan's sliarpshooters were detached 
from the latter's division, for special duty with Birney. 

The First corps (General Sedgwick) had arrived from the loft, and 
were placed on the extreme right, bringing the national lines down in 
that direction, almost to the Bappahannuck river. 

Nor had the enemy been idle during this time ; about midnight it was 
observed by the advanced pickets of the Third and Twelfth corps, that 
large masses of the rebels were being moved in front of the Union line, 
wiih a view to get a position on the right, and flank it. 

At the earliest dawn of morning on Saturday, 2nd of M:iy, the enemy 
executed a manoeuvre to lead the Union generals to the belief that they 
were evacuating, and deceived some of the corps commanders ; but Gen- 
eral Hooker, perceiving that the movement of their wagon trains was 
nothing more than a blind, directed General Sickles to plant a battery 
at a point commanding the moving train, and shell it. This being done, 
the train was thrown into complete disorder, and obliged to move back. 
To obtain the ruad over which the wagon trains had been moving. Gen- 
eral Sickles ordered General Birney to advance his troops and take pos- 
session of a hill opposite the road. This was done after much diflioully. 
Captain Seely's battery, of the Fourth United States artillery ivas 
charged up the hill in such haste as did not leave it even time to procure 
a supply of ammunition. It, however, worked brilliantly, till obliged to 


retire to replenish its caissons. A charge upon the rebel rifle pits was 
now ordered, which resulted in the stoppage of their musketry firing, 
and gave about a hundred of their occupants into the hands of General 
Birney. VN'ith nuieh skirmishing, and now and then severe shelling, the 
advance was continued till Eirniy'.s division occupied the extreme brow 
of the hill. The rebels had been driven back over a mile, and the Fed- 
erals held a most commanding position. After sonding to headciuarters 
many times for reinforcements. General Sickles at last obtained pormi.s- 
sion to advance General Whipple's division to the aid of Gcuerul 

Later, the I'^levcnth corps was directed to advance, and join its flank 
to Birney's right ; the Twelfth was to the left ; and a general advance was 
ordered. The skirmishers of both armies immediately became engaged ; 
the rebels gradually falling back. The soldiers of the Union charged 
boldly upon the rebels, and the engagement immediately became gen- 

The enemy held their ground obstinately, fighting with most determined 
bravery ; as usual, owing to the skillful generalship of the rebel generals, 
the enemy were in greater force thau the Unionists wherever they met, 
altliough the number of Lee's army was greatly inferior to that of 
Hooker. Borne down with heat and fatigue, the national troops began to 
show evidences of faltering. To carry the heights in their present con- 
dition was impossible, and General Williams ordered the retreat of his 
division. But the most painful part of the defeat was yet to come. 

The Eleventh corps, which had been ordered to the right of Birney, 
had moved forward to the position assigned them on his flank. Ono 
brigade succeeded in getting up the hill, and reported by its commander 
to Generals Sickles and Birney. The rest of the corps met the enemy 
under command of General Stonewall Jackson, when about two-thirds of 
the distance up. Here they had a short engagement, in which it does 
not appear they had even so large a force to contend against as that 
which Williams, with his single division, had fought so bravely. Headed 
by their commander the gallant Howard, the German corps charged 
boldly up to the rebel lines. Here they were met, as the rebels often 
met their foe, with shouts of detiance and derision, a determined front, 
and a heavy fire of musketry. The German regiments returned the fire 
for a short time with spirit, manifesting a disposition to fight valiantly. 
I>ut at the time when all encouragement to the men was needed that 
couM be given, some officers of the division fell back to tl c rear, 
leaving their men to fight alone. At the same time General Devens, 
commanding the First division, was unhorsed and badly wounded in the 
foot by a musket-ball. Thus losing at a critical moment the inspiriting 
influence of the immediate presence of their commanders, the men began 


to falter, then to fall buck, and finally broke in a complete route. Gen. 
eral Howard boldly throw himself into the breach and attempted to rally 
the shattered columns ; but his efforts were perfectly futile. The men 
were panic-stricken, and no power on earth could rally them in the face 
of the enemy. 

Information of the catastrophe was promptly communicated to General 
Sickles, who thus had a moment given him to prepare for the shock he 
instantly apprehended his column would suffer. The high land of tho 
little farm that formed the base of his operations was parked full of artil- 
lery and cavalry, nearly all the artillery of the Third corps, together with 
Pleasanton's cavalry, being crowded into that little fifty-acre in closure. 
But Sickles was not to be thrown off his guard by a trifle, and anything 
short of a complete defeat seemed to be considered by him in the light 
of a trifle. With the coolness and skillfulness of a veteran of a hundred 
campaigns he set to work making his dispositions. He had not a single 
regiment within his reach to support his artillery ; Whipple was falling 
back, and must meet the approaching stampede with his own force in re- 
treat ; Birney was far out in the advance, in imminent danger of being 
completely surrounded and annihilated ; the rebel forces were pressing 
hard upon the flying Germans, who could only escape by rushing across 
his lines, with every prospect of communicating the panic to them. It 
was a critical moment indeed, and one that might well stagger even the 
bravest-hearted. But it did not stagger the citizen soldier. Calling to 
the members of his staff, he sent them all off, one after the other, 
lest any one should fail if getting through, to warn Birney of his danger 
and order him to fall back. Then, turning to General Pleasanton, he 
directed him to take charge of the artillery, and train it upon all the 
woods encircling the field, and support it with his cavalry, to hold tho 
rebels in check should they come on him, and himself dashed off to meet 
AVhipple, then just emerging from the woods in the bottom land. He 
had scarcely turned his horse about when the men of Howard's corps 
came flying over the field in crowds, meeting the head of Whi[)ple's 
column, and stampeding through its lines, running as only men do run 
•when convinced that sure destruction is awaiting them. At the same 
moment large masses of the rebel infantry came dashing through the 
woods on the north and west close up to the field, and opened a tremen- 
dous fire of musketry into the confused mass of men and animals. To 
add to the confusion and terror of the occasion, night was rapidly ap- 
proaching, and darkness was already beginning to obscure the .scene. 

That which followed cannot be justly portrayed by the poor aid of 
words. On one hand was a solid column of infantry retreating at double 
quick from the face of the enemy, who were already crowding their rear ; 
on the other was a dense mass of beings who had lost their reasoninor 


faculties, and were flying from a thousand fancied dangers as well as from 
the real danger that crowded so close upon them, agi:ravating the fear- 
fulness of their situation by the very precipitancy with which they were 
seeking to escape from it. On the hill were ten tiiousand of the enemy, 
pouring their murderous volleys in upon the National troops, yelling and 
hooting, to increase the alarm and confusion ; hundreds of cavalry horses 
left riderless at the first discharge from the rebels, were dashing frantic- 
ally about in all directions ; a score of batteries of artillery were thrown 
into disorder, some pr()perly manned, scoking to gain positions for eifec- 
tive duty, and others flying from the field ; battery wagons, ambulances, 
horses, men, cannon, caissons, all jumbled and tumbled together in an 
apparently inextricable mass, find that murderous fire still pouring in 
upon them. To add to the terror of the occasion there was but one 
means of escape from the field, and that through a little narrow neck or 
ravine washed out by Scott's Creek. Toward this the confused mass 
])lunged headlong. For a moment it seemed as if no power could avert 
the frightful calamity that threatened the entire army. That neck 
passed, and this panic-stricken, disordered body of men and animals per- 
mitted to pass down through the other corps of the army, destruction was 
sure. But in the midst of that wildest alarm there was a cool head. That 
calamity was averted by the determined self-possession of Major-General 
Daniel E. Sickles. 

The disastrous flight of the Eleventh corps may here be concluded. 
They did not all fly across Sickles's line. They dispersed and ran in all 
directions, regardless of the order of their going. They seemed pos- 
sessed with an instinctive idea of the shortest and most direct line from 
the point whence they started to the United States Ford, and the majority 
of them did not stop until they had reached it. 

General Birney first learned of the shameful stampede of the German 
corps by the flight of their troops across his lines ; and seeing that 
retreat was inevitable he prepared for it, but found that the rebels had 
gained possession of the road by which he had advanced. He was, 
therefore, obliged to make a road out, which he did by moving quietly 
down into the ravine. This movement was successfully accomplished 
with no further trouble than a slight skirmish with the rebels in the 
ravine ; after which General Birney moved his column out in perfect 
order. General Whipple, with much difllculty, saved his command, 
which was attacked in rear by the rebels, and broken in upon on the 
flank by the demoralized men of the Eleventh. He brought off his 
troops, however, in comparatively good order, and bivouacked for t'ne 
night with Birney and Pleasantoa on a little farm in the wood.s. Tims 
ended the battle of the second day. 



Once more General Hooker formed a new line of battle, which placed 
Geuoral Jleynolds on the extreme right, with his right flank resting ou 
the Rappahannock. General Slucum's corps held the centre, and that of 
General Sickles the left, with its left resting ou the stream called Scott's 

Couch and Meade were left to look after the front towards Frcdericks- 
bursr, while the remnant of the Eleventh was to be used, if it could be 
reorganized, wherever it could be mo.-^t effective. On the previous night, 
during the confusion 01 the stampede. General Berry, of Sickles' corps, 
had moved up the plank road and taken a position just at the edge of tho 
woods, where he met the enemy as they were advancing to complete the 
discomfiture of the right wing, and had hurled them back most effectu- 
ally. He was then ordered to retain the ground he had thus defended, 
which he did most gallantly, and lost his life at the post of duty. 

Precisely at sunrise the rebels advanced with characteristic prompt- 
ncss and courage, upon the two divisions commanded by General Sickles. 
At the same moment, another body pushed down the road towards 
Berry's division, and fell upon it with great violence. Never, on any 
battle field, have men uf any nation fought with more determined bravery 
than did the rebel force on this occasion. It was evident that this 
battle must decide the contest of the campaign between the 
National and the rebel troops. The opposing force of Union men was 
very small ; but they fought with most determined bravery. Although 
they were assailed by a force of twenty thousand men, against whom 
they could oppose only the remains of two brigades under Williams 
and Whipple, numbering not over five thousand in all, there was no fal- 

On the occasion of this Sunday morning attack the colors of the corps 
were still upon the field, as also the corps commander. Their brigade 
colors were also there, and he is but a poor soldier who deserts his flag 
when it is in danger, and there was danger now. 

But it was impossible that they could hold their ground against the 
overwhelming numbers of the enemy ; and after hardly an hour's gallant 
fighting, they were forced to fall back to the shelter of a stone wall, some 
distance in the rear. Here they mnde another bold stand, and soon 
mowed down from the enemy's ranks tenfold the number which 
they had lost from their own. 

Regiment after regiment were completely swept away by their mus- 
ketry and the grape and canister of their artillery, and yet fresh regi- 
ments were as often pushed forward to take tlieir places. At last, gain- 
ing possession of the woods on the right of the stoue wall, the foe got au 


enfihding fire on the heroic patriots, who were eoinpclled to abandon their 
))0.-^itii>n. But if the enemy Lad driven them baek, it hud cost him dearly. 
That little field was strewn all over with the mangled corpses of the sliin 
rchels, telling the silent story of the desperation of the struggle. 

For more than an hour these men had held the rebels in check ; and 
had thus given General Hooker an opportunity to perfect his main lino 
of battle. 

The battle had by this time become general, and raged fiercely in all 

In the mean time the Sixth corps, General Sedgwick, had crossed the 
Rappahannock, and were moving upon Fredericksburg. They carried 
the first line of the rebel intrenchmcnts, and thus obtained a position 
ab;)at six miles from General Hooker. 

On the following morning, Monday the 4th, the rebels appeared in 
strong force upon General Sedgwick's front, and upon the hills to the 
left. About four in the afternoon they moved up to attack ; and although 
the Union artillery opened upon (hem from cvory point, their slow and 
steady advance could not be checked ; and General Sedgwick, after a hob 
and fierce engagement of five hours, was compelled to fall slowly back to 
Banks' Ford, and that same night he recrossed the Ptf.ppahannock. 

Up to this time, from five o'clock in the morning, the de:ifening roar 
of musketry, and the booming of a hundred cannon had known hardly 
any cessation from any point of the bloody field. 

And yet the brave patri'.ts held their position. Could human endur- 
ance do more ? They too, were suffering ; not slain so lavishly as the 
enemy, because sheltered ; but their ranks were sensibly thinning. 
Half past nine o'clock — the column was growing weak ; ten o'clock — the 
work of death still went on. Ten thousand bravo men had closed their 
eyes in death within the past five hours. 

Two thousand an hour slain ! Ten thousand more had been mangled 
and crippled for life. The ratio of deaths to the simply wounded, was 
never equalled in war. One to one. The Unionists mowed the enemy 
down by brigades ; they wounded only by dozens and scores. Could the 
Union men endure the exertion long enough ? Even though the rebels 
did so greatly outnumber them, they should finally be destroyed. But 
the Federal troops were exhausted. 

Half past ten o'clock. The ranks were broken. From sheer fatigue 
the men had given way. One entrance into their rifle pits and the still 
dense masses of the enemy made but short work of clearing them. But 
though repulsed, the Union troops were not disordered. Like veterans, 
every column fell back in order ; and the line was re-established at the 
old brick house, Chancellorsvillc, General Hooker's head-quarters. 

While standing upon the porch of the house General Hooker narrowly 


escaped death from a shell which struck a pillar of the house close 
beside him, and throw him down, completely stunning him for the time. 
A short time afterwards, another shell, striking against the house, 
entered, and exploded. The building was almost instantly in flames ; 
and great numbers of the unfortunate wounded men within it perished in 
the fire. That the rebels had won the day could no lunger be denied ; 
already the necessity of a retreat began to be whispered about, and tho 
position of the National troops, as well as General Hooker's condition oi' 
mind, was far from enviable. The night was a dreary and melancholy 
one ; and the day that followed was anxious and busy. Many fierce 
skirmishes took place ; although no decisive battle was fought t^aroughout 
the day. On Tuesday tho recrossiiig of the river was definitely fixed 
upon ; and the night proving dark and rainy, the humiliating retreat 
began, at ten o'clock, in the midst of gloom and universal despondency. 
The river had risen very much owing to the recent rains. The troops 
reached their old camping-ground on the left bank of the llappahauuock, 
without much difficulty, and without being pursued by Lee. 

Born Januauy 24, 1824— Died Mat 10, 18G3, 

A noteworthy incident of the sanguinary battle of Chanceliorsville was 
the accidental shooting of the rebel General Stonewall Jackson, 
by his own troops. This casualty occurred on the evening of 
May 2d, 1863. It may be interesting — since Stonewall Jackson, if not 
th(j ablest, was the most brilliant officer in the service of the rebellion — • 
to preface the narrative of his death with some account of his civil 
and military career. 

Thomas Jefierson Jackson — who, as we have seen, acquired the 
soubriquet of " Stonewall," was born at Clarksburg, Harrison Co., Va., 
January 21, 1824. The first years of his life were spent on his uncle'.i 
farm. In 1842 he became a cadet at West Point, from which military 
school he graduated in 1846, in the same class with McGlellau and other 
students, subsequently distinguished in the Civil War. As a boy and 
as a young man, Jackson was noted for gravity of manners and reticence 
of nature ; quiet, studious, and thoughtful at all times, he was also deeply 
religious in temperament and in faith. In the Mexican War, in 1848, he 
served under General Taylor and under General Scott, and distinguished 
himself at Contreras, Churubusco, and Chcpultepec. In 1852, he re- 
signed his commission, being in ill health, and was afterwards appointed 
Professor of Mathematics, in the Military Institute of Virginia. The 

ski:tcii of the life of stonewall jackson. 147 

breaking out of the Rebellion found liim there, and entering the. rebel 
service, lie received a Lieiiteiiaiil's commission from Governor Letcher of 
Virginia. His participation in the war was brief, but was marked by 
daring cxpluits and many successes. lie bore a conspicuous part in the 
first battle of Bull Kun, and as we have seen, made a dashing and sue- 
ccssful raid up the valley of the Shenandoah, pursuini; Banks to the 
Potomac, and getting away unscathed. lie also took part in the battle 
of Malvern, and he greatly harassed (ioneral Pope, during the campaign 
of that officer. The capture of Harper's Ferry was, in part, due to his 
Strategy ; and he was engaged in the bloody battle of Antietam. He also 
participated in the battle of Fredericksburg, and defeated Burnside's 
left wiuiT, coiumaiided by General Franklin. At the battle of Chancel- 
lorsville his rank was that of Lieutenant General, equivalent to that of a 
corps commander, in the United States Army. His operations in the 
latter light have already been described. The manner of his death was pe- 
culiar, and is worthy of minute description. Late in the afternoon of the 
2d of May, he had attacked and routed the Eleventh United States Army 
Corps, under General Howard, forming part of the rear of the Federal 
right wing. At about 8 o'clock in the evening, when returning from this 
attack, attended by his staff, the cavalcade was mistaken, by the rebels, 
for a body of Union cavalry, and was fired upon, in the darkness. Jack- 
son was struck by three balls. One passed through the left arm, two in- 
ciies below the shoulder joint, shattering the bone and severing the 
chief artery ; another ball jiassed through the same arm between the el- 
bow and wrist, making its exit through the palm of the hand ; a third ball 
entered the palm of the right hand about its middle, passing through, and 
broke two bones. He was wounded on the plank road, about fifty yards 
iu advance of the enemy. He fell from his horse, and was caught by 
Captain Wormley, to whom he remarked, " All my wounds are by my 
own men." He had given orders for his men to fire at any one comin'» 
up the road, before he left the lines. The Union skirmishers appeared 
ahead of him, and he turned to ride back. Just then some one cried out, 
" Cavalry charge 1" and immediately the regiment fired. The whole 
party then broke forward to ride through the rebel line to escape the 
fire. Cajitain Boswell was killed, and cai ried through the line by liis 
horse, and fell among his own men. Colonel Couchficld, Chicf-of-Staff, 
was wounded by his side. Two couriers were killed. Major Pendleton, 
Lieutenants Morrison and Smith, escaped uninjured. General Jackson 
was immediaely placed on a litter and started for the rear ; but the fir- 
ing had attracted the attention of the Unionists, and it was resumed by 
both lines. One litter-bearer was shot down, and Jackson fell from the 
shoulders of the men, receiving a severe contusion, adding to the injury 
of the arm, and severely injuring his side. 


At this point the Unionists swepi the field with artillery, and the 
wouiidoil man was left for five minutes, until the fire slackened, when ho 
was placed in an auibalance, and carried to tlie field hospital at W ilder- 
noss Kun. lie lost a large amount of blood, and at one time told Doctor 
M'Guire he thought he was dying, and would have bled to death, but thai 
a tourniquet was immediately applied. For two hours he was almost pulse- 
less. As he was being carried from the field, frequent inquiries were 
made by the soldiers, " Who have you there ?" He told the doctor, 
" Do not tell the troops I am wounded." 

At the ho.spitul his arm was amputated, wliile he was under the influ- 
ence of chloroform. He slept on Sunday morning, was cheerful, and was 
doing well. On Monday he was carried to Chancellor's house, near 
Guiney's depot. 

During the ride to Guiney's be complained greatly of heat, and beg- 
ged that a wet cloth be applied to liis stomach, which was done, greatly 
to his relief, as he expressed it. He slept well on Monday night, and ate 
with relish the next morning. On Tuesday his wounds were doing very 
well. He asked, " Can you tell me, from the appearance of my wounds.. 
how long I shall be kept from the field ?" He was greatly satisfied when 
he was told they were doing remarkably well. He did not comjilain of 
any pain in the side, and wanted to see the members of his stall, but was 
advised not to do so. On Wednesday night, while his surgeon, who had 
not slept for three nights, was asleep, he complained of nausea, and or- 
dered his boy, Jim, to place a wet towel over his stomach. This was 
done. About daylight the surgeon was awakened by the boy saying, 
" The General is in great pain." The pain was in his right side, and due 
to incipient pneumonia and some nervousness, which he himself attribu- 
ted to the fall from the litter. On Thursday his wife arrived, greatly to 
bis joy and satisfaction, and she faithfully nursed him to the end. 

On Sunday morning, when it was apparent that he was rapidly sink- 
ing, Mrs. Jackson told him he was going to die. He said : " Very good : 
very good. It is all right." He had previously said : " I consider those 
wounds a blessing. They were given me for some good and wise purpose. 
I would not part with them if 1 could," He expressed a. wish to be 
buried in Lexington, in the valley of Virginia. During delirium his 
mind reverted to the battle-field, and he sent orders to t-ieneral A. P. 
Hill to prepare for action, and to Major Hawks, his Commissary, and to 
the surgeons. He frequently expressed to his aids his wish that Major- 
General Ewcll should be ordered to command his corps. This wish was 
subsequently fulfilled. He died on the afternoon of Sunday May 10th, and 
on the 12th, was honored with a public funeral in Richmond. The press, 
at the North as well as the South, rendered eulogiums upon his charac- 


tcv and achieve ncnta. Posterity will remember him as a kiml of Crom- 
wellian soldier, an enthuiasiic devotee of religion, and a man who fought 
bravely in a bad cause. 


The battle of ChanccUorsville resulted, as we have seen, in a substan- 
tial reverse to the Army of the Potomac. The Unionists did, indeed, 
capture m;my rebel prisoners and standards, and munitions of war, besides 
covering themselves with glory by their dauntless courage, and their 
heroic aehievements. But the generalship of Lee, and the desperate fight- 
ing of the rebels, ultimately resulted in checking the advance of thft 
Union army. Tliis advantage, however, as we shall presently see, was 
soon lost to the Confederates at the great battle of Gettysburg, fought in 
the early part of the following month of July. General Lee, meantime, 
projected a descent upon the rich soil of Pennsylvania, hoping to re- 
plenish his wasted stores, and to smite the North with panic. His polioy 
in this respect was very bold, and in some sense it was successful. He 
commenced his movement on the 3rd of June, advancing in the direction 
of Culpepper Court-House. The troops were led by General Longstreet, 
General Hi)od, and General Ewell. General A. P. Hill was left in com- 
mand of the rebel forces confronting General Hooker at Chancellorsville. 
By the 9th of June, the design of Lee became apparent to General Hooker, 
who put his army in motion on the 14th, on parallel lines with the rebel 
advance, and arrived by forced marches on the banks of the Potomac. The 
intense heat of the weather, and the rapid march of the army, was ex- 
tremely exhausting. Hundreds of men fell daily in the ranks, overcomo 
by the severe task imposed upon them, and many lives were thus lost. 

At Culpepper the rebel advance formed a junction with General Stuart's 
cavalry ; and thence the whole force advanced up the valley of the She^ 
naudoah, in the direction of Winchester. A reconnoissance made toward 
Culpepper by the Union General Buford, on the 9th of June, resulted in 
an engagement, in which the Federals lost upwards of three hundred and 
fifty men, including Colonel B. F. Davis, who had led the cavalry force 
from Harper's Ferry, at the time of its surrender in 18G2. Tlie enemy's 
loss was somewhat larger. Other skirmishes marked the rebel advance. 
Great cxcitcnvint resulted from it in Pennsylvania, and generally through- 
out the North, and measures to check the rebels and to drive them back, 
were immediately taken by the Government and General Hooker. On 
the evening of the 14th, and the morning of the 15th, a large body of 
rebel troops crossed the Potomac in the vicinity of Nolan's Ford, and 
moved on Hagerstown, which was evacuated by our troops on the l.jth. 


At nine p. m. on that day, the rebel advance guard entered Chambevs- 
burg. Ou the 10th the rebel advance, consisting mainly of cavalry, was 
at Chambcrsburg and Scotland. The forces assembled for the protection 
of the State were at Shippensburg, Pennsylvania. 

Two new military departments were organized by the Secretary-of-War 
on the 9th of June : — that of the Monongahela, and that of the Susque- 
hanna. The former comprised parts of Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Ohio ; 
the latter comprised the whole eastern part of the State of Peiin.^ylvania. 
Major-General W. T. H, Brooks commanded the one ; Mijur-General 
D. N. Couch commanded the other. He established his headquarters at 
Ilarrisburg, and there took command of the militia, which were called 
out from the several States, by the President, on the 15tli of June. 
From this date until the battle of Gettysburg, July 3rd, the current of 
events was marked by frequent alarms, by many disturbances, and con- 
tinual excitement. Mosby's guerrillas at this time agnin appeared in 
Loudon county, and committed many depredations. The town of McCon- 
nelsburg, Pennsylvania, was overrun and pillaged by the rebels on the 
19th, and all the bridges on the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, between 
Harper's Ferry and Cumberland, which are a hundred miles apart, were 
destroyed. Ilagerstown and Frederick were pillaged, and the rebels 
took possession of "Winchester and Martinsburg. A large portion of the 
beautiful town of Chambcrsburg, Pennsylvania, was laid in ashes by the 
incendiary fires of a relentless foe, in retaliation for the devastation 
wrou"-ht by General Hunter in the Valley of the Shenandoah. The alarm 
occasioned by all these movements, caused the militia of several states 
to be called out, and sent to the protection of Pennsylvania. Troops were 
also raised in that State to the uujnber of twenty-Sve thousand. The 
cities of Harrisburg, Baltimore. Pittsburg, and Philadelphia, were forti- 
fied. Many of the inhabitants of these cities and of other points that 
were threatened by the rebels, becoming panic-stricken, fled north- 

A contemporary account thus describes the state of feeling at Har. 
risburg at this juncture : 

" The morning broke upon a populace all astir, who had been called 
out of bed by the ' beat of the alarm drum,' the blast of the bugle and 
the clanging of bells. The streets were lively with men, who were 
either returning from a night's work on the fortifications, or going over 
to relieve those who were toiling there. As the sun rose higher the ex- 
citement gathered head. All along the streets were omnibuses, wagons, 
and wheelbarrows, taking in trunks and valuables, and rushing them 
down to the depot, to be shipped out of rebel range. The stores, the 
female seminaries, and almost every private residence, were busy 
all the forenoon in swelling the mountain of freight that lay at the depot. 

ArrACK ox CAKIJSLE, PA. 151 

Every horse was impressed into service, and every porter groaned be- 
neath the weight of his responsibilities. 

" The scene at noon at tlic depots was indescribable, if not disgraceful, 
A sweltering mass of humanity thronged the platform, all furious to 
escape from the doomed city. 

" At the bridge and across the river the scene was equally exciting. All 
through the day, a steady stream of people on foot and in wagons, young 
and old, black and white, was pouring across it from tlKi Cumberland 
valley, bearing with them their household gods, and all manner of goods 
and stock. Endless trains, laden with flour, grain, and nierehandiso, 
hourly emerged from the valley, and thundered across the bridge and 
through the city. Miles of retreating baggage wagons, filled with calves 
and slieep tied together, and great old-fashioned furnace wagons, loaded 
with tons of trunks and boxes, defiled in continuous procession down the 
pike and across the river, raising a dust that marked the outline of the 
road as far as the eye could see." 

Among the lesser engngements of this period a spirited cavalry en- 
gagemcnt near Aldie is worthy of note. At 3 o'clock on the 17th of 
June, a division of the Union cavalry encountered a rebel force, consist- 
ing of General Fitzhugh Lee's cavalry brii:ade and a battery of artillery, 
about one mile from Aldie, on the road to Unionstown. As soon as Gen- 
eral Lee was apprised of the approach of the National troops he made 
preparations to oppose their advance, and to maintain his position. The 
rebel Captains Boston and White, with a command of thirty men, were 
sent forward as sharpshooters, but not receiving any support they were 
compelled to fall back before the fi-.^^t charge of the advancing Unionists. 
Close behind the rebel advance the Fifth and the Third Virginia cavalry 
were stationed; and as the National troops charged upon them a fierce 
hand-to-hand encounter took place, and in the course of the fight many 
rebel prisoners were captured. After a brave resistance the rebels were 
overcome, and the order was given to fall back. Seventy-seven pri- 
vates were taken prisoners, together with the following officers : — • 
Major Carrington of the Third Virginia regiment ; Captain E. B. Boston 
of the Fifth Virginia ; Captain F. 11. Winser and Captain Jones of the 
Third Virginia ; ami Captain L. B. White ; Lieutenant Boston ; Lieuten- 
ant Turnell; and Lieutenant Douglass of the Fifth V^irginia. The loss 
upon the Union side was very trifling •. the men fought with t,he greatest; 
bravery. It was dark before the fight was finally at an cud, liglit 
artillery firing being kept up on both sides, without any material injury 
to either ; and when night fell it saw the Union troops entirely victorious, 
and the rebels slowly retiring. 

152 Tllli W.Ul FOIi THE UNION. 


Ji'NK 14, 1«G3. 

Oil Saturday, the 13th of Juno, an attack was made by the advance of 
the enemy's forces moving up the Shenandoah valley, upon IJcrrysville, 
then held by General Mclleynoids. The position was midway between 
Winchester and Snicker's gap ; and, as an outpost of Winchester, it was 
valuable. The force under General McKeynolds, numbering about three 
thousand men, made a gallant defence ; but finding themselves over- 
whelmed by numbers they retreated toward W^inchester. In the mean 
time a portion of the rebel advance, consisting' of two divisions com- 
manded by Generals Early and Johnson, under General Ewell, liad 
attacked Winchester, which was held by IMajor-General Milroy. The 
firing was continuous during the day, and the figliting was severe on 
both sides. During the whole of the following day the fighting con- 
tinued at short intervals. At al;outhalf past four o'clock the skirniishers 
of the enemy charged up the Berry ville and Front lloyal roads, but were 
received by a hot fire from the Union troops, which dispersed them in 
confusion. General Milroy now ordered a charge upon the enemy, 
which was gallantly made, but his men, finding the rebels very strongly 
encamped in a wood behind them, were forced to return as quickly as 
possible to the protection of the town. A road running directly west 
from Winchester, called the llomney road, now became the point from 
which the enemy attacked. About 5 o'clock the rebels appeared in 
strong force in front of the main fort situated north of this road, and a 
sharp engagement took place between them and the National troops. The 
rebel general, Ewell, got his batteries into position and opened a heavy 
fire upon the Union men ; he then massed his infantry and charged upon 
them in the face of their hottest firing. Without an instant's pause the 
rebels leaped over the breast works, driving ofi" the Ohio regiment at 
the point of the bayonet, and planted their colors on the embankment. 

Of the Ohio regiment a few escaped back to the main fort, but the 
greater number were either killeil or taken prisoners. The Union forces 
were now complotely henuu'jd in, but not defeated. Sharp and deadly 
firing continued between the rebels and Unionists until dark. The First 
brigade, under General Elliott, at this time occupied the main fort; 
the Second, under Colonel Ely, occupied the town and the space to the 
main fort on the northwest: and the Third, under General McReynolds, 
was posted to the north of the main fort. The final charge of the d:iy 
occurred soon after dark ; the rebels crossed a ravine between their main 
position and the front, but were received by a hot and murderous firo 


from tlie Union artillery, which hurled them back again, and the fiLrhtirig 
was over for the night. At midnight, after a council held by the brigade 
commanders, General Milroy ordered a retreat to Harpcr'a Ferry. The 
troops marched straight on tiie road to Marlinhburg for about four miles, 
wlien they were met by a large body of rebels. They attempted an ad 
vance, but were violently repulsed ; and two regiments, the Eighteenth 
Connecticut, and Fifth Maryland, were captured entire. Of the whole 
force, about four hundred reached Hancock and Cumberland ; one thou 
sand six hundred reached iMaryland Heights ; and one thousand seven 
hundred reached Bloody Run ; while the remainder of the division of 
twelve thousand men, with a large quantity of artillery and military 
stores, were captured by the rebel forces. 

June 14, ISOJ. 
While the fight just described was taking place at Winchester, tlie 
rebel General Rhodes appeared in front of Martinsburg, a town some 
miles to the north of Winchester, and demanded its surrender from 
General Tyler, then in command. The surrender was proudly refused ; 
and the rebels immediately opened an attack, which was gallantly resisted 
until night came on. Perceiving that he could not hold his position, 
General Tyler, under cover of the darkness, prepared to evacuate the 
city. The movement was discovered by the encm^'^, who at once re- 
newed the attack, and a most bloody contest began, which was kept up 
till the Union iroops reached the Potomac river. General Tyler, after a 
hard struggle, and the loss of two hundred men, many pieces of artillery 
and a large quantity of ammunition and grain, succeeded in crossing the 
river at Shepherdstown, and moving on, to Harper's Ferry. The rebels 
instantly took possession of Martinsburg ; llieir losses in the capture of 
it having been only one killed and two wounded. 

During this time it was impossible to determine correctly where Gen- 
eral Lee was moving with his main army ; but on Monday, the 29th, it 
became evident that he had selected Gettysburg for his field of opera- 
tions and on that night the flame of his army's camp-fires shone luridly 
against the sky — a warning of the bloody battle to come. During the 
entire period of this bold invasion of the North the skirmishes, raid?, and 
minor battles consequent upon the continual meetings of the rebel and 
Union forces were almost daily, but the great battle was that which will 
ever be remembered at the sound of the word, Gettysburg, and must 
always bring a glow of pride to the cheek of every loyal American who 
hears it named. 


July 1, 1803. 

As we have seen, the advance of Lee's army began on June 27fh, a 
large rebel force occupied the city of Carlisle ; and on the 30th tlioy 
removed all their infantry and stores to Gettysburg. On the evening ui 
July 1st, a severe engagement took place between the rebels under Gen- 
eral Fitzhugh Lee (who had not been apprised of the withdrawal of the 
enemy, under General Ewell, from Carlisle) and the Union forces under 
command of General W. F. Smith, who were just entering the deserted 
town. Being unable to comprehend the state of affairs before him Gen- 
eral F. IL Lee commenced skirmishing with the Union troops ; but finding 
them much stronger than was supposed, he sent in a fl^ig of truce de- 
manding the surrender of the town. General Smith promptly refused to 
surrender, and at once made preparations for sending away the women 
and children. 

The work of shelling the town was at once commenced ; and a perfect 
shower of grape, canister and shell was poured in upon it for three 
hours ; at the end of that time the enemy's fire slackened a little, and once 
more, at midnight, General Lee sent in a flag of truce, with a de- 
mand for surrender. General Smith indignantly refused ; and the fire 
of the enemy recommenced, and was carried on without intermission for 
three hours. Daring this time severe skirmishing was kept up by the 
Union infantry, though no heavy reply of artillery was made to the 
enemy's fire. Finally the rebels fired the cavalry barracks, and 
accidentally set on fire several buildings with shells. The town was very 
much injured and many people were killed, but the rebels were defeated 
in their object, and obliged to fall back the next day. 

As the month of June drew towards its close all the movements that 
were made by both armies tended directly towards a great battle. On 
the 27th Juue, a skirmish took place at Skerrett's Gap, in which the 
Union pickets were driven in, many of them being captured. On the 25th 
the town of McConnellsburg, a short time before pillaged by the enemy, 
and occupied by a body of rebels five thousand strong, under command of 
General Stuart, was attacked by a detachment of the First New York 
Cavalry. The Unionists drove in the rebel pickets, causing much alarm. 
The rebels made but very little resistance ; and at nine o'clock of the 
following morning they evacuated the place, retiring towards Chambers- 
burg, with the intention of reinforcing the rebel force which threatened 
Ilarrisburg. During the same day a destructive raid was made by a 


large body of Tnibo Ion's men, through the lower part of Pennsylvania, in 
which they carried away with them every available article of every de- 
scription of property. 

They were not, however, at all points successful. A small body of cav- 
alry — numbering forty or fifty men — under Captain Jones, entered 
McConnolsburg (which had been in possession of the National troops but 
a day or two), on a reconnoissance. Captain Jones had but just dis- 
mounted his horse, when one of his pickets hastened to him with the 
news that a body of the enemy were advancing, and close upon the town. 
" IIow many are there ?" asked C;iptain Jones. *' About a hundred," 
was the reply. " Very well, I will fight them I" returned the intrepid 
oQicer. " I\Ien, take your places'" Tlic men mounted and leisurely 
rode down the street. The enemy, supposing it to be a retreat, were get- 
ting ready for pursuit, when the Unionists suddenly halted, turned, and 
faced them. The rebel leader sang out to his men,—"" Charge — ciiarge 
the damned Yankees !" But the rebels never moved. Captain Jones 
called out in a clear, firm voice, to his noble little band, " Charge I" and 
the order required no repetition. With a wild, triumphant cry, they 
prang forward, sabre in hand, and drove the enemy like chaff before 
them. The sharp ring of carbines, the clung of sabres, and the ringing 
shouts of the triumphant pursuers, filled the air with the enthusiasm 
of the scene. At the edge of the town, the Union cavalry overtook the 
flying rebels, and dashing into their midst, a hand-to-hand struggle took 
place, in which the rebels were compelled to fight for their lives. The 
result was soon seen to be in favor of the Unionists ; and when they 
returned to the town, they drove before them more prisoners than their 
own number. Two rebels were killed, one dangerously wounded, and 
three escaped ; the rest were taken prisoners. 

By this time the Union army, in readiness for the great fight, was 
impatient for it to begin. On the 28th sharp skirmishing took place at 
Wrightsville between the rebels and a sm.ill force of Union troops under 
Colonel Flick. The rebels attacked the Unionists in their rifle-pits, and 
were fiercely repulsed, until, overpowered by numbers, the Federals fled 
across the bridge over the Su.squehanna river, near Columbia, which 
they set on fire in order to prevent the rebels from crossing in pursuit of 
them. On the same day the enemy took possession of the town of York, 
Pa. From all the cities threatened by the rebels the citizens were 
rapidly fleeing toward Philadelphia; although a very large number 
rallied bravely to the defence of rhcir homes. The publication of many 
newspapers was suspended, the employees having all entered the ranks. 
The excitement increased every hour. 


July 1-3, 1803. 

General IMeade, as snon as it wns ascertained that the rebels were 
encamped witiiin full view of Gettjslturg, set about making the required 
changes in the positions of his own troops. On Tuesday, June 30th, Gen- 
eral Buford was sent, with a cavalry force numbering six thousand, to 
make a recounoissance on the Chambersburg read. They encauiped 
there for the night. Two corps were sent towards the southwest, to a 
point about four miles from Gettysburg, where they also encamped for tlio 
night. These corps were the First, numbering about cigl;t thousand 
men, under command of General Reynolds ; and the Eleventh, number- 
ing nearly fifteen thousand, under command ot" General Howard. Two 
corps of the rebel forces, under Generals Hill and Longstreot, and two 
divisions of Ewell's corps, were encamped quile near to the town of 
Gettysburg. The town of Gettysburg, ilsclf, lies at the head of a 
gently sloping valley, and forms the centre for roads running north, 
south, east, and west. 

The Catoctin and the South Mountain run on either sides of the val- 
ley ; and a short distance to the east of the town runs the stream of water 
called Rock creek. Near the town are two hills, known respectively as 
Round Top, and Little Round Top, and on the former General Meade 
posted the extreme left of his line. To the northwest of this position, 
also on a slight eminence. General Lee had posted his men, forming a 
circular line of several miles in extent, and almost hemming in the 
patriot troops. On the morning of the following day a body of cavalry, 
under General Buford, was sent forward for reconnoitring purposes, 
and became engaged with the rebel advance immediately. General Rey- 
nolds followed, with his entire corps, and plunged into the thickest of the 
fight at the first sound of battle ; the odds, however, were fearful — eight 
thousand against twenty thousand — and General Reynolds sent an urgent 
message to General Howard, to send forward reinforcements. But not 
till one o'clock did the Eleventh corps arrive to the assistance of the 
hard-pressed men, who still stood their ground like a rock, and fiercely 
drove back the advancing rebel hosts. General Reynolds riding up and 
down the line in front of his men, urging them on with look and word, 
fell a victim to his own dauntless bravery, being shot through the head 
by a rebel sharpshooter. 

At last came two divisions of the Eleventh corps, under Schurtz and 
Bnrlow. Easier to retrieve their reputation, so tarnished at Chancellors- 
ville, they formed bravely ou the right, and stayed the faltering line, for 



the first time beginning to waver. The remaining division uf tlie 
Eleventh corps, under General Steinwohr, was sent to occupy a point 
called Cemetery Hill, on the south side of the town. 

For three hours longer the brave line continued to hold its ground 
against the ever increasing numbers of the enemy ; but human endurance 
could bear no more, and at last the right wing slowly yielded, and iheu 
the whole Hue fell gradually back, in good order, to the town of Gettys- 
burg. Here they fell a prey to the pursuing rebels, who overtook them 
in the turnings and twistings of the streets, and in a few minutes one 
thousand and twenty men became prisoners to the enemy. Now, indeed, 
the day looked dark for the Union soldiers ; but at the very moment that 
all seemed lost, the artillery of the troops which had been sent to 
Cemetery llill blazed forth a most unexpected chock to the triumphant 
rebels. This saved the battle of Gettysburg from being lost to tho 
National arms ; the effect of the sudden firing was magical, and night, 
which now began to darken down around both friend and foe, put an end 
to the day's battle. 

The night following this day was one of anxious thought to the 
generals commanding the Union army ; and in the Cemetery, among tho 
monuments of the dead, many a prayer for reinforcements passed the lips 
of those who knew that certain destruction awaited them on the morrow, 
if more troops did not in the mean time arrive to their assistance. 

]Jut midnight brought relief and juy to those anxious waiting hearts 
At about twelve o'clock the Twelfth corps, under General Slocum, and 
the Third, under General Sickles, arrived, fresh and eager for the battle. 
And soon after daylight came further reinforcements of the Second and 
Fifth corps ; and the sun of the next day shone down on an almost en- 
tirely new army, which struck consternation to the hearts of the r^ton- 
ished rebels, who had already made up their minds to an easy and cer- 
tain victory. 

On this day the position of General Meade's forces was as follows : 
General Howard, with the Eleventh corps, held the centre ; the remain- 
ing portion of the First corps, and the Twelfth, under General Slocum, 
formed the right wing, and were placed on the right of the Baltimoro 
road ; the Second corps, — General Hancock, — and the Third, — S^eneral 
Sickles, — formed the army's left wing, between the Taney town and Em- 
metsburg roads. 

On Thursday mornini:. the enemy, apparently surprised by the for- 
midable Union army which they found ready to oppose them, remained 
strangely quiet during the most of the day ; and it was four o'clock be- 
fore they attacked the waiting and immovable line of Federal troops. 
Then indeed the crisis of the battle began. General Longstrcet hurled 
his whole division upon the left wing of General Meade's army, and the 


storm of artillery that plowed through the ranks, dealt swift and terrible 
dcstriictidn. IJiit the brave Tliird corps, not even wavering before the 
dreadful fire, bent baclc the rebels again and again. On their left flank, 
danger now menaced them. Aready one of Longstreet's divisions was 
manoeuvreing to cut thorn off from Round Top Hill, on which were placed 
but three or four batteries. The position would be of incalculable value 
to the rebels, who, by placing their batteries on the hill, could hurl shell 
upon the whole Union line. To save Round Top ITill, was of the greatest 
moment to the National forces, who put forth almost superhuman efforts 
to beat back the approach of the enemy. Bravely, with unflinching front, 
the rebels marched up to the very mouths of the guns, to be blown into 
atoms, and hurled in horrible burnt, blackened, blooding fragments 
through the air, their places instantly filled up by scores of others 
equally daring and reckless of life. Gaptriin Eigelow, commanding the 
battery at the extreme left, held the hill, after losing many of his 
men, several artillerists, two sergeants, four of his guns, and being 
himself severely wounded in the thigh, until McGilway's two batteries 
arrived to his assistance, and poured in an unflinching fire upon the ene- 
my's lines, 

Beiow, at the base of the hill, the battle raged with even greater vio- 
lence ; but feeling that it would be lost if Round Top Hill were yielded, 
the brave Union men determined to die in its defence, or hold it to the 
end. On came the rebels with their dreadful battle yell, as deafen- 
ing as the roar of their artillery, and with fixed bayonets charged forward, 
a sea of gleaming, death-dealing, b'oodstained steel, upon the noble, 
patriotic band, who met their attacks with unfaltering courage, and hand 
to hand fought them to the death, while the artillery rained a perfect 
torrent of shot and shell along the whole line. While this noble division, 
composed of Maine, Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania regiments, 
all under command of General Barnes, wore thus heroically resisting the 
rebels, the First division stood in danger of being completely swept 
away by the enemy's advance. But now came General Ayres' division, 
steadily marching forward, and with that indomitable bravery for which 
it was famed, and which had been displayed on previous battle-fields, 
poured down in resistless force upon the rebels, and saved the First di- 
vision. Still harder pressed on the fight, to obtain the coveted position 
on Round Top Hill ; but the rebels were destined to defeat. General 
Meade sent orders to the Fourth and Fifth biigades of the Pennsylvania 
reserves to clear the hill of the enemy, and the movement began at once, 
superintended by General Crawford in person. Hastily forming his lino 
General Crawford ordered a dash to be made, and the enemy was imme- 
diately driven back. One rebel brigade, under General Anderson, 
made a stand in a gap of the woods, but was fallen upon by a brigade 

BArri.r: of GErrYSRcna. ICl 

under Colonel McCandless, and coniplok-ly rout.;d or taken prisoners. 
The T'^nion men pressed on after the retreating rebels, and drove thorn 
back headlong and in wild confusion through the valley aud into the 
woods beyond. Returning then to the hill so bravely fought for, and won 
with the blood of heroes, the Fourth and Fifth brigades took up their 
position there and held it to the close of the fight. 

(ireat credit is given to General Crawford for his management of this 
affair. The honor of the army was saved by the brilliant action of the 
reserves. The loss of so many arms was entirely regained by this dash, 
and the ground upon which so many of the Union wounded lay without 
assistance, rescued from the eucmy. Not one of the wounded had re- 
ceived the least assistance, and the groans of the; suffcrinir and dying 
men wore terrible. Ambulances were immediately sent for, under or- 
ders of General Crawford, and the wounded were cared for. 

In the mean time sharp and deadly fighting was going forward between 
the Eleventh corps, situated northeast of Cemetery Hill, and Gencnil 
Early's division. As at Round Top on the day before, it was a hand-ro- 
hand fight ; the guns were so hot from the continuous shower of destruc- 
tion that had thundered from their dreadful throats, that they could not 
be worked ; but the rebels advanced over the cemetery wall, and leaped 
to the very mouths of the gims, but were beaten oflf with clubbed mus- 
kets. Before this unexpected resistance, they were compelled to fall 
suddenly back. The Twelfth corps was not so successful in beating off' a 
similar attack made upon them, and the rebels gained a slight foothold, 
which would every hour become more valuable to them. Bu: night had 
again fallen upon the combatants, and nothing further could be done to 
beat the enemy back. In the battle of Thursday, the losses on both sides 
were heavy. Of general officers, Brigadier-General Paul, and Brigadier- 
General Zook, were killed ; and Generals Sickles, Barlow, Graham, and 
Warren, were wounded. 

At earliest dawn or' the following day, the battle was opened by a mur- 
derous fire from the National guns; and the fighting spread rapidly 
along the line. On the right, the Twelfth corps was already prcparins 
to regain its losses of the previous evening; its rifle-pits bristled with 
rebel muskets, which were presently pouring out a deadly fire in return 
for the fierce attack of General Slocum's men. But the brave Twelfth 
met the fire courageously, and their renewed strength was too much for 
the rebels, who, reluctantly began to fall back before them. The Union 
men pushed forward their advance, pressed back the rebels from their 
breastworks, and triumphantly tilling up their lost position, the National 
line was again perfectly unbroken from end to end. 

From this time till about eleven o'clock, the battle continued to rage 
with equal intensity and equal advantages or disadvantages to both sides ; 


and tlicu for a (imo a short, general quiet prevailed. It had al- 
ready been proven by the battle of the previous day, that the final issue 
of the contest turned upon the occupation of Cemetery Ilill ; and, there- 
fore, all General Lee's in[i;enuity was exercised to obtain a clue to its 
capture, as all General Meade's military skill was put in force to retain 
his valuable position. The rebel general had made preparations early in 
the morning for an attack upon Meade's entire line ; and he had also 
concentrated a large body of his troops against the Union centre, with 
the design of taking the ground it occupied. In other respects, as well, 
the rebel forces were skillfull}'' and puwerftilly placed. The Union artil- 
lery on Cemetery Hill was subjected to a half-circle of cross fires, from 
the skillful arrangement of the enemy's troops ; General Longstreet hav- 
ing massed fifty-five guns of long range upon the brow of a slight emi- 
nence in front of General Hill's extreme right, and General Hill had 
massed sixty guns along the hill, in front of the heights held by the 
National troojis. 

At one o'clock the signal gun was fired, and the cannonading com- 
menced. The fire of the enemy was thus concentrated on the position 
held by the Eleventh and Second corps. It drew a most terrific response 
from the Federal batteries. It is thus described by a spectator in the 
Union army : 

" The storm broke upon us so suddenly that soldiers and officers — who 
leaped, as it began, from their tents, or from lazy siestas on the grass 
— were stricken in their rising with mortal wounds, and died, some with 
cigars between their teeth, some with pieces of food in their fingers, and 
one at least — a pale young German, from Pennsylvania— with a minia- 
ture of his sister in his hands. Horses fell, shrieking such awful cries 
as Cooper told of, and writhing themselves about in hopeless agony. The 
boards of fences, scattered by explosion, flew in splinters through the 
air. The earth, torn up in clouds, blinded the eyes of hurrying men ; 
and through the branches of the trees and among the gravestones of the 
cemetery a shower of destruction crashed ceaselessly. As, with hundreds 
of others, I groped through this tempest of death for the shelter of the 
bluflf, an old man, a private in a company belonging to tlte Twenty-fourth 
Michigan, was struck, scarcely ten feet away, by a cannon ball, which 
tore through him, extorting such a low, intense cry of mortal pain as I 
pray God I may never again hear. The hill, which seemed alone de- 
voted to this rain of death, was clear in nearly all its unsheltered 
places within five minutes after the fire began." 

The same contest is thus described by an eye-witness in the Confede- 
rate army : 

" I have never yet heard such tremendous artillery firing. The 
enemy must have had over one hundred guns, which, in addition to our 

battlp: of GKrrTsnuRO. 163 

ouo hundred and fifteen, niaJo the air hideous with most discordant 
noise. The very earth shook beneath our feet, and the hills and rocks 
seemed to reel like a drunken man. For one hour and a half this most 
terrific fire was continued, during which time the shrieking of shell, the 
crash of fallen timbers, the fragments of rocks flying through the air, 
shattered from the cliffs by solid shot, the heavy mutter ings from the 
valley between the opposing armies, the splash of bursting slirapnell, 
and the fierce neighing of wounded artillery horses, made a picture ter- 
ribly grand and sublime, but which my pen utterly fails to describe. 
After the firing had continued for little more than an hour, the enemy's 
guns began to slacken, and finally all were silenced save some six or 
eight, which were in a clump of woods a little to the left of the stone 

For three hours the firing had continued steadily ; suddenly the Union 
fire was slackened for a moment to allow the guns to cool, when the 
enemy, supposing they had been silenced, prepared to make a final and 
irresistible attack. Their storming party was moved up. The division 
of General Pickett, which had arrived since the previous day, led the ad- 
vance, supported on the right by General AVilcox's brigade of General 
Anderson's division, and on the left by Heath's division, commanded by 
General Pettigrew. The troops of General Pickett's division advanced 
in splendid order. On his lefr, the command of General Pettigrew emerged 
from the woods, and swept down the slope of the hiil to the valley beneath, 
and some two or three hundred yards in the rear of General Pickett. 

The Union line met the advance bravely. As they came under the fire 
of the First and Second Corps, the enem3''s batteries became suddenly 
silent. Their ammunition was exhausted. But still the rebel advance 
pressed boldly forward, never wavering, even when a fire of grape and 
shell was opened upon them. Steadily they crossed the Emnictsburg 
road, and with undaunted front approached the Union infautry, who 
quietly awaited their advance. General Gibbon, in command of the 
Second Corps, walking composedly along the front of his line, encouraged 
his men with his calm and steady voice : 

" Hold your fire, boys — they are not near enough yet," he called out 
almost loud enough for the advancing rebels to hear, who, still coming 
steadily onward, suddenly charged bayonets, and rushed forward on the 
rifle pits. Then from the Union line flashed a blaze of fire before which 
hundreds fell to the earth ; but their comrades filled up the vacant spaces, 
and charged over the pits. Now General Gibbon called to his men to 
fall to the rear of the batteries, and without any sign of confusion, the 
order was obeyed. But General Pettigrew's brave division no lunger re- 
mained steady and unbroken ; the artillery pouring in upon them a blast- 


ing and destroying fire, had pcuttorcd their ranks in wild confusion ; and 
completely panic-stricken they fled over the plain, and far to the rear* 
General Pickett was now left to bear the whole strength of the Union 
lorces alone, iiis officers wounded and falling around him on every side. 
Further resistance was worse thau useless, and the rebel general gave 
the order to fall back. The Unionists pressed them strongly, but their 
retreat was successfully effected under cover of a brigade coiumanded by 
General Wr.ght, and sent forward for that purpose by General Lee. 

\Vhiie this fierce attack was being resisted, and utterly repulsed by 
General Gibbon's corps, the extreme right and left had been severely 
tried by the rebels under Generals Ewell and Longstreet ; but on every 
side they were beaten back, and the night ended in the complete success 
of the National arms, and the glorious victory of Gettysburg. During 
the whole of the next day, both armies were engaged in the mournful 
duty of burying their dead, and caring for their wounded. The lo?5;?;;'..s 
upon both sides during these three days were very heavy. That of the 
National army in killed was two thou.^and eight hundred and thirty-four ; 
in woundeJ, tliirteen thousand seven hundred and ninety ; in niis.sing, 
six thousand, six hundred and forty-three. That of the rebels in killed, 
wounded, and prisoners, was much greater. The Union soldiers buried 
four thousand five hundred of the rebel dead. They estimated their 
entire killed at about one thousand more ; their wounded numbered 
twenty-one thousand; and their loss in prisoners, stragglers, and desert- 
ers numbered thirteen thousand. 

During all day of the -Ith of July, General Lee sent forward such of 
his wounded as would bear removal, to Hagerstown ; and when night 
fell the eutire rem.nant of his army was put in motion on the road to 
Fairfield. On the 6th General Lee reached Hagerstown, and took up 
position there with his army. On the following day General Meade's 
advance in hot pursuit of the rebel army, reached Funktown, a place six 
miles south of Hagerstown. On the 8th a sharp conflict took place at 
Boonsboro' between the retreating rebels and the pursuing Federal 
troops. The opposing forces were the Union cavalry under General 
Buford and General Kilpatrick; and the divisions under Generals 
Stuart, Hampton, and Jones, together with a division of infantry. 

General Kilpatrick's division was encamped in the immediate vicinity 
of the town. General Buford, who was posted about two miles in ad- 
vance, was attacked by the enemy about eleven o'clock in the niurniug. 
General Kilpatrick immediately moved out to the front, and, relieving 
the brigades of 3Ierritt and Devin, engaged the rebels. 

The Union horse artillery was planted upon a very coniinanding posi- 
tion, and was served with great effectiveness. 

The enemy's infantry pressed tlie National line so closely that it was 


compelled to fall back, thou^'h the rctr(><,'rade lunvemcnt was made very 
slowly, and the ground disputed inch by inch. The cavalry repeatedly 
char;,'cd the enemy, brcakini^ his line and routing his cavalry ; but the 
rebel infantry pressed so hard that it was at length determined to fall 
back upon Boonsboro'. 

About night the Third division of the Eleventh corps arrived, when 
the Union cavalry dashc^d impotutjusly upon the enemy, and drove him 
three miles. 

Day after day, the rebels continued to retreat, and were closely pur- 
sued by the Union soldiers; skirmishing, and occasionally sharp fighting, 
marked the whole line of retreat ; and there was every appearance of a 
long, pitched battle, between the Union army and that of General Lee, 
before the latter could succeed in escaping with his troops across tho 
Potomac, and back into Virginia. 

At daybreak on the 10th, a fight was opened at Sharpsburg, between 
the Union and rebel armies, which lasted till six o'c'ock in the evening, 
and resulted in a victory to the Union arms. During the night, the town 
was evacuated by the rebels ; Generals Lee, Longstreet, and Ewell, be- 
ing the hist of the rebels to leave the place. The enemy fell back toward 
Williamsport, and were pursued for several miles by the Federal 

The Army of the Potomac marched steadily on, till it was in si^ht of 
Lee's entire army, which occupied a strong position on the heiofhts, near 
a marsh, in front of Williamsport. During this, and many previous and 
subseriucnt days, there was continual skirmishing in all directions ; and 
the great battle that now seemed imminent was most anxiously waited 
for by the Union forces, who were eager to be at work again. 

On the morning of the l-4th of July, to the unbounded astonishment of 
the whole of Meade's army, it was ascertained that the rebels under 
General Lee had elFectcd a most skillful retreat. Under cover of the 
darkness, they had withdrawn from Williamsport, and the whole force, 
together with all its trains, plunder, &c., had escaped across the Potomac. 
On the same day the Union troops occupied Williamsport and Fallin"- 
Waters ; capturing at tiie latter place, a brigade of infantry, fifteen bun- 
dred strong, two guns, two caissons, two battle flags, and a large number 
of small arms. A vigorous pursuit of the rebel army was immcdiitely 
ordered ; and on the L5th, Meade's army pursued, overtook, and engaged 
the rear of the rebel army ; but the enemy continued to make "ood his 
retreat, while the Unionists continued to follow closely, till on the 24th, 
the Union army again overtook the fugitives ; and a battle on the north 
side of the Rappahannock appeared to be inevitable. But again the 
wily rebel general disappointed the brave Unionists, so eagerly awaitinw 
an opportunity to engage and defeat his troops. During the night. Gen- 


eral Lee again effected his escape from his pursuers, and reached Cul- 
pepper Court-IIouse, before his moveineuts were detected. 

Active operations were now, for a time, at an end, with the Army of 
the Potomac. It occupied the same line on the Rappahannock, which it 
had held two months previous, and the wearied soldiers rested from the 
labors of their long and tiresome march, still wearing upon their brows 
the laurels they had won in General 3Ieade's successful if not brilliant 


For more than a year the possession of Vicksburg had been the ulti- 
mate object of the military and naval operations of the principal forces of 
the United States in the west, before that object was attained. After the 
unsuccessful naval and military operations in July, 1862, repeated expe- 
ditions had been set on foot, at immense expense to the Guvernmunt, 
accompanied with great labor and privation on the part of the patriots 
engaged in the enterprises, only to be met in turn with disaster and re- 
verse. These operations were under the direction of Major- General 
Grant, commander-in-chief of the army of "West Tennessee, and may take 
their date about December 1, 1862, at which time the principal forces of 
General Grant were at La Grange, three miles east of Grand Junction, on 
the Cairo and New Orleans railroad. General Grant was placed in com- 
mand of the Department of Tennessee, embracing all the country west 
of the Tennessee river, and on both shores of the Mississippi river, from 
Corinth to Louisiana. He was in command of the Thirteenth Army 
Corps, and his troops fought the famous battles of luka and Corinth, al- 
though General Grant did not command in person, being at Jackson, 
Tennessee, his head-quarters. In December, 1862, he removed his 
head-quarters to Holly Springs ; and on the 22d of that month, his forces 
having greatly increased, he divided them into four corps, viz. : the Thir- 
teenth, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and Seventeenth Corps of the United States 

The first expedition, under General Grant, was started in December, 
1862. The plan of General Grant was — that General Sherman should 
take command of the forces in Memphis in Tennessee, and Helena in Ar- 
kansas, and descend the river on transports with the gunboat fleet, and 
make an attack on Vicksburg by the 29di of December ; and that Gen- 
eral McClernand should take the forces at Cairo and move down to Vicks- 
burg, thus reinforcing General Sherman soon after his attack on the 
town. Meanwhile, General Grant was to advance rapidly upon the Con- 


federate troops in Mis'^issippi north and cast ot" Vicksburg, which formed 
the main body of their army, and keep thciu fully employed, and, if ihey 
retreated to Vicksburg, unive there with them, ready to cooperate with 
General Sherman. 

The Cutifcdcrate force, now under the command of General Pcmber- 
ton, retired to the river, and Oually fell back beyond Granada. Mean- 
while General Grant advanced to Oxford, and on the 2Uth of December 
an attack was .suddenly made in hi.s rear, by a Confederate force under 
General Van Dorn, on the garrison under Culonel Murphy at IloUy 
Springs, which surrendered. The prisoners were paroled, and the sup- 
plies collected there for General Grant's army were destroyed ; also a 
large quantity of cotton which had been purchased uf the people in the 

The surrender of Holly Springs was a severe blow to General Grant, 
and the ofi&ccrs in command were severely censured by him. Colonel 
IMurphy, the commander, allowed himself to be taken by surprise, and 
surrendered all of his command, and an immense quantity of supplies, 
which had been gatliered there fur the use of the advancing array. 

While General Grant was moving his columns toward the objective 
point, the enemy were by no means idle. On the same day on which 
Colonel Murphy surrendered Holly Springs, an attack was made on 
Davis's Mills, a post a little farther north, which was bravely repulsed. 
On the next day, Humboldt was captured, and an attack made on Tren- 
ton, while several important stations on the railroad were, in turn, visited 
by the Confederate raiders, who demolished the equipments of the roads, 
cut the telegraph lines, and inflicted serious injury, by destroying the com- 
munications of General Grant's army, which compelled him to make a 
retrograde movement, or fall back on Holly Springs. This left General 
Pemberton at liberty to concentrate his forces at Vicksburgh against 
General Sherman, who was then advancing on that place in accordance 
with General Grant's plan, while the cooperating forces were removed so 
far from the scene of action, that there was no hope of their being able to 
afford any assistance, eitlier by participation or by the diversion of any 
portion of the enemy's forces. 

Meanwhile Geueral W. T Sherman, who had been stationed at Mem- 
phis, embarked with one division on the 20th of December, and dropped 
down to Friar's Point, the place of rendezvous, where he was joined by 
Admiral Porter with his flag-ship and two consorls. 

The arrangements were completed by the military and naval command- 
ers during the next forenoon, the 22d, and the floet got under way, and 
moved down just below the mouth of White river, where it came to, at 
sunset. On the next day it descended to Gaines's Linding, and at two 
r. M. came to anchor, to await the arrival of the transports in the rear, 


and also a division of troops from Memphis. Half of the town of GainGs's 
Landing was destroyed by fire while the army was there. Similar de- 
struction had also been made at Friar's Point. These acts led to strin- 
gent, measures on the part of General Sherman. 

On the morning of the 25th, the fleet arrived at the mouth of the Ya- 
zoo river. The fleet consisted of more than sixty transports, with y 
number of iron-clad and other gunboats, and several mortar boats. The 
Yazoo is a deep, narrow, and sluggish stream, formed by the Tallahatchie 
and Yallobusha rivers, which unite in Carroll county, Mississippi. It 
runs through an alluvial plain of extreme fertility, about two hundred 
and ninety miles, and empties into the Mississippi river twelve miles 
above Vicksburg. 

Ou the '2Gth, the expedition, under convoy of the gunboats, moved 
up the Yazoo, and the troops were landed at various points from the 
junction of Old liiver with the Yazoo to Johnson's Farm, a distance of 
about three miles, without opposition. The distance from Vicksburg 
was about eight miles. A strong position, known as Haines's Bluff, some 
distance above on the river, was held by the Confederate forces, and in 
the mean while attacked by the gunboats De Kalb, Cincinnati, Louisville, 
Benton and Lexington. It was the plan of General Sherman to attack 
Vicksburg in the rear. For this purpose he was engaged, on the 28lh, 
in getting his forces in position. 

Vicksburg is situated upon a high bluff, rising nearly a hundred foot 
above the water. This bluff" faces very nearly to the west. 'J he 
Mississippi in front of Vicksburg runs in a south-westerly course. These 
bluffs are on its eastern bank, and run off from a point five miles below 
the city directly inland from the head of the bend in the Mississippi 
until they strike the Yazoo river, nine miles north-east of Vicksburg in 
a straight line, and twenty-three miles from the Mi>>sis-ippi by the course 
of the Yazoo river. 

The face of this bluff, throughout its length precipitous and high, 
furnishes a natural defence against any force attempting to get into the 
rear of the city from the north. Where the bluffs approach the Yazoo 
river the rebels had constructed formidable batteiies, which prevented 
the passage of all manner of craft. Just above these batteries, and de- 
fended by them, they had placed a heavy raft of timber and iron in the 
stream, making a most effectual blockade. 

Thus it was impossible to flank this range of bluffs. Tbey must be 
attacked, if attacked at all, full in front. Against this the enemy had 
guarded themselves by fortifying the entire range, from Vicksburg to 
Milldale, its upper extremity. These fortifications consisted of abatis in 
front of the bluffs to a width on the average of a mile. At the foot of the 


bliifF they had riflo pits tho entire way. Above the rifle pits, and in the 
fucc of the bluflF, they had constructed batteries mounting one gun each, 
at short intervals all the way along. On the summit of the bluffs they 
had earthworks thrown up, ready to cover field artillery whenever it 
should be desirable to bring it into action from any of these points. Thus 
these entire ranges of hills were one complete, bristling fortilication, 
dangerous to approach and difficult to capture. 

But, notwithstanding the dangers and difficulties in the way, our bravo 
Western soldiers were not afraid to grapple with them, nor doubtful of 
their abilities to overcome them. 

General Sherman's army consisted of four divisions, the first of which 
contained three brigades, under IJrigadier-General Geo. W. Morgan ; the 
second, three brigades under JJrigadier-General A. J. Smith, and the 
fourth, four brigades, commanded by Brigadier-General Frederick Steele, 
whose IJriga le Generals were Frank P. IJlair, John M. Thayer, C. E. 
IL)vey, and Golonel Flassendurbel. 

The division of General Steele was the largest one on the ground. 
IJlair's brigiide was detached, and after making a landing, pushed for- 
ward inland under General Morgan L. Smith. 

The rest of the division, under General C. E. Hovcy, was sent three 
miles further up the Yazoo Kiver, to penetrate the rear and get at the 
railroad near Vicksburg. He landed above Blake's Bayou, and within 
two miles, he encountered the heavy guns of the enemy on the high 
bluffs, in front of a lagoon or bayou which it was impossible to cross with- 
out boats or bridges, and he returned to Chickasaw Bayou, where Gen- 
eral II. H. Morgan had already landed. 

In taking position General A. J. Smith took the right, General Morgan 
L. Smith the right centre. General Steele the left centre, and General 
G. W. Morgan tho extreme lefr. The Federal line was formed in this 
order parallel with the bluffs, and in the edge of the timber that skirted 
the abatis, bringing it about a mile from the rebel lines. To reach this 
position from the point of debarkation on the Yazoo River, the forces 
had to cross a series of bayous, or deep ravines, which were then 
filled and unfordable. These crossings had to be made by pontoon 
bridges, the building of which was stoutly resisted by the rebels, 
occasioning a continual skirmishing throughout the day, though with no 
very serious results. In addition to this difficulty roads had to be cut in 
most instances ; the old road.s — where any existed — having been de- 
stroyed by the rebels or blockaded with fallen timber, while in most 
directions no roads existed at all. 

The Confederate batteries opened fire on General Morgan's position at 
an early hour on the 29th, which continued for about an hour, with but 
sliiiht cficct. 



On Monday morning the great eff)rt was to be made to gain the 
Lciglits, and all the forces were ordered to move at daylight. The mora- 
iiig dawned with a dense fog upon the face of the country, so thick as to 
ntterly jircvcnt any movement. Lying in the middle of the little narrow 
Yazoo, it was impossible to distinguish the timber on either shore. Any 
movemiMit made under such circumstances was, of course, attended with 
great hazard ; any firing was at a venture, and as likely to hit friend as 
foe. It was eight o'clock before the fog lifted. The gunboats which were 
to shell the rebel batteries and encampments on the left, at Milldale, 
having obtained their ranges on the previous day, did not wait for the fog 
to clear away, but were at work at the appointed time, drawing a brisk 
response from the enemy. 

At various points along the lines, too, field-batteries engaged the rebel 
batteries at a venture, and as the morning advanced this firing increased, 
until from eight to ten o'clock there was nothing to be heard bat one con- 
tinuous roar of artillery. Upwards of one hundred and fifty pieces, 
embracing all calibers, from the ordinary 6-pountler field piece to the 
heavy 10-inch Columbiad on the fortifications and the 11 inch Dahlgrens 
on the gunboats, united to swell the din, miking a roar such as the 
Valley of the Mississippi never before heard. 

This artillery duel lasted half the forenoon, resulting, as such duels 
usually result, in no great loss of life. The batteries in the face of the 
blufl' became rather too warm for occupancy, and one after another of them 
was abandoned, the gunners dragging their guns with them to the top of 
the hill. This apparently left the coast for the advance of the Federal 
infantry. As the lines began to emerge from the wouds, the broad plain 
extending from the timber to the base of the hills was found to be cut 
up with gulleys as well as covered with abatis, and these gulleys were 
filled with the sharpshooters of the enemy, whose skill was soon found to 
be of no mean order. 

Beyond these, at the foot of the blufi"?, was the range of rifle-pits, 
filled with rebel infantry. The right centre division, commanded by 
General Morgan L. Smith, made an effort to cross the bayou in their 
front. The Sixth regiment of Missouri Volunteers, under command of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Blood, was detailed for the advance. The enemy's 
works were very strong, there being a steep bank of thirty feet high to 
ascend, fortified with breast-works and rifle-pits, with a heavy force 
drawn up in line of battle behind them. The only approach was by a 
road across a sand-bar in the bayou, exposed to a double cross fire from 
the enemy, and the only way of ascending the bank was by cutting a 
road. An order was received for two companies to be sent over in 
advance for the purpose of cutting the road — one with picks and shovels, 
and the other with muskets to protect the workers from the euemy'js 


sliarpshnoters in the rifle-pits over tlieir heads. Company F, Captain 
Boutell, and Company K, Captain Buck, were the first to volunteer, the 
peril being so great that Colonel Blood was reluctant to order a detail. 
Their services were accepted, and the two companies of heroes went 
across under a most terridc fire, which left more than a tenth of their 
number stretched upon the sand. On getting across they immediately 
commenced operations on the bank, and very soon made a large excava- 
tion, almost sufficient for the purpose, when the position of the euemy'a 
forces and batteries were found to be such that the further prosecution 
of the attempt would be certain destruction to all concerned in it, 
without accomplishing any thing. In the mean time Lieutenant-Colonel 
Blood, with tlie balance of the regiment, had crossed over to their sup- 
port, but with still greater loss, one-sixth of his force being killed or 

The greater part of the division had now been brought under fire, and 
after vainly struggling to advance amid a storm of destructive missiles 
from an unseen enemy, the men hesitated, and were on the point of re- 
treating in confusion, when General Smith, seeing the emergency, rushed 
to the head to lead the column across in person. Scarcely had he taken 
his position, and called out a cheering word to the men, when a ball 
struck him in the thigh, tearing the flesh badly, causing a profuse 
hemorrhage. He soon became weak from the loss of blood, and was car- 
ried from the field. His division being left without a commander jfell 
back to its old position, and under cover of the Federal guns, and 
favored by approaching darkness and a heav}- shower of rain, succeeded 
in returning without further loss. Private McGee of the Sixth Missouri 
was shot four times, and thirteen bullets penetrated his clothing. As he 
lay upon the bar, unable to proceed, the enemy's balls still came 
whistling around him, and to protect himself he scooped a hole with his 
hands in the sand and crawled into it. 

General Steele's division had no bayou to cross, but had in front of it 
the same broad plain, covered with abatis and cut up with gulleys, in 
which were concealed the sharp-shooters of the enemy. Notwithstanding 
these obstacles, the column was crowded forward close up to the bluff 
securing one of the enemy's fortifications and a field battery of six guns. 
But the ground was too hot for them ; and they were compelled to retire, 
but not without takiiig their trophies with them. 

Once again this gallant division was brought up to the work and made 
a noble charge across the plain, this time making a considerable further 
advance than on the former occasion. They drove the enemy out of their 
rifle-pits and pursued them half way up the hill, fighting heroically as 
they went, receiving galling volleys of musketry at every step, with 
showers of grape and canister from the field artillery above. 

Some regiments of this division actually gained a foothold on the 


summit of the hill in this charge, but, being unsupported, were compelled 
to retire. 'Die division labored right nobly to maintain their position! 
but it could not be done, and again they retired across the plain to the 
cover of the timber, their lines terribl}^ tliinued and shattered by tlio 
eflfort, but carrying with them three more guns captured from the enemy. 

On the extreme left General 3Iorgan made a like ciFort to break the 
rebel lines and get into the rear of the batteries at Haines's Bluffs. But 
he too, after reaching the foot of the hill, was compelled to abandon the 

On the right, General A. J. Smith had a baj'-ou to cross in the midst 
of the plain, to reach which he had to find his way through a field of 
abatis, as well as to cross the abatis after reaching the opposite side of 
the baycu. But these difficulties had but little weight with him. He 
ordered the Fifty-fourth Ohio to charge across the bridge, which they 
did most gallantly. They were met on the opposite side by a vastly 
superior force of the enemy, but were not disposed to surrender or 
retreat. Most bravely they stood their ground, fiirhting against vastly 
superior numbers, until finally they were surrounded and forced to the 
alternative of surrendering or being annihilated. In this emergency, 
one of the Union batteries was brought to bear from our side of the 
bayou, and poured a fire of shell into the contending forces, re^rardless 
alike of enemy or friend. 

The rebels quickly abandoned the field, leaving many of their number 
upon the spot. The Ohioans then gathered uj) their killed and wounded 
and retired across the field. The Federal shell had killed seven of tlieir 
number, and wounded twenty or thirty others. ]5ut it was not a dear 
price to pay for the salvation of the regiment. They had made a noble 
stand, and deserved to be rescued. 

After the Fifty-fourth had retired, the gallant Eighth Missouri — the 
heroes of a dozen battles, and a regiment that v/as never known to waver 
or give way — and the Thirteenth Begulars, led the way. The crossing 
was effected with safety, when the little column filed off to the right to 
get possession of the road leading to Vicksburg. At this moment a 
brigade of rebels came charging down the road at a double quick. The 
little Union column soon wheeled into line and were ready to meet their 
assailants. A brisk engagement ensued, lasting nearly half an hour, 
when the rebels gave way in disorder and fled. 

This afiiiir terminated the fiicht for the day. In the edge of the 
evening the regiments that had maintained themselves across the bajuu 
were recalled, and the entire force rested, after the day's fight, where 
they had on the previous night. 

General Sherman's repulse at Vicksburg was complete. The entire 
force, under General McClernand, who at that time was the superior 
officer in command of the army, though not present during the engage- 


mcnt, rc-cmbarked on the third of January, on transports, closely 
followed by the rebel advance, which coming in range of the gun-boats 
was driven back with severe loss. The Federal loss was six hundred 
killed, one thousand five hundred wounded, and one thousand missing. 

A council of war was held on the 4th on board the Tigress, which 
vessel had been temporarily selected .by General McClernand as his 
headquarters. Admiral Porter, Major-Geuerals Siicrmau and McCler- 
nand, with the Generals of the divisions of the army in Kentucky were 
present. It was determined at this council that it would be folly to 
aitcaipt any thing farther against Vicksburg with the available force. 
Tiie rebels had means of communication by which they were rapidly 
and heavily reinforced, while the Unionists had no such opportunity or 
prospect of receiving reinforcements. It was, therefore, deemed expedient 
th;it the canipiign should bs abandoned. 

The rebel Generals Pemberton and Price were now in command at 
Vicksburg, and their army was reinforced to the extent of fifty thousand 
men. They had an artillery force of one hundred and sixty guns in 
battery, besides a large number of field-pieces. 

January 10-11, ISao. 

Shortly after the defeat of Sherman, the whole rebel force of Tennes- 
see was precipitated upon General llosecrans. On the 31st of Decem- 
ber, the battle of Murfreesboro' ensued, alrca ly fully described in this 
work, and resulted in the defeat of the rebels at that point, thereby 
securing the western part of Tennessee, and the region between Nash- 
ville and the Mississippi river. A few roving bands still infested the 
region, but as a whole, the specified space was cleared of the rebel 
forces. And thus opened the year 18G3 in the West. 

General McClernand, wishing to secure his rear from attack, and 
knowing thai a rebel force existed at Fort Hindman, on the Arkansas 
river, in conjunction with Rear-Admiral Porter, planned an expedition 
which resulted in a brilliant success to the Federal arms, and destroyed 
the hopes of the enemy and their confident anticipations of a victorious 
campaign — compelling them to assume defensive, instead of ofiensive 

A small settlement surrounds the Fort, which for nearly two hundred 
years has been known as the " Post of Arkansas." It is the oldest set- 
tlement in the State. Nearly two centuries ago, there was a Spanish 
town in the immediate vicinity, and also a small Spanish fort. Fort 
Hiudmau is situated on the right bank of the Arkansas river, about 


fifty miles from its mouth, and one hundtod and seventeen miles from 
Little lloolc, the capital of the State. It was settled in 16S5, by the 
Acadian French, and was the trading-post for furs from the surrounding 
country, during the winter and spring. It had now a few stores, and 
at intervals for a dozen miles aloDg the river bank, there was an occa- 
sional house. 

The fort was a regular, squarc-bastioned work, one hundred yards exte- 
rior side, with a deep ditch some fifteen feet wide, and a parapet eighteen 
feet high. 

On the 10th of January, the land forces, under command of General 
McClernand, and the flotilla, under Admiral Porter, ascended the river, 
and the former disembarked with a view of surrounding the work. Dur* 
ing the night, the gunboats fired a few shots at the work, and in the 
morning, the troops being in position, the work commenced in earnest, 
The New York Herald correspondent thus describes the attack : 

It was five minutes past one when the gunboats Baron DeKalb, Cin- 
cinnati, and Louisville, all iron-clads, steamed up to within about three 
hundred yards of the fort, and opened fire upon it. As soon as the 
gunboats hove in sight, and before they fired a shot, the fort opened on 
them. On a sort of sandy beach, by the bend in the river, the rebels 
had erected several targets, which were to assist them in aiming at the 
gunboats. Barricades had also been placed in the river opposite the 
fort; but the high water had washed part of them away and left the 
channel open. The bombardment increased in rapidity as other vessels 
of the squadron came into position. It took some time to get good range 
of the cascmated guns and the barbette gun on the fort. The Baron 
DeKalb had orders from the Admiral to fire at the right hand casemate, 
the Louisville at the middle one, and the Cincinnati at the groat 
9-inch Dalilgrcn gun en barbette. In half an hour after the bombardment 
commenced the casemates were struck by the shell from the gunboats. 
When the range was obtained, the shells from the gunboats struck the 
guns in the fort almost every shot, until every one was silenced and 
smashed. The Cincinnati fired shrapnell at first, and cleared the crew 
away from the 9-inch Dahlgren gun on the parapet, when the Baron De 
Kalb broke ofi" the muzzle with a 10-inch shot. The Lexington, light 
draught, Lieutenant-Commander James W. Shirk, moved up at two 
o'clock, and with her rifled guns replied to the Parrott rifled guns in the 
fort, while the Rattler, Lieutenant-Commander Walter Smith, and the 
Gilde, Lieutenant-Commander Woodworth, threw in shrapnell, and in 
company with the ram Monarch, Colonel Charles E. Ellet, of the army, 
commanding, pushed up close to the fort. Each of the gunboats silenced 
the gun it was instructed to fire at about the same time. At tweat-y 


minutes past two all the heavy smooth bore and rifled guns in the fort 
were most effectually silenced. The Black Hawk, Lieutenant-Commander 
K. K.. BieesG, the Admiral's flag-ship, steamed up and took part in the 
fight. The Admiral himscU", with his secretary, Doctor Heap, was in 
the little tug which was all the time screaming and dancing about among 
the gunboats, directing and superintending the fight. 


The first gun from the fleet was the signal for the soldiers to move, and 
Morgan and Sherman immediately pushed forward their men, and were 
met by a fierce fire from the rebel works. 

The troops in front were now sharply engaging the rebels in their 
•works, -while our artillery, and their field-pieces, behind the breast-works 
near the fort, were blazing away at each other with great rapidity. In 
one instance, the rebels galloped the horses up to the parapet with a gun, 
and when the horses wheeled with it, in order that it might be placed in 
position, the infantry fire killed all the horses in the traces, and the artil- 
lerists scampered off in an instant, and left their gun. At a shot from 
one of our Parrott guns, which knocked one of the timbers from the 
breast-work, at least a hundred rebels ran away from behind the intrench- 
ment into the bastioned fort. Our caissons were now coming from the 
front for ammunition. At ten minutes past three, most of Morgan's 
men were in line, and the remainder were forming in the rear. 
In five minutes more they were advancing with vigor. Sharp musketry 
and artillery firing was kept up all the time. At twenty minutes past 
three a heavy column of Morgan's men was seen moving to the left, near 
the river bank, advancing amid clouds of smoke. It was a body that was 
moving quickly to the front, to extend the advancing line. 

The time was now fifteen minutes past three. The fight was quite 
severe on both sides. Although the heavy guns in the fort were silenced 
the field-pieces and the infantry behind the parapet with great determi- 
nation continued to resist our vigorous advance. The Union line 
extended from the river on the left, round in front of the fort, and to the 
bayou ou the right. The engagement was general along its whole extent. 
Morgan sent word that his left was advancing steadily, and, as the gun- 
boats commanded the river, he had sent for Lindsay's brigade to return 
from the other side. 

It was now nearly four o'clock. The Admiral's flag ship was coming 
close to the bank, and, with the other gunboats, was pouring shot into 
the fort ; Lindsay's brigade, across the river, was also firing into the 
works, while Morgan's and Sherman's men were advancing fast in front. 
The white flag was seen in several places on the parapet ; enthusiastic 
cheers arose from the troops in front ; the firing ceased ; the rebels rose 


from lichhul the breast-work ; and the Federal troops rushed wildly for- 
ward with flags llyiiig, into and over the iutieaclmieuts. The fort had 

General McCleruand and staff dashed oif, and were soon in the enemy's 
intreuchmenis, surrounded by thousands of the men. When the flag was 
sluiwn i)U the river side, the jolly Jack Tars jumped ashore, and were 
soon in the fort, followed by Admiral Porter and a number of his otliccrs. 
Colonel Duiiningtou, couiinander of the fort, surrendered his sword to tlie 
Admiral in person. Geueral Churchill, commander of the forces, soon 
appeared with his staff, and surrendered himself and his troops to Greneral 
McClernand. General Churchill accused his subordinates of treach- 
ery. It may be, that the soldiers, seeing that further resistan,;j 
was useless, concluded to abandon the defence. One thing is certam, 
there was great unanimity among the rebels in the surrender. 


The following sketch of Admiral Porter, who commanded the gunboat 
attack, will inform the reader of his previous history : 

Acting Kear-Admiual David D. Porter, the commander of the 
Mississippi Flotilla, is the son of the famous Comuiodore David Porter 
of the Essex, and was born about the year 1814. In 1829 he entcicd 
the navy as midshipman on board the Constellation, and served six years 
on that ship and the United States. In 1835 he passed his examination, 
and served six years as passed midshipman on the Coast Survey, la 
1841 he was commissioned a lieutenant, and served with that rank on 
board the Congress for four years. After a brief period of service at the 
Observatory at Washington, he was placed on active duty under Commo- 
dore Tattnall in the Gulf of Mexico, and took a leading part in the naval 
operations of the Mexican war. In 1849 he took command of one of the 
Pacific Mail Company's steamers, and remained several years in the ser- 
vice of tliat Company. 

At the beginning of the year 1861 he was under orders to join the 
Coast Survey on the Pacific, bur, fortunately, had not left when the 
rebellion broke out. His name at that time stood number six on the list 
of lieutenants. The resignation of several Confederates left room for 
his advancement, and the " Naval Register" for August 31, 18G1, placed 
him number seventy-seven on the list of commanders. He was placed 
in command of the steam sloop of war Foivhatan, a vessel of about 
twenty-five hundred tons, and armed with eleven guns. After doing 
blockading duty for some time, he left that ship to take special charire of 
the mortar expedition. The active part he took in the reduction of fhe 
forts below New Orleans will make his name ever memorable in connec- 
tion with the mortar fleet. After the capture of New Orleans he, with 
his fleet, went up the Missis.^ippi river, and was engnged in several 


affairs on tliiit river, incluJiiig that of Vick.sburg. From that place ho 
was ordered to the James river, and returned in the Octorara. When 
off' Charleston, on his way to Fortress Monroe, he fell in with and cap- 
tured the Anglo-rebel steamer Tubal Cain. He was then appointed to 
the supreme control of all tlic naval forces on the Mississippi river, with 
the rank of Acting Roar-Admiral. The force under his orders, in vessels, 
guns, and men, was larger than had ever heretofore been under the com- 
mand of any United States naval officer. His squadron was distinct in 
every way from tliat of Admiral Farragut, who commanded the Western 
Gulf Blockading Squadron. 

The capture of the Post of Arkansas was the first exploit performed 
by the Admiral in his new command. 


Majou-CiEneral John A. McClernand was a lawyer by profession, and 
had figured prominently as a leading Democratic politician from Illinois. 
He was a leader of the Douglas Democrats, and did battle for them val- 
iantly at Charleston. At the outbreak of the war he took sides manfully 
for the Union, and shortly afterward was nominated a Brigadier-General 
of Volunteers. In the Belmont fight he gave evidence that he possessed 
good military capacity, and during his administration of military 
allairs at Cairo he secured the good will of the men under his command. 
In the reconnoissauce in the rear of Columbus, during the advance upon 
Fort Henry, and at the grand battle before Fort Donelsou, General 
McClernand manifested superior military ability. For his gallantry on 
these occasions he was, on the 21st of March, 1862, made by Congress a 
Major-Gencral of Volunteers, and accompanied the advance up the Ten- 
nessee river toward Savannah. At the battle of Pittsburgh Landing he 
was highly distinguished. 

After spending two days devoted to the care of the wounded, and the 
burial of the dead, the fort was blown up and completely destroyed, the 
rifle pits levelled, and a hundred wagons which had been captured, were 
burnt. On the ISth, General McClernand embarked with the main body 
of his troops, and proceeded down the Arkansas river to Napoleon, 
where a conference was held with General Grant and Admiral Porter 
and future operations were planned. 

Meantime an expedition of light-draught steamers, under Lieutenant- 
Commander J. G. Vfalker, and a body of troops led by General Gorman, 
had proceeded up the White river, and captured the towns of Des Arc and 
Duval's Bluff. 

General McArthur's corps of General Grant's army, left Memphis on 
the 20th of January on tiansports, and lauded at Young's Point, on the 


west side of the river, about nine miles above Vioksburg. ITore the 
greater part of the fleet was concentrated ; and on the 2d of February, 
General Grant arrived, and assumed command of the army. At this 
point a canul had been commenced by General Williams, previous to the 
unsuccessful attack on Vicksburg the year before, for the purpose of 
effecting a passage for vessels across the peninsula in front of Vicksburg 
out of range of the enemy's guns. 

The attack on Vicksburg, from up the river, had demonstrated the 
strength of its defensive works on the north, and convinced General 
Grant that they were too strong to be carried without a very heavy loss. 
The first step for him to accomplish, therefore, was the transportation of 
his army below the city, in order to make an attack from the south. The 
passage by the river was too hazardous to be attempted. The formida- 
ble batteries on the river front at Vicksburg were capable of destroying 
all the transports. Work was therefore recommenced on the canal. 
While this work was in progress, the river continued to rise rapidly, and 
great labor was required to keep the water out of the canal, and also out 
of the camps of the laborers and soldiers. In addition, the rain was in- 
cessant, and the magnitude of the work was, from these causes, greatly 
Increased. The earth taken out of the excavation was placed on the 
west side, and thus formed an embankment or levee, which it was sup- 
posed would prevent the water from flooding the country. 

While a portion of General Grant's forces were employed in cutting the 
canal at Young's Point, their commander, firmly intent on accomplishing 
the great enterprise before him, was industriously employed in the pros- 
ecution of other plans, which might be consummated in the event of a 
failure in the canal at the peninsula. A channel was cut from the Mis- 
sissippi into Lake Providence, on the west side of the Mississippi, and 
another into the Cold Water river on the eastern bank, by way of the 
Yazoo Pass. 

While these operations were in progress, a daring enterprise was un- 
dertaken by Colonel Charles E. EUet, commander of the ram steamer 
Queen of the West, by which he hoped to destroy a formidable rebel 
steamer called the City of Vicksburg, then lying under the guns of the 
fortifications at that place. 

The Queen of the West had been previously provided with all the 
arrangements deemed necessary to insure the complete success of the 
dangerous undertaking. Three hundred bales of cotton had been pro- 
cured further up the river and placed on board, particularly about the 
machinery, in order to save her from any serious injury by shot and 
shell from the rebel batteries. Rear- Admiral Porter had given orders 
that she should proceed down to Vicksburg, destroy the rebel steamboat 
City of Vicksburg, lying opposite the city, and then run past the lower 


rebel batteries. The Colonel was directed to keep close to the right 
bank going down, to have all his lights on board extinguished — as it was 
intended that she should run the gauntlet in the darkness— and. having 
safely passed the batteries, to anchor below the mouth of the canal and 
there wait for further orders. 

The Colonel started with the ram from above the bend at half past four 
o'clock in the morning. It was about six o'clock, just as the sun was 
rising, when the ram rounded the point of land lying opposite Vicksburg. 
She had only men enough on board to work her, it having been arranged 
that the remainder of the crew would cross the point of land and get on 
board of her below after she had passed the batteries. When rounding 
the point she was distinctly seen by the rebels. They immediately 
opened a heavy fire from several of their batteries, which crowned the 
crests of the bluffs about the city. The Queen slowly and steadily 
proceeded down the river under a heavy fire from those batteries, until 
she reached a point opposite the spot where the steamboat City of 
Vicksburg was lying. Colonel Ellet saw that the steamboat was lying in 
almost the same position as was the rebel ram Arkansas when he ran into 
her with the Queen of the West. If the rebel steamboat should be 
struck as the ram was running down the river, the prow, instead of pene- 
trating her, would bo inclined to glance, and the full force of the blow 
would thus be lost. Wishing to make the shock as effective as possible, 
when the ram had reached the proper position the Colonel turned her 
partly around, so as to face the city, and then made across the river 
straight for the fated steamboat. The rebels, who had crowded on the 
banks, scampered off" in the most affrighted manner from the shore, and 
sought safety in the city. The ram still went steadily on to the execution 
of her destructive errand. She struck the rebel steamboat forward of 
the wheel-house ; but at the moment of collision the current caught the 
stern of the ram and swung her round so rapidly that nearly all tho 
momentum of the blow was lost. To set the rebel steamboat on fire was 
part of the arrangement. That portion of the programme was intrusted 
to Sergeant J. H. Campbell. He was directed to fire the forward guns, 
loaded with combustible balls saturated with turpentine. As the ram 
swung round he was ordered to fire them. Just at that moment a 
64-pound shot from one of the rebel batteries came crashing into the 
barricade of cotton near him ; but the brave Sergeant did not hesitate a 
moment in the execution of the order. The guns were fired, a tremen- 
dous blaze was vomited forth from them, and the rebel steamboat was in 

About the same time the ram was found to be on fire. A shell from 
shore had set her on fire near the starboard wheel, while the discharge of 
the guns with the combustible balls had fired the cotton on her bow; 

182 THE v:xR for trk ^XIo^r. 

Both stoamboats were thus abhize at the same time. The flames spreail 
rapidly on both vessels. The smoke from the front of the ram rushed 
into her engine-room and threatened to suffocate the engineers. Those 
on board the rebel steamboat did all they could do to extinguish the 
flames on their boat. This they soon accomplished. Colonel EUet had 
intended to strike the rebel steamboat in the stern, and thus finish the 
work of demolition ; but the spreading flames on the Queen of the West 
made it necessary for him to attend to the safety of his own vessel. IIq 
therefore ran down stream, and set all hands on bonrd at work extinguish- 
ing the flames. Though the cotton had been wet before starting, the fire 
was extending rapidly, and several burning bales were thrown overboard 
in order to save the ram. She then anchored below the mouth of the 
canal, where she awaited further orders. 

All this time, both when approaching the city and leaving it, the rebel 
batteries were blazing away at the Queen of the West with light and 
heavy guns. Tt was a very exciting scene. About one hundred and 
twenty shots were fired from the batteries ; but the ram was struck only 
twelve times, and sustained no material injury. 

The Queen of the West now proceeded down the Mississippi, and when 
below Natchez, burned three small rebel steamer."?, the Moro, Berwick 
Bay, and A. W. Baker, laden with stores for the army at Vicksburg. 
After cruising for two weeks in the Atchafalaya, the Red river, and 
other tributaries of the Mississippi, inflicting serious injury on the rebel 
commerce, and capturing several vessels, she finally ventured up the 
Black river, and captured the rebel steamer Era. She proceeded to 
Fort Taylor, some fifty miles from the mouth of the river, where she 
grounded on a bar, exposed to the fire of the guns of the fort, and her 
crew was compelled to abandon the vessel, which fell into tlie hands of 
the enemy. Captain Ellet and most of the men succeeded in reaching 
the Era, and eff'ected their escape. 

When the work on the canal through the peninsula had approached its 
completion, and the huge iron scoop of the dredging machine had com- 
menced demolishing the barrier which intervened between the bed of 
the canal and the " Father of Waters," an unforseen occurrence, which 
could not be guarded against, crushed the enterprise. 

Owing to heavy rains and the rapid rise of the Mississippi above and 
opposite Vicksburg, the head of the canal gave way, and the water 
poured in at a tremendous rate. The force of the current, however, 
did not break the dam near the mouth of the canal, but caused a cre- 
vasse on the western side, through which the water flowed in such pro- 
fusion as to inundate the lower part of the peninsula to the depth of four 


or five feet. When tlic fracture occurred a number of soldiers were on 
the levee, and were thrown into the torrent, but no lives were lost. All 
attempts to repair the mischief proved ineffectual, and the troops were 
removed to Millikcn's Bend, fifteen miles above. 

On the 27th of February, Admiral Porter dispatched what was called 
a dummy Monitor, to run the Vicksburg batteries, in order to ascertain 
their exact location This contrivance was an old flatboat, with flour- 
barrels for smoke stacks, and a couple of large hogsheads to represent 
Monitor turrets. It ran the fortifications in gallant style, and drew the 
fire of the rebel guns, without creating a suspicion of the true character 
of the vessel. The rebel authorities, fearful of the capture of the Indi- 
anola, then in an exposed position undergoing repairs, caused that vessel 
to be blown up to prevent her from falling into the hands of the Federals, 
and thus uselessly sacrificed the finest iron-clad they had on the western 

The prudent forethought of General Grant exhibited by his employing 
a portion of his men in cutting channels from the Mississippi to Provi- 
dence lake on the west side, and to Moon lake on the east side, was 
now made apparent, and those works were progressing rapidly. 

Lake Providence is a few miles south of the boundary line between 
Arkansas and Louisiana. It is situated in Carroll parish, Louisiana, 
about one mile west of the Mississippi river, and about seventy -five miles 
above Vicksburg. It is about six miles in length. Two streams flow 
out of the lake to the south, Moon bayou and Tensas river. The former, 
after running about a hundred miles, unites with the latter. The two 
continue souih, and unite with the Washita, and are called after the 
junction, Black river. By cutting a channel from the Mississippi to Lake 
Providence, General Grant thought a communication might be had 
through that lake down the Tensas and Black into the Red river, and 
thence through the Atchafulaya, with General Banks at New Orleans. 
This route avoided the batteries of Vicksburg and Port Hudson. The 
canal to the lake was finished so as to let in water on the 16th of March. 
The flood was so great as to inundate a large district of country, some of 
which was fine land for growing cotton. Some boats passed into Lake 
Providence, but the uncertainty of the channel of the Tensas river, and 
the interest which was now excited by the Yazoo Pass expedition, to- 
gether with the unimportant results to be anticipated by removing a large 
force to the Red river or below, caused a diversion from this route to 
others presenting more certain prospects of success against Vicksburg. 

Eight miles below Helena, in Arkansas, and on the opposite side of the 
river, is a little lake, known as Moon lake. The passage from the Mis- 


sissippi across the lake to the mouth of the Yazoo Pass is about eight 
miles ; thence throui^h the Pass proper to the Coldwater river, twelve 
miles. The Coldwater, a narrow stream, runs south, empties into the 
Tallalui'ihic, which continues to flow south, and unites with the Yallo- 
busha, forming the Yazoo river, which empties into the Mississippi a few 
miles above Vicksburg. 

Another important operation took place on the 14th of March, which 
had much to do with the success of General Grant's movements. Admi- 
ral Farragut, with his fleet, attacked Port Hudson, and the flagship suc- 
ceeded in running past the batteries and arriving bcfure Warrenton, 
when he communicated with the fleet above. Shortly after this Admiral 
Porter succeeded in running some of his fleet down to the assistance of 
Farragut, and the united fleets began operating upon the river between 
Vicksburg and Port Hudson, cutting ofi" the communications of the rebels 
with Louisiana, and making important military movements on the Louisi- 
ana shore. 

An attempt to pass the rebel batteries at Vicksburg, was made by the 
Union rams Lancaster and Switzerland, on the 25th of March, without 
success. As soon as they came within range, the rebels opened a tre- 
mendous fire. The Lancaster was struck thirty times. Her entire bow 
was shot away, causing her to sink immediately. All the erew except 
two escaped. The Switzerland was disabled by a 64-pound ball penetrat- 
ing the steam-drum. She floated down, the batteries still firing, and 
striking her repeatedly, until finally the Albatross ran alongside and towed 
her to the lower mouth of the canal. 

An expedition proceeded down the Coldwater, on the 2nd of April, 
consisting of a portion of General Sherman's and General McClernand's 
corps, under General L. F. Ross, with eighteen transports and five small 
gunboats, and arrived at the mouth of the river without obstruction. 
They proceeded down the Tallahatchie, to its junction with the Yallo- 
busha, which there forms the Yazoo, near which point is the village of 
Greenwood. On a peninsula near by, the rebels had erected a fortifica- 
tion. It consisted of a single line of breastworks facing westerly, 
composed of cotton bales and earth, and flanked on the right by a battery 
of three heavy guns fronting the river. Other field-pieces were in posi' 
tion on the works. On the right flank of the line, a defence or raft of 
logs had been constructed, to serve as a blockade of the river. Directly 
in front of the breastworks was a deep slough, extending across the 
peninsula, and admirably serving the purpose of a ditch. The slough 
was close to the base of the works at the upper end, but gradually re- 
ceded from them at the lower, where it was several hundred yards dis- 
tant. Beyond the slough there was an almost impenetrable canebrake, 
backed by an extensive forest. 


The reduction of this fort was an inevitable necessity, before the expe- 
dition could proceed further, and the gunboat Chillicothe, Lieutenant 
Foster, was sent forward on the morning of the 11th of April to recon- 
noitre. The vessel approached the fortification, and fired several shota, 
but was soon struck four times by heavy rifle shots. 

At the same time detachments from the Forty-sixth and Forty-seventh 
Indiana regiments were sent out to feel the Confederate position on the 
land 8ide. A considerable body of the enemy's skirmishers were encoun- 
tered, who were driven across the slough and into the works, when the 
detachments were withdrawn. In the afternoon the Chillicothe was 
ordered to engage the fortification. After she had fired seven rounds, a 
64-pound shell from the enemy passed through a half-open port, striking 
upon the muzzle of a gun, in which a shell had been placed preparatory 
to cutting the fuse. Both shells exploded at once, by which three men 
were killed and eleven wounded. At this time orders were received to 
withdraw from the engagement. During the ensuing night a force wan 
sent to throw up a battery facing the enemy's works, west of the slough, 
and in the edge of the timber. A single 30-pound Parrott gun waa 
mounted, and the work concealed by brush from the view of the eneraj'. 
Subsequently another gun was mounted. No attack was made on the 
12th, in consequence of the absence of the mortar boats. After some 
delay, on the 13th, the engagement was commenced about half past ten 
A. M. by the land batteries. The gunboats Chillicothe and DeKalb soon 
after approached and opened their fire. It now appeared that the fortifi- 
cation mounted a rifled 64 Parrott, and three 24-Dahlgrens, and a small 
field battery. These guns were protected by a parapet composed of 
seven tiers of cotton bales, covered on the outside with eight feet of 
earth. The contest was bravely maintained for some time, when the fire 
of the enemy was suspended, but no disposition to surrender was shown. 
The gunboats and battery kept up the fire, but without any success in 
reducing the works. The Chillicothe was struck thirty-four times, but 
not severely injured. The DeKalb sufi"ered more, in consequence of 
some shot penetrating her casemates, by which one man was killed and 
five wounded. 

The impracticable nature of the land approaches rendered any attempt on 
the part of the military futile, and the expedition was compelled to retire. 

An expedition under Admiral Porter, consisting of the heavier gun- 
boats of his flotilla was undertaken about this time accompanied by 
transports, for the purpose of reaching the Yazoo river below Fort 
Pemberton, and Greenwood, and above Haines' Bluff. The route of this 
expedition was up the Yazoo to Cypress bayou, thence into Steele's bayou, 
and through Cypress lake to Little Black Fork and Deer creek. These 
waters were found to be impenetrable to the Federal vessels^ and that 
expedition also proved a failure. 


Atkii, 16-22, 1863. 

General Graut having now fully determined to transport his army be- 
low Vicksburg, the cooperation of the naval commander was obtained : 
and on the IGth of April, three transports, under cover of the gunboats, 
were iu readiness to descend the river. At half-past ten at night Admiral 
Porter's vessels started on their perilous expedition dowr^ the river. 

The vessels comprising the expedition started in the following order, 
fifty yards apart : Benton, Lieutenant-Commander Green ; Lafayette, 
C:iptain Walker, with the General Price lashed on the starboard side ; 
Louisville, Lieutenant-Commander Owen ; Mound City, Lieutenant Wil- 
son ; Pittsburg, Lieutenant Hall ; Carondolet, Lieutenant Murphy, and 
Tuscumbia, Lieutenant Commander Shirk, with the tug Day, which was 
lished to the Benton. The three army transports were in the rear of 
these vessels, and the Tuscumbia was placed astern of all. 

Two of the transports, when the firing became heavy, attempted to run 
up stream ; but Lieutenant Commander Shirk drove them back, and 
staved behind them until the Forest Queen was disabled. He then took 
her in tow, and placed her out of reach of the enemy's shot. 

All the vessels except the Benton took coal barges in tow, and all ex- 
cept the Lafayette brought them safely past the batteries. Having 
the Price alongside the Lafayette did not manage very well, and the coal 
baro-e got adrift, but was picked up at New Carthage. The Louisville, 
Lieutenant Commjvnder Owen, lost hers in the melee, but picked it up 
a<'ain. The Benton fired over eighty shell, well directed, into the town 
and batteries. 

The Pittsburg, Mound City and Tuscumbia were more fortunate than 
the others in not turning round as they came by, although no ill results 
happened to those vessels which did turn. The pilots were deceived by 
a large fire started on the side opposite to Vicksburg by the rebels, for 
the purpose of showing the vessel more plainly. Fires being started on 
both sides of the river at once, the vessels had some narrow escapes, but 
were saved in most instances, by the precautions taken to protect them. 
They were covered with heavy logs and bales of wet hay, which was found 
to be an excellent defence. 

No one on board of the transports was injured ; and, encouraged by the 
success of this enterprise. General Grant ordered six more to be pre- 
pared in like manner for running the batteries. On the night of the 22d 
of April the Tigress, Anglo-Saxon, Cheeseman, Empire City, Horizona 
and Moderator, left Milliken's Bend, and all passed in safety but the 


Tigress, which received a shot in her hull below water-line, and sunk on 
the Louisiana shore. 

April 29— May 3, 18G3. 

On Wednesday, the 29th of April, a part of the gunboat fleet under 
Admiral Porter, consisting of the Benton (flagship), Lafayette, Mound 
City, Pittsburg, Carondolet, Tuscunibia and Louisville, left Hard Times, 
and steaming down below Coftee Point, engaged the rebel batteries at 
Grand Gulf, just at the confluence of the Big Black and the Mississippi. 
The engagement commenced at eight o'clock and lasted until half-pat;t 

The enemy had four batteries at Grand Gulf, one on the rock around 
which the waters of the Big Black flow into the Mississippi, and three 
below, about midway between the water and the summit of the bluffs. 
In the former they had placed four heavy guns, and in the three latter 
two and three each, with parapets, embrasures and rifle pits. The up- 
per guns were very large, throwing shot and shell weighing one hundred 
pounds. The lower guns were mostly thirty-two-pounders. 

The Benton opened the fight, followed by the other gunboats in rapid 
succession. At first they stood off" at long range, and fired at a distance 
of a mile or more ; but as the tire became warm they pressed closely to 
the bluff, and passed and repassed the batteries, sending broadsides upon 
the fort whenever they came in position. For six hours where the gun- 
boats firing and receiving fire, until the gradually ceasing explosions of 
the enemy indicated their desire to terminate the engagement. 

The Benton suffered considerably in her upper works, not less than a 
half dozen shots passing entirely through her. One shell exploded in 
her porthole, killing five men. The Tuscumbia was disabled. Other 
gunboats were more or less injured, but not seriously. 

On the same day Admiral Porter sent the following report to the Sec- 
retary of the Navy : 

Hon. Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy : — 

I have the honor to inform you that, by an arrangement with General 
Grant, I attacked the batteries at Grand Gulf this moi-ninir, which were 
very formidable. After a fight of five hours and thirty minutes we 
silenced the lower batteries, but failed to silence the upper one, which 
was high, strongly built, and had guns of very heavy calibre. The vessels 
were unmanageable in the heavy current. It fired but feebly toward 
the last, and the vessels all laid by and enfiladed it, while I went up a 


s!i>irt distance to communicate with General Grant, who concluded to 
land the troops and march over to a point two miles below Grand Gulf. 
I sout the Laf;iyotto back to engage the upper batteries, which she did, 
and drove the sildiers out of it, as it did not respond after a few fires. 
At six p. M. we attacked the batteries again, and under cover of the fire 
all llie transports passed by in good condition. The Benton, Tuscunibia, 
and Pittsburg were much cut up, having twenty-four killed and fifty-six 
wounded, but they are all ready for service. 

"Wo land the army in the morning on the other side to march on Vicks- 
bin-. DAVID D. PORTER, Acting Rear Admiral. 

On the 30tb of April General Grant, with the three selected cor-ps de 
ar?nee, viz. : — the Thirteenth, General McClernand ; the Fifteenth, Gen- 
eral Sherman, and the Seventeenth, General McPherson, crossed from 
the Louisiana side of the Mississippi river and landed at Boulinsburg. 

The total number of killed in the fleet was twenty-six, and the wounded 
fifty -four. 

The bombardment was terrific, the gunboat men exhibiting a coolness, 
courage and determination which it seemed nothing could resist. The 
rebels stood bravely to their guns, but the steady and heavy fire of the 
iron-clads drove them again and again. All the boats were struck 
repeatedly ; but the Tuscumbia was the only one materially damaged. 
She had her hogchains cut away, and was otherwise so badly damaged 
that it was deemed advisable to remove her from the scene of action. 

Finding it useless to protract the contest when the object to be 
attained could be reached by another way, the gunboats moved out of 
range and prepared to run the blockade at night. The usual precautions 
were taken to prevent casualties, and each gunboat carried all the troops 
it could conveniently accommodate. The transports were filled with 
troops, and all the barges crowded — so eager were the soldiers to take 
part in the exciting scene. The gunboats started first, and were sub- 
jected to a severe fire, for it vas almost as bright as mid-day ; the moon 
shining from a cloudless sky. When the transports appeared the con- 
centrated fire of the rebel batteries was directed to them ; but none of 
the vessels were disabled. The Cheeseman had six or seven horses 
killed by the explosion of a shell ; but no lives were lost, as far as heard 

General Grant was aboard a tug during the fight, and directed the 
movement of troops, under cover of the gunboat fire. The forces 
landed at Bayou Pierre. 



Simultaneous with the land attack on Grand Gulf, General Sherman 
made a demonstration on Haines' Bluff on Wednesday morning, April 29. 
A considerable force was embarked on the transports, and preceded by 
the iron-clad Choctaw and all the wooden gunboats in the Yazoo, pro- 
ceeded up that stream. The bombardment at the Bluff was chiefly 
carried on by the gunboats Choctaw, BeKalb, Black Hawk, Romeo, 
Linden and three mortar boats. The former was struck fifty-two times, 
and had her upper works pretty badly battered. Her pilot house was 
struck by an eight-inch solid shot, which penetrated the extreme top, but 
fortunately injured none of the occupants. Her turret was struck 
repeatedly, but the shot all glanced off. She was also penetrated by 
three shots below the water line, one shot entering three feet below the 
surface of the water. Another shot penetrated her casemates and 
floundered on her deck. It was supposed to be a shell, and all hands 
beat a hasty retreat, except Chief Engineer Baldwin, who ran up, seized 
it and threw it overboard. General Sherman landed his forces on tho 
south bank of the Yazoo. The main object of the expedition was to pre- 
vent the enemy from sending reinforcements to Port Gibson, The 
rebels displayed a large force, and anticipated a battle. The expedition 
returned on the 7th of May. 

On the third of May, Admiral Porter took possession of the forts at 
Grand Gulf. The details of the occupation are narrated in his report to 
Secretary Welles, of the same date : 

Flagship Benton, Grand Gulf, Miss., May 3, 1863. 
Hon. Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy : 

b^iR — I have the honor to report that I gut under way this morning 
with the Lafayette, Carundolct, Mound City and Pittsburg, and proceeded 
up to the forts at Grand Gulf, for the purpose of attacking them if they 
had not been abandoned. The enemy had left before we got up, blowing 
up their ammunition, spiking their large guns, and burying or taking 
away the lighter ones. The armament consisted of thirteen guns in all. 
The works are of the most extensive kind, and would seem to defy the 
efforts of a much heavier fleet than the one which silenced them. The 
forts were literally torn to pieces by the accuracy of our fire. Colonel 
Wade, the commandant of the batteries, was killed ; also his chief of 
staff. Eleven men were killed that we know of, and our informant says 
that many were wounded, and that no one was permitted to go inside tho 
forts after the action except those belonging there. 


Wc had a hard fight for these forts, and it is with great pleasure that 
I roiiort that the ua. y liolds the doar of A'icksburg. Grand Gulf is the 
stri)ugcst place on the Mississippi. Had the enemy succeeded in finish- 
ing the fortifications no fleet could have taken them. 

I have been all over the works and found them as follows : — One fort 
on a point of rocks seventy-five feet higli, calculated for six or seven 
guns, mounting two seven inch rifles, and one eight-inch and one Par- 
rott gun on wheels, which was carried off. On the left of this work is a 
triangular work, calculated to mount one heavy gun. These works are 
connected with another fort by a covered way and double rifle pits ex- 
tending one quarter of a mile, constructed with much labor, and showing 
groat skill on the part of the constructor. The third fort commands the 
river in all directions. It mounted one splendid Blakely one hundred 
pounder, one eight-inch and two thirty-pounders. The latter were lying 
bursted or broken on the ground. 

The gunboats had so covered up everything with earth that it was im- 
possible to see at first what was there, with the exception of the guns that 
■were dismounted or broken. 

Every gun that fell into our hands was in good condition, and we 
found a large quantity of ammunition. 

These are by far the most extensively built works, Avith the exception 
of those at Vicksburg, I have seen yet, and I am happy to say that wc 
hold them. 

I am dismounting the guns, and getting on board the ammunition. 

Since making the above examination new forts have been passed nearly 
finished They had no guns, but were complete as regards position, and 
had heavy field pieces in them. 

DAVID D. PORTER, Acting Rear Admiral, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 


May 1, 1803. 

Two days after the bombardment of Grand Gulf by Admiral Porter's 
fleet, General Grant's forces made a successlul attack on Port Gibson, a 
point six miles in the rear of Grand Gulf, which compelled the rebels to 
evacuate the latter place. General Grant sent the following dispatch lo 
General Halleck, dated May 3 : 

Grand Gulf, Miss., May 3, 18G3. 
Major-General Halleck, General-in-Chief: 

^Ye landed at Bouliugsburg April 30, moved immediately ou Port 


Clbson, met the enemy eleven thousand strong, four miles north of Port 
Gibson, at two o"clock a. m. on the 1st inst., and engaged him all day, 
entirely routing him, with the loss of many killed, and about five hun- 
dred prisoners, beside tho wounded. Our loss is about one hundred 
killed, and five hundred wounded. 

The enemy retreated towards Vicksburg, destroying the bridges over 
the two forks of the Bayou Pierre. These were rebuilt, and the pursuit 
has continued until the present time. 

Besides the heavy artillery at this plaee, four field pieces were cap- 
tured and some stores, and the enemy were driven to destroy many 

The country is the most broken and difficult to operate in I ever saw. 

Our victory has been most complete, and the enemy are thoroughly 

Very respectfully, U. S. GRANT, 

Major-General Commanding. 

Governor Yates, of Illinois, writing from Grand Gulf, on the following 
day, gives a glowing account of the operations of the Federal army : 

" Our arras are gloriously triumphant. We have succeeded in winning 
a victory which, in its results, must be the most important of the war. 
The battle of May 1 lasted from eight o'clock in the morning until 
night, during all of which time the enemy were driven back on the 
right, left and centre. All day yesterday our army was in pursuit 
of the rebels, they giving us battle at almost every defensible point, and 
fighting with desperate valor. Last night a large force of the enemy 
was driven across Black river and General McClornand was driving 
another large force in the direction of Willow Springs. About two 
o'clock yesterday I left General Lo:an, with his division in pursuit of 
the enemy, to join General Grant at Grand Gulf, which the enemy had 
evacuated in the morning, first blowing up their magazines, spiking their 
cannon, destroying tents, etc. On my way to Grand Gulf I saw guns 
scattered all along the road, which the enemy had left in their retreat. 
The rebels were scattered through the woods in every direction. This 
army of the rebels was considered, as I now learn, invincible ; but it 
quailed before the irresistible assaults of Northwestern valor." 

193 THE \V\K FOR TflE CNIO}T. 


Ai'iUL 17-May 2, 1SG3. 

For a lonj time Colonel Grierson's ambition had been to lead the cav- 
alry force under liis charge into the enemy's country. At last he received 
an intimation from General Grant's headquarters that his desire would 
be gra(ified. Colonel Grierson commanded the First brigade of cavalry 
under General Grant. This force had been for some time occupyin.5 
Lagrange, Tcnn., which is a small town on the Memphis and Charleston 
railroad, about fifty miles east of the city of Memphis, and four mile:^ 
west of the junction of the Mississippi and Charleston railroads. When 
Colonel Grierson first received permission to move with his force into 
Mississippi, one of the chief objects of the expedition was to cut oif the 
means of communication between the rebel army of the West, and that of 
General Bragg, then in Middle Tennessee ; but when the expedition was 
once begun, it branched off into many unthonght-of directions, and ended 
in being one of the most brilliant, as well as imp /rtant feats of the war. 

On the morning of the 17th of April, Colonel Grierson received orders 
from General Grant to move his force out on the Ripley road ; accordingly, 
his brigade, consisting of the Sixth Illinois cavalry, commanded by 
Lieutenant-Colonel Loomis ; the Seventh Illinois cavalry. Colonel 
Edward Prince ; and the Second Iowa cavalry, Colonel pjdward Hatch, 
obeying the directions they had received, bivouacked for the night on a 
pl.mtation a few miles northwest of the town of llipley. During the 
night five guerrillas were captured by the Union men. On the morn- 
ing of the next day the march began ; the main body of Colonel Grierson's 
men proceeded in a southerly direction, while one regiment, the Second 
Iowa, crossed the Tallahatchie, and went in a southeasterly direction. 
On both sides of the river the enemy's pickets were posted in all direc- 
tions, endeavoring to prevent the Union soldiers from crossing, and there 
was constant skirmishing between them and the rebels. The pickets were 
constantly driven in ; and an attempt to fire the bridge at New Albany 
was prevented by the rapid movements of Grierson's men. At the close 
of the day the Union troops had accomplished their contemplated march, 
and were stationed as follows : the Sixth and Seventh Illinois regiments 
were encamped on a plantation a few miles south of New Albany, and 
the Second Iowa about four miles east of the same place. The Second 
Iowa, during the night, repulsed a severe attack of the enemy. On 
the morning of the lOih, Colonel Grierson dispersed his troops in various 
directions, with a view to mislead the enemy, and cause him to suppose 

qriekson's raid. 193 

that the main object of the expedition was to break up the various mili- 
tary organizations in that part of the country. Accordingly, one detach- 
ment marched to the eastward, another moved back toward New Albany, 
and a third marched nortliwcst towards King's Bridge ; and the enemy 
was thus completely puzzled and in total ignorance of the real destina- 
tion of the Union forces. 

Colonel Grierson himself, with the main body of his command, marched 
in a southerly direction, and were subsequently joined by the remainder 
of the force, when they took the road to Pontotoc. There they met a de- 
tachment of the rebels, who fled be ore them, after the exchange uf a few 
shots, and were hotly pursued, and driven through the town. Their en- 
tire camp equipage was captured, and a large store of salt, which was de- 
stroyed. The march was then continued till about eiglit o'clock at night, 
and the men encamped at a point on the road leading to Houston, a few 
miles south of the Pontotoc. At an early hour on the following morning 
the reveille was sounded. Major Lull of the Second Iowa, with about 
one hundred and fifty picked men, and one piece of artillery, was then 
sent back to Lagrange in charge of all the prisoners and captured prop- 
erty which had been taken from the rebels, in order that the force might 
be relieved of all incumbrance, and the enemy made to suppose that 
Colonel Grierson was retracing his steps. 

At five o'clock on the morning of the 21st, Colonel Hatch was ordered 
with his command to proceed up the Columbus road, and destroy as much 
of the Mobile and Ohio railroad as was possible ; and to attack Columbus 
These orders were successfully carried out ; and Colonel Hatch, with the 
troops under his command returned to Lagrange, and thus aided in still 
further deceiving General Chahners (who was in command of the rebela 
at this point) in regard to the movements of Colonel Grierson. 

In the mean time the remainder of the Union forces had continued their 
march, and reached Starkville, where they captured and destroyed a 
rebel mail which had arrived ; and set fire to and utterly destroyed one 
of the finest tanneries in the country, which they reached after continu- 
innr their march for five miles in a southerly direction. 

On the following day, the 22d, the march was not only disagreeable, as 
the men were often compelled to swim their horses through streams and 
lead them over blind marshes, but extremely perilous ; for often horse 
and rider would sink into the marsh together, and though the men 
escaped with life, the hapless animals often disappeared and were 
lost. With unparalleled fortitude the men pushed on ; and at ten o'clock 
the next morning they reached Philadelphia, Miss. At this jdace the 
mail was taken from the post-office, and destroyed, but nothing else was 
injured i.i any way. 

On the following day the march was vigorously proaecutcd. A battalion 


was sent by the Southern railroad to Decatur and ^lewton, where they 
were joined the same night by the main body, under Colonel Gricrson. 
Two trains of cars were captured at Newton, laden Avith every descrip- 
tion of commissary stores, and a large quantity of ammunition and loaded 
shell. All were destroyed, and the locomotives rendered unfit for any 
further service. The march was then resumed, and continued till the 
25th, when a halt was made at a plantation a few miles west of Montrose, 
the men having fired every bridge which they passed on the way. From 
this place the route was slightly changed, and the cavalry pressed on in 
a more southerly direction. 

At Raleigh they halted for the night, and a scout who had been sent 
out to cut, the telegraph wires on the Southern railroad between Lake 
Station and Jackson, was met by the enemy, and questioned as to the 
whereabouts of Grierson's men. The rebels were then on the direct road 
to the camp, and not more than fourteen miles distant ; but the scout, 
with admirable self-possession, parried their questions, and succeeded 
in misleading them as to the position of the Union troops, and then 
escaped and hastened back to camp in time to give information of the 
enemy's proximity. Colonel Gricrson immediately moved his men across 
Leaf river, and destroyed the bridge to prevent the rebels following and 
attackinf^ him in the rear. They then marched on to Westville, and 
swam their horses across Reaul river, at a point ten miles from West- 
ville. The advance, under Colonel Piinee, had by this time reached 
Ilazlehurst station, where they captured a train of forty cars, — four of 
Avhich were filled with shell and ammunition, and the remainder with 
commissary stores. As the march continued, the cavalry came upon 
a team carrying a 32-pound Parrot gun, which was then on its way to 
Fort Gibson. The piece was captured and spiked. Two detachments 
from the main body had been doing serious damage to the rebels, burn- 
ing cars, water tanks, and a great deal of other propertj^. 

At early dawn on the 28th, the advance moved upon Brookhaven, and 
entered the town so suddenly that two hundred rebels were taken pris- 
oners, before they had recovered from their surprise at finding them- 
selves confronted with Union soldiers. At Gallatin a camp of instruc- 
tion, said to have been one of the most beautiful and extensive in the 
State, was utterly destroyed. After leaving Gallatin, the Union cavalry 
encountered a rebel cavalry force under Colonel Garland, and a occurred, in which the enemy suflfered severely in killed, 
wounded, and prisoners. Two clever feints, menacing Port Gibson and 
Natchez, deceived the enemy again, and the main body marched straight 
forward to Brookhaven, which was already occupied by Colonel Grierson's 

On the 30th, the whole force left Brookhaven, and proceeded to Bogue 

geikrson's TiAm. 195 

Cluto Station, destroying every briJg,^ on the way. At the station, fif- 
teen freight cars, which were standing on the track, partially loaded, 
n ere fired, and utterly destroyed From that point to Summit a rapid 
march was performed, and there twenty-five freight cars were reduced 
to ashes. Information was sent to Colonel Grierson that a regiment of 
rebel cavalry was rapidly niovim: toward Wassitta, and they were dis- 
covered at Wall's bridge on the Tickfaw, by a detachment of Union cav- 
alry, who dashed in upon them, and killing and wounding a large number, 
put the rest to flight. Colonel Grierson's loss was one killed and five 

The march again continued, at first cast of the Tickfaw, and then 
changing again continued directly south, marching through woods, lanes 
and by-roads, and struck a road which led directly from Clinton to 
Osyka. There the cavalry came most unexpectedly upon the Nintli 
Tennessee cavalry regiment, which was posted in a strong defile guarding 
the bridges across the Tickfaw river. A sharp skirmish ensued, in 
which the enemy's pickets were captured, and the regiment driven back 
with great loss. The cavalry then crossed the river at Edward's bridge, 
where they were met by Garland's rebel cavalry, which they put to flight 
with a single battalion of the Sixth Illinois, and two guns of the battery, 
without even halting the column. It was clearly perceived now that 
the rebels were sending out forces in all directions to intercept the march 
of Colonel Grierson's troops. 

At midnight the Amite river was crossed, over which there was but 
one bridge ; and the National troops were just in time to escape a heavy 
column of infantry and artillery which had been sent to intercept them. 
They moved on to Sandy creek, where Hughes' cavalry, under Lieutenant- 
Colonel "Wilburn, were encamped, and reached that point at dawn of day. 
The rebel camp, completely surprised, was in no condition to make a suc- 
cessful resistauce, and a large number of the enemy were taken prison- 
ers ; the camp, consisting of one hundred and fifty tents, was destroyed, 
together with a great quantity of ammunition, guns, public and private 
stores, books, papers, and public documents. A large number of horses 
wore captured also; and the cavalry then took the road to Baton Rouge, and 
on the way surprised Stuart's cavalry at Commite river, and took prisoner 
forty men with their arms and horses. 

On the morning of the 1st of May, the commander at Baton Rouge 
was startled by the intelligence of the close proximity of Grierson's 
cavalry, and sent out two companies under Captain Godfrey, to meet and 
welcome them. The troops entered the city at three o'clock in the after- 
noon, amid cheers and shouts of welcome that rent the air, and 
echoed along the hills toward Port Hudson. Thus in less than six- 
teen days this heroic cavalry force had marched over six hundred miles, 


over niarslics and rivers, endangering their lives for whole days at every 
jnilc they traversed. The last twenty-eight houvs' march was performed 
without either rest or food to men or horses. The loss to Colonel 
Grierson's command during the whole journey was three killed, seven 
wounded, five sick and left upon the route, and nine men missing. Of 
the enemy, over one hundred were killed and wounded ; five hundred 
taken prisoners (many of them officers); from fifty to sixty miles of rail- 
road and telegraph wire destroyed, and three thousand stand of arms, 
together with army stores and government property, captured and de- 
stroyed — making in all a loss to the rebels of over three million dollars. 

May 12, 18G3. 

On Thursday, May 7tl), General McPherson moved his corps to Rocky 
Spring, and his camp was occupied next day by General Sherman. On 
tJaturday McPherson again moved t.) the eastward, to the village of Utica, 
crossing the road occupied by McCIernand, and leaving the latter on his 
left. On Sunday morning McCIernand marched to Five Mile creek, and 
encamped on the south bank at noon, on account of broken bridges, which 
were repaired the same day. Monday morning Sherman's corps came 
up, passed McClernand's, and encamped that night at the village of Au- 
burn, about ten miles south of Edwards' Station, on the railroad from 
Vicksburg to Jackson. As soon as it passed, McClernand's corps fol- 
lowed a few miles, and then took a road going obliquely to the left, lead- 
ing to Hall's Ferry, on the Big Black river. Thus, on Monday evening 
General McCIernand was at Ilalls Ferry ; General Sherman was at 
Auburn, six or eight miles tonhe northeast, and General McPherson was 
about eight miles still further to the northeast, a few miles north of Utica. 
The whole formed an immense line of bar.tle, Sherman's corps being in 
the centre, with those of McPherson and McCIernand forming the right 
and leit wings. From Grand Gulf the army marched westward, but, by 
these las; movements, swung on the left as a pivot, and fronted nearly 

Up to this the enemy had not appeared on the line of march. Oq 
Tuesday morning General McClernand's advance drove in the enemy's 
pickets near Hall's Ferry, and brisk skirmishing ensued for an hour or 
two, with little loss to either side. By noon the rebels had disappeared 
from his front, and seven wounded and none killed was the total Union 
loss. General Sherman put Steele's division in motion early in the 
morninir, and came upon the enemy at the crossing of Fourtem Mile 
creek four miles from Auburn. The cavalry advance was fired into 


from the thick wootls that skirt the stream, but was unable, owing to the 
nature of the ground, to make a charge or clear the rebels from their 
position. Landgraber's battery was thrown to the front, supported by 
the Seventeenth Missouri and Thirty-first Iowa infantry regiments, and 
threw a few shell into the bushy undergrowth skirting the stream which 
gave them cover. Skirmishers were thrown out, and advanced to the 
creek, driving the enemy slowly. A brigade was thrown to the right 
and lett flanks, when the rebel forces, mainly cavalry, withdrew toward 
Eaymond. The bridge was burned during the skirmish, but a crossing 
was constructed in two hours, and trains were passing before noon. 

But the principal opposition to the line of march was in the frontof Gen- 
eral McPherson. General Logan's division came upon a body of rebel 
troops, estimated at about ten thousand, posted on Fondren's creek, two 
miles southwest of this, at ten o'clock on Tuesday morning. Brisk skir- 
mishing began at once, and a general engagement was soon brought on. 
The enemy (as in front of General Sherman), was almost wholly concealed 
at first by the woods bordering the stream, behind which their forces 
were posted. Their artillery was on an eminence that commanded our 
approach. The Federal troops had to cross an open field, exposed to a 
terrible fire. The First and Second brigades, commanded by Gen- 
eral J. E. Smith, and General Fennis (both Illinois regiments), were in 
the thickest of the fight, and suffered most. After three hours' hard 
fighting, the enemy withdrew sullenly in two columns, the principal one 
taking the road to Jackson. The Federal loss, in killed, wounded, and 
missing, was about three hundred. The rebel loss was much greater. 

May 14, 1863. 

On the 13th, General McPherson moved to Clinton, and destroyed the 
railroads and telegraph. General Sherman moved to a parallel position 
on the Mississippi Springs and Jackson road, and General McClernand 
to a point near Raymond. 

On the 14th General McPherson and General Sherman each advanced 
from his respective position toward Jackson. The rain had fallen in tor- 
rents during the night before, and it continued to fall until about noon, 
thus making the roads at first slippery and then miry. Nevertheless, the 
troops marched in excellent order and spirits about fourteen miles, when 
they came upon the enemy. The main body of their force in Jackson 
had marched out on the Clinton road, and encountered General McPher- 
son about two and a half miles trom the city. A small loice of artillery and 


infantry also took a strong position iu front of General Sherman, ab.iut 
the same distance out from Jackson. 

On the march of General McPherson from Clinton toward Jackson, 
General Crocker's division held the advance. All was quiet until he 
reached a hill ovcr'ooking a broad open field, through the centre of which 
and over the crest of the hill beyond, the road to Jackson passed. On 
the left of this latter hill the enemy had posted his artillery, and along 
the crest his line of battle. As the Federal force came within range, 
the artillery of the enemy opeJied fire. The battery of the First Missouri 
•was moved to the left of a cotton gin in the open field, and returned the 
fire for nearly an hour, when the guns of the enemy were withdrawn. 
Meantime, General Crocker had thrown out two brigades to the right and 
left of his battery, supported by another brigade at a proper distance, 
and had also pushed forward a strong line of skirmishers, and posted them 
in a ravine in front, which protected them from the fire of the enemy. 
After a little delay they were again advanced out of cover, and a desul- 
tory fire ensued between the opposite line of skirmishers, in which the 
enemy, owing to the nature of the ground, had the advantage. At length 
General Crocker, seeing tlie necessity of driving the rebels from the crest 
of the hill, ordered a charge along the line. 

With colors flying, and with a step as measured and unbroken as if on 
dress parade, the movement was executed. Slowly they advanced, 
crossed the narrow ravine, and, with fixed bayonets, reached the crest of 
the hill in easy range of the rebel line. Here they received a tremen- 
dous volley, which caused painful gaps in their ranks. They held their 
fire until they were within a distance of thirty paces, when they deliv- 
ered the returning volley with fearful effect, and, without waiting to re- 
load their muskets, with a terrific yell, they rushed upon the stag^^^ered 
foe. Over the fences, through the brushwood into the enclosure, they 
worked their way, slaughtering on the right and left without mercy. The 
enemy, astonished at their impetuosity, wavered and fell back, rallied 
agam, and finally broke in wild confusion. They finally retreated north, 
but without further damage. 

When General Sherman encountered the enemy, he disoovered their 
weakness by sending a reconnoitering party to his right, which had the 
effect of causing them to retreat from that part of their line. A few ar 
tillerists, however, remained in their places, firing upon General Sher- 
man's troops until the last moment. 

At this time General McClernand occupied Clinton with one division, 
Mississippi Springs with another, Raymond with a third, and his fourth 
division and General Blair's division of General Sherman's corps were 
with a wagon train, still in the rear, near Auburn. At the same time 
General McAithur, with one brigade of his division of General McPher- 


son's corps, was moving toward Raymond on the Utica road. It was 
not the intention of General Grant to move these forces any nearer 
Jackson, but to have them in a position where they could be in support- 
ing distance if the resistance at Jackson should prove more obstinate 
than there seemed any reason to expect. 

On the retreat of the enemy, General McPherson followed directly 
into the city of Jackson. A fine battery of six pieces was found, and 
around the Deaf and Dumb Institute, which was used as a hospital, tents 
enough were seized to encamp an entire division. The commissary and 
quartermaster's stores were in flames. The Governor and State Treasu- 
rer had withdrawn, taking the State funds and papers. All citizens 
officially connected with the State or Confederate Governments had also 
left. Many soldiers remained, besides a large number in the hospital. 

Early on the morning of the day following the occupation of the city 
of Jackson it was decided to evacuate the position. There were several 
reasons which induced General Grant to arrive at this decision, promi- 
nent among which was the difficulty of keeping intact his long line of 
communication, and the fear that General Johnston — who was known to 
be hovering in the region north of Jackson with a force estimated at 
twenty thousand men — would attack his rear. The force which he en- 
countered just before reaching Jackson, under General Gregg, had divi- 
ded, one portion going to Canton from the north, and the other from the 
south. Johnston and Gregg combined might prove altogether too formi- 
dable. It was therefore decided to return to Clinton and move upon 

The main column of the enemy was at Edwards* Station, proposing to 
give battle there. Soon after daylight the column was in motion, Gene- 
ral McPherson in advance. They reached Clinton at noon, and after an 
hour's delay marched to their camping ground, a short distance from the 
village of Bolton. 

The programme of the advance was arranged by General Grant and 
General McClernand as follows : — Extreme left. General Smith, sup- 
ported by General Blair ; on the right of General Smith, General 
Osterhaus, supported by General Carr ; General Hovey in the centre, 
with McPherson on the extreme right, and Crocker as reserve. In this 
order the advance was made ; General McClernand's corps, with the 
exception of General Hovey's division, reaching the position by way of 
the several roads leading from Raymond to Edward's Station. 

On the evening of the 15th, General McClernand heard that the enemy 
was advancing from Edwards' Station to Raymond, and quickly placed 
his troops in order of battle to repel the anticipated attack. Extensive 
reconnoissances revealed the fact, however, that he was merely feeling 
his position and force, and that no attack need be expected that day. 

202 tup: war for the union. 

At nine in the morning, General Osterhaua took possession of Bolton, 
capturing a rebel mail and several prisoners. General iSIcClernand 
placed his army in camp early in the evening, and by daylight the fol- 
lowing day each division occupied the ground selected, and prepared to 
ofl'er battle. 

May 16, 1863. 

Early this morning General McClernand's corps was put in motion. 
General Hovey's division was on the main road from Jacksoa to Vicks- 
burg, but the balance of the corps was a few miles to the south. Gene- 
ral Ward was on a parallel road, and General McPherson's corps followed 
Hovey's division closely. 

The enemy's first demonstration was upon the Union extreme left, 
which they attempted to turn. This attempt was most gallantly repulsed 
by General Smith, commanding the left wing. At seven o'clock the 
skirmishers were actively engaged ; and as the enemy sought the cover 
of the forest the Union artillery fire was opened, which continued with- 
out intermission for two hours. At this time General Kausom's brigade 
marched on the field, and took up a position as reserve behind General 

At nine o'clock General Ilovey discovered the enemy in front on 
Champion Hill, to the left of the ruad, near Baker's creek, apparently in 
force. Skirmishers were thrown out, and the division advanced cautiously 
and slowly to give General McPherson's advance division under General 
Logan time to come within supporting distance. General Hovey'3 
division advanced across the other field at the foot of Champion Hill in 
line of battle. 

At eleven o'clock the battle commenced. The hill itself was covered 
■with tiiuber, and is, in fact, but an abrupt terminus of a high ridge, run- 
ning north and south, flanked on both sides by deep ravines and galleys, 
and in many places covered with an impenetrable growth of scrubby 
white oak brush. The rebels appeared deficient in artillery throuihuut 
the battle, but opened with rather a heavy fire from a four-gun battery 
of rifled six-pounders, planted about four hundred yards back from the 
brow of the hill. The woods on both sides of the road leadin • up the 
face of the hill, and winding back on the ridge a m le or more, were 
filled with sharpshooters, supported by infantry. Here the battle beg u 
just as the Federals entered the edge of the timber, and raged terribly 
from eleven till between three and four o'clock. 


The battle raged fearfully abn j; the cnt re line, the evident inten- 
tion of the enemy being to mass his forces upon Hovey on the centre. 
There the fight was most earnest ; but General McPherson brought his 
forces into the fi Id, and after four hours' hard fighting the tide of battle 
was turned, and the cnoniy forced to retire 

Disappointed in his movements upon the Union right, ho turned his 
atiention to the left of Hovey 's division, where Colonel tjlack commanded 
a brigade of Iiidiaiiiaus. Massing his forces here he hurled them against 
the opposing columns with irresistible impetuosity, and forced them to 
full back ; not, however, unlil at least one quarter of the troops com- 
prising the brigade were either killed or wounded. Taking a new posi- 
tion, and receiving fresh reinforcements, the Federals again attempted to 
stem the tide, this time with eminent success. The enemy were beaten 
back, and compelled to seek the cover of the forest in their rear. Fol- 
lowing up their advantage, without waiting to reform, the soldiers of tho 
Western army fixed their bayonets and charged into the woods after 
them. The enemy were seized with an uncontrollable panic and thought 
only of escape. In this terrible charge men were slaughtered withouti 
mercy. The ground was literally covered with the dead and dying. 
The enemy scattered, in every direction, and fled through the fields to 
reach the column now moving to the west along the Vicksburg road. 

General Hovey's division carried the heights in gallant style, and, 
making a on the first battery, drove the gunners from their postn, 
and captured the pieces. The rebels lay thick in the vicinity of the guns. 
Their horses were more than half killed, their gun carriages and caissons 
broken, and knapsacks, blankets, small arms and other debris, attested the 
deadly struggle. The colors of the Thirty-first Alabama regiment were 
c iptured there. 

At this juncture Mitchell's Ohio battery was opened at about eighty 
yards from the brow of the hill. The rebels made a dash for it ; but tho 
fleetness of the horses prevented its capture. At the same time the 
rebels appeared with fresh troops on that wing, and redoubled their 
efforts to hold their position and dislodge the Federals on the hill. Hovey 
was slowly driven back to the brow ; but abrig.ide from General Quimby 
was ordered to his support, and the ground was speedily recovered and 
the rebels finally repulsed. 

At the commencement of tho engagement General Logan's division 
marched past the brow of the hill, and, forming in line of battle on the 
right of Hovey, advanced in grand style, sweeping everything before 
them. At the edge of the wood in front of Logan the battle was most 
desperate. Not a man flinched nor a line wavered in this division. All 
behaved like veterans, and moved to new positions with a conscious tread 
of victory. Two batteries were captured by this division, and enough 


hard fi Jiting done to establish its fame. They also captured a large por- 
tion of the prisoners, small arms, &o. 

Between three and four o'clock General Osterhaus and General Mc- 
Arthur's divisions came into action on the extreme left, and comple;ed 
what had heen so auspiciously carried forward. They were both miles 
away when the engagement began, but were brought forward with all 
dispatch possible. The enemy were in full retreat. 

■fhc battle ended, the left was speedily advanced upon the Vicksburg, driving the enemy rapidly before them, and picking up as they 
advanced large numbers of prisoners and guns. 

On the left of the road were seen large squads of rebel soldiers, cut of! 
from the main column, who engaged at intervals with artillery. One of 
these was under the command of Major-General Tilghman, who was 
struck by a shell from a Federal battery and instantly killed while in the 
act of sighting a gun. The Federal loss in this battle amounted to three 
thousand in killed' and wounded; while that of the rebels approximated 
two thousand five hundred in killed and wounded and three thousand 

Major-General Lloyd Tilgliraan, of the rebel army, was a native of 
Maryland, and nearly fifty years of age. He was appointed to West Point 
Military Academy as a cadet in 1831, and graJuaied on the oOth of June, 
1836, standing last but three in a class of forty-nine members. On the 
1st of July, 1836, he was breveted a second lieutenant of the First 
dragoons, rather a high brevet for an officer occupying so low a grade iu 
the Academy ; but when we consider who were the appointing officers at* 
til.. t^ time, and the position the same men held in the war, our readers 
need not wonder at the appointment. Three days after that date he 
received his full comaiission and after being in the army for three 
m.tnths he resigned, plainly showing that he merely wished to gain a 
military education at the expense of the United States government, for 
which he gave nothing in return but rebellion. During the remainder of 
1836 and the subsequent year he was appointed to the lucrative position 
of division engineer of the Baltimore and Susquehanna llailroad, followed 
immediately by that of assistant engineer in the survey of the Nor- 
folk and Wilmington Canal of Virginia. He was next appointed (183S-9) 
assistant engineer of the Eastern Shore Bailroad of Maryland, and in 
1839-40 of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Daring 1840 he was also 
engaged in the survey of the public improvements of Baltimore. 

For the next few years he held no important public position ; but the 
Mexican war again brought him into notoriety. He first served as 
volunteer aid to General Twiggs in the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca 
de la Palma, Tox-is, May. 1843, and doabtless here learueJ some of hia 
early military le.-sous. 


Orders were now sent back to General Sherman to turn his corps 
toward l>iidgeport, and General Blair was expected to join him at that 
place. Bridgeport was on the Black river, and some miles north of the 
railroad. By crossing the river at that jtoiiit, General Sherman would 
be on the flank of the enemy, if they made a stand at the railroad crossing 
of the river. 

May 17, 1863. 

The battle of Big Black Bridge was fouglit on Sunday, the 17th, 
the day after the battle of Champion's Hill. In this spirited engage- 
ment only the Thirteenth army corps was engaged. In the morning, 
after a bivouac on the hill overlooking the village of Edwards' Station, 
the column, with McClernand at its head, moved towards Black river 

The country between Edwards Station and the bridge loses that hilly 
and broken character which distinguishes the region farther east, and 
spreads out into a broad and fertile plain. There are no commanding 
hills, but there are numerous patches of forest, under the cover and from 
the edge of which the enemy could easily enfilade the open fields by the 
road.side. There was such a one a mile east of the rebel intrenchments 
where the main picket guard was .stationed. Here determined resistance 
was fiist uKide. 

General Carr's division had the extreme advance of the column, and 
opened and ended the engagement. Hastily deploying a heavy line of 
skirmishers to the right of the road, backed up by the two brigades of 
Carr's division in line of battle behind it, with General Osterhaus' divi- 
sion on the left of the road similarly disposed. General McClernand gave 
the order to advance. Soon in the depths of the thick forest the skir- 
mishers of both armies were hotly engaged, while batteries of artillery 
planted on the right and left of the road poured shot and shell into tho 
fort most furiously. The guns in the intrenchments replied with vigor 
and spirit. Aluiost the first shot dropped in the caisson belonging to 
Foster's Wisconsin battery, and exploded its contents, slightly wounding 
General Osterhaus and Captain Foster, of the battery, and very seriously 
injuring two gunners. General Osterhaus being thus disabled, the com- 
mand of his division was temporarily given to Brigadier-General A. L. 

After skirmishing had continued for an hour, during which the enemy 
gave way and sought the cover of his intrenchments, the order was givoa 
to the several bri<'ade commanders on the rij,ht to advaucc aad chariie 


the enemy's works. The order was received with cheers nnd shouts, and 
the Twenty-first, Twenty-second, Twenty-tliird Iowa and Elevontli Wis- 
consin, General Lawler's brigade, were the first to announce themselves 
in readiness. The order " forward" was given, and steadily and splen- 
didly the brave patriots moved up to the assault. The enemy crouclied 
down behind the breastworks. A portion of them, stationed in a curtain 
on the right of the fort, whence they were able to get a cross-fire upon 
the column, reserved their volley until the Federals were within easy 
range of the intrenchmonts, when they swept the advancing line with 
their terrible fire. 

The brave soldiers lost in that fearful volley one hundred and fifty 
men ; yet they faltered not nor turned their steps backwards. They 
waded the bayou, delivering their fire as they reached the other bank, 
and rushed upon the enemy with fixed bayonets. So quickly was all this 
accomplished, that the rebels had not time to reload their guns, and were 
forced to surrender. 

The battle was ended, and the fort, with three thousand prisoners, 
eighteen pieces of artillery, several thousand stand of arras, and a large 
supply of corn and commissary stores, fell into the hands of the Fed- 

The enemy had, earlier in the day, out of the hulls of three steamboats, 
constructed a bridge, over which he had passed the main body of his 
army. As the charge was made, and it became evident that the Unionists 
would capture the position, the rebels burned this bridge, and also the 
railroad bridge across the river just above. 

In the afternoon several attempts were made to cross the river, but 
the rebel sharpshooters lined the blufi"s beyond, and entirely prevented 
it. Later, the main body of sharpshooters were dispersed by the Federal 
artillery. It was not, however, safe to stand upon the bank, or cross the 
open field east of the bridge until after dark, when the enemy withdrew 

By this time. General Sherman had reached Bridgeport on the Black 
river, just above. The only pontoon train was with him. By the morn- 
inf of the 18th he had crossed the river and was ready to march ou 
Vicksburg. Generals McClernand and McPherson caused floating bridges 
to bo constructed during the night, and were ready to cross their troops 
by eight o'clock on the next morning. 

General Sherman comm.nced his march by the Bridgeport and Vicks- 
burg road on the 18th, and, when within three and a half miles of Vicks- 
burg, he turned to the right to get possession of Walnut Hills and the 
Yazoo river. This was successfully accomplished before night. General 
McPherson crossed the Black river above the road to Jackson, and came 
into the same road with General Sherman, bu: in his rear. His advance 


arrived after nightfall at the point where General Sherman turned to the 
right. General McClernand moved by the Jackson and Vicksburg road to 
Mount Albans, in the rear of Vicksburg, and there turned to the left to 
get into the ]}aldwin's Ferry road. By this disposition the three army 
corps covered all the ground their strength would admit of, and by the 
morning of the 19th the investment of Vicksburg was made as complete 
as could be by the forces under the command of General Grant. 

Communication was now opened with the fleet above Vicksburg, and 
General Grant's supplies were thenceforth received from the Yazoo, in- 
stead of from Grand Gulf. 

May 18, 1863. 

The operations of Rear-Admiral Porter, which had an important bear- 
ing on the movements of General Grant's army at that time, are thus de- 
tailed in the reports of that officer, and of Lieutenant Walker. 

Flag Ship Black Hawk, ) 

Haines's Bluff, Yazoo river, May 20th. ) 
To Hon. Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy : 

On the morning of the 16th I came over to the Yazoo to be ready to 
cooperate with General Grant, leaving two of the ironclads at Red river, 
one at Grand Gulf, one at Carthage, three at Warrenton, and two in the 
Yazoo, which left me a small force. Still I disposed of them to the best 
advantage. On the 18th, at meridian, firing was heard in the rear of 
Vicksburg, which assured me that General Grant was approaching the 
city. The cannonading was kept up furiously for some time, when, by 
the aid of glasses, I discovered a company of artillery advancing, taking 
position, and driving the rebels before them. I immediately saw that 
General Sherman's division had come on to the left of Snyder's Bluff, 
and that the rebels at that place had been cut oflF from joining the forces 
in the city. 

I dispatched the DeKalb, Lieutenant-Commander Walker, the Choc- 
taw, Lieutenant-Commander Ramsay, the Romeo, and Forest Rose, all 
under command of Lieutenant-Commander Breese, up the Yazoo, to open 
communication in that way with Generals Grant and Sherman. This I 
succeeded in doing, and in three hours received letters from Generals 
Grant, Sherman, and Steele, informing me of this vast success, and asking 
me to send up provisions, which was at once done. In the mean time, 
Lieutenant-Commander Walker in the DeKalb pushed on to Haines's 
Bluff, which the enemy had commenced evacuating the day before, and a 


party remained behind in the hopes of destroying or taking away a largo 
arakount of ammunition on hand. When they saw the gunboata they ran 
away and left everything in good order, guns, forts, tents, and equipage 
of all kinds, which fell into our hands. 

As soon as the capture of Haines's Bluff and the fourteen forts was re- 
ported to me, I shoved up the gunboats from below to fire on the hill 
bat:cries, which fire was kept up for two or three hours. At midnight 
they moved up to the town and opened on it for about an hour, anJ con- 
tinued at intervals during the night to annoy the garrison. On the 19th 
I placed six mortars in position, with orders to fire night and day as 
rapidly as they could. 

The works at Haines's Bluff are very formidable. There are fourteen 
of the heaviest kind of mounted eight and ten inch and seven and a half 
inch rifle guns, with ammunition enough to last a long siege. As the 
gun carriages might again fall into the hands of the enemy, I had them 
burned, blew up the magazine, and destroyed the works generally. I 
also burned up the encampments, which were permanently and remark- 
ably well constructed, looking as though the rebels intended to stay some 
time. Their works and encampments covered many acres of ground, and 
the fortifications and rifle pits proper of Haines's Bluff extend about a 
mile and a quarter. Such a network of forts I never saw. 

As soon as I got through with the destruction of the magazines and 
other works, I started Lieutenant-Commander Walker up the Yazoo 
river with sufficient force to destroy all the enemy's property in that di- 
rection, with orders to return with all dispatch, and only to proceed as 
far as Yazoo City, where the rebels have a navy yard and storehouses. 

In the mean time General Grant has closely invested Vicksburg, and 
has possession of the best commanding points. In a very short time a 
general assault will take place, when I hope to announce that Vicksburg 
has fallen, after a series of the most brilliant successes that ever attended 
an army. 

There never has been a case during the war where the rebels have 
been so successfuly beaten at all points, and the patience and endurance 
shown by our army and navy for so many months is about being re- 
warded. It is a mere question of a few hours, and then, with the excep- 
tion of Port Hudson, which will follow Vicksburg, the Mis.sissij)pi will be 
open its entire length. [Signed] D. D. POPSTER, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

U. S. Steamer Baron DeKalb, ) 

Mouth Yazoo river, May 23il. ) 
Sir : I have the honor to report that in obedience to your order, I 
started from Snyder's Blufi" on the 20th, with the DeKalb, Choctaw, 


Forest "Rose, Linden, and Petrel, on an expedition to Yazoo City. Arriv- 
ing at Haines's Bluff, I landed a force and spiked an 8-inch gun on the 
fort there, and burned the carriage. I also burned some forty tents left 
standing, and a .steam saw-mill. 

Arriving at Yazoo City at one p. M., '20th, I was met by a committee 
of citizens, who informed me that the place had been evacuated by the 
military authorities, and asking protection. The navy yard and vessels 
had been fired by tlie enemy. I sent a working party to insure the de- 
struction of everything valuable to the rebels. The vessels burned were 
the Mobile, a screw vessel, ready for plating; the Republic, which was 
being fitted out for a ram ; and a vessel on the stocks — a monster, three 
hundred and ten feet long, seventy -five feet beam. The navy yard con- 
tained five saw and planing mills, an extensive machine shop, carpenter 
and blacksmith shops, and all necessary fixtures for a large building and 
repairing yard, which, with a very large quantity of lumber, were burned. 
I also burned a large sawmill above the town. Most of the public stores 
had been removed ; such as I found in town were taken on board the 
vessels or destroyed. Enclosed I senl a list of articles removed or de- 
Ptroyed by Acting Volunteer Lieutenant Brown, the officer detailed for 
that purpose. In the hospital I found and paroled one thousand five 
hundred prisoners, a list of whom I enclose. 

Returning, I left Yazoo City this morning, arriving here at four p. m. 
At Liverpool Landing, in a sharp bend in the river, we were attacked by 
^0lne field guns, and about two hundred riflemen concealed in the bushes, 
and for a few minutes the firing was very sharp. The enemy retreated 
as soon as the vessels got into position to use their guns with efi'ect. 
The Petrel, Linden, and Choctaw were struck with shot, but received no 
particular injury. Sergeant Stockinger, of this vessel, was killed by a 
rifle shot. The Linden had five wounded, the Petrel two, and the Choc- 
taw one. !Most of the wounds are sliffht. 


May 19-23, 1863. 

After encompassing Vicksburg as closely as the nature of the locality 
and the numerical force under his command would permit, General Grant 
lost no time in preparing for a direct assault on the place, in combina- 
tion with a grand naval attack by the fleet. During the 19th, there was 
a continued skirmishing, and General Grant was not without hope of 
carrying the works. 


After the storming of the rebel position on the Dig Black river, and 
the cneni) ha 1 beju driven within the fortiQcations of Vickshurg, their 
army was reorganized, and placed as follows : Grcneral Smith's division 
on the extreme left, Major-Goneral Forney in the centre, and Major- 
Gcneral Stephenson on the right. Brig.idier-Goueral Boweu's division 
of Missourian^ held the reserve. 

General Grant ordered an assault at an earlier day than was desi- 
rable, as there was danger of General Peinberton being reinforced by an 
army under General Johnson, which was then gathering strength, and 
advancing in the rear. A general assault was made at two o'clock on the 
19uh. This was made by the Fifteenth army corps, which arrived in 
time before the works on the previous day to get a good position. The 
Thirteenth and Seventeenth corps succeeded in gaining an advanced* po- 
sition covered from the tire of the enemy. A Confederate report of the 
action is as follows: " On Tuesday morning, before daylight, they opened 
fire from their batteries, our guns responding immediately, and at ten 
o'clock, advanced to the assault in a rather ridiculous manner. They 
advanced their flags close to the works, their negro troops in front, and 
lay down. Bowen's gallant Missourians never tired a shot. The oihei- 
regiments then marched up, and the whole assaulting column, forlorn 
hope and all, marched within easy musket range. 

" At the word ' forward — ahargc !' they received our fire, shattering 
their ranks frightfully. They rallied, closed up and stood to it for 
thirty minutes, when they broke and fled. They were rallied to the 
chart'C four successive times and met with the same storm of iron hail 
and leaden rain. The whole field was literally covered for one mile 
with their dead and wounded, where they were still lying on Thursday 
nifht, uuburied and without attention." Another Confederate writes: 

" The days intervening from the 19th to the 22d were spent in one 
continued bombarding and sharpshooting during the day; in the n ght 
they generally ceased firing. On the morning of the i:2i, the enemy 
opened a terrific fire with their Parrot guns, and continued it till about 
eleven o'clock, when the bombardment ceased, and heavy columns of the 
enemy could be seen forming in line of battle. Our foices were all 
ready for them, and eager for their advance. At about a quarter to 
twelve, the column of the Federal army advanced all along the lines in 
splendid order, and with a loud cheer dashed up to the works. They 
were gallantly responded to by our brave boys, and the first charge re- 
pulsed. On the extreme right of our lines, the nature of the ground 
prevented the enemy from making any heavy attack, but on the right of 
the centre, the centre, and thf. left of the centre, the assault was des- 
perately made and gallantly met. But once did our lines break, and that 


was in Lee's brigade. Tho onouiy gained a tomporary footuig ou \,\ia 
rifle-pit.--, but Lee quickly rallied his men, and, after a desperate hand- 
to-hand fight, drove them out and rcoccupied the lines. The engage- 
ment at this point, and at the right of the line, held by Brigadier-Gene- 
ral L. Herbert, was of a terrible nature, the Federals havin-^ throwu 
their best troops on these works. Five times did they charge, and each 
time were repulsed. The last charge on the riglit of Brigadier-General 
Herbert's lines was made by an Irish regiment (the Seventeentli \Vis. 
cousin), carrying the green flag of Erin. They came ufa double-quick 
up the hill, each man in the front ranks furnished with a ladder to reach 
the works. Three times they essayed to plant their ladders, but were 
pveventcd by the obstinate resistance oft'ered by the consolidated Twenty- 
first and Twenty-tliird Louisiana regiments. At the third cliar>'e they 
came within ten yards of the line, but two volleys of buckshot from the 
shotguns of our forces compellod them to make a precipitate retreat from 
the. front of our works. At about two o'clock they mide their last char<>-e, 
and were again repulsed, when they retired, and did not attempt any 
further demonstration that day. The loss of the enemy on that day is es- 
thuated by competent parties at not less than from eight to ten thousand, 
while our loss was between eight hundred and one thousand iu killed and 

The following dispatch of Rear-Admiral Porter to the Secretary of tho 
Navy, describes the part taken in this conflict by the naval forco : 

Mississippi Squadron, Flagship JIlack Hawk, ) 
May 2o, I8G0. J 

Sir — On the morning of the 21st I received a communication from 
General Grant, informing me that he intended to attack the whole of the 
rebel works ai tn a. m. the next day, and asking me to shell the batter- 
ies from half-past nine until half-past ten, and to annoy the garrison. I 
kept six mortars playing rapidly on the works and town ail nifht, aad 
sent the Benton, Mound City and Carondolct up to shell the water bat- 
teries and other places where troops might be resting during the ni'^ht. At 
seven o'clock in the morning, the Mound City proceeded across the river, 
and made an attack on the hill batteries opposite tlie canal. At eight 
o'clock I found her in company with the Benton, Tu.-scumbia, and Caron- 
dolet. All these vessels opened on the hill batteries, and finally silenced 
them, though the main work on the battery containing the heavy rifled 
gun was done by the Mound City, Lieutenant Commanding Byron Wil- 
son. I then pushed the Benton, Mound City and Carondolct up to the 
water batteries, leaving the Tuscumbia, which is still out of re- 
pair, to keep the hill batteries from firing on our vessels after thoy had 


passed by. The throe gunboats passed up slowly, owing to the strong 
current, the Mound City leading, the Benton following, and the Carondo- 
let astern. The water batteries opened furiously, supported by a hill 
battery on the starboard beam of the vessels. The vessels advanced to 
within four hundred and forty yards (by our marks) and returned the 
fire for two hours without cessation, the enemy's fire being very accu- 
rate and incessant. 

Finding that the hill batteries behind us were silenced, I ordered up 
the Tuscumbia to within eight hundred yards of the batteries ; but the 
turret was soon made untenable, not standing the enemy's shot, and I 
made her drop down. I had been engaged with the forts an hour longer 
than General Grant asked. The vessels had all received severe shots 
under water which we could not stop while in motion, and not knowing 
•what might have delayed the movement of the army, I ordered the ves- 
sels to drop out of fire, which they did in a cool, handsome manner. 

This was the hottest fire the gunboats had ever been under ; but, ow- 
in^ to the water batteries being more on a level with them than usual, 
the gunboats threw in their shell so fast that the aim of the enemy was 
not very good. The enemy hit our vessels a number of times, but fight- 
ing bow on, they did but little damage. 

Not a man was killed, and only a few wounded. I had only enough 
ammunition for a few moments longer, and set all hands to work to fill up 
from our depot belo /. 

After dropping back I found that the enemy had taken possession 
again of one of the lower hill batteries and was endeavoring to mount his 
guns, and had mounted a 12-pounder field piece to fire at General Mo- 
Arthur's troops, which had landed a short time before at Warrenton. I 
sent the Mound City and Carondolet to drive him off", which they did in a 
few moments. 

I beg leave to enclose a letter from General McArthur, explaining 
why he did not (to use his own expression), take advantage of the results 
gained by the gunboats. I have since learned through General Grant 
that the army did assault at the right time vigorously. In the noise and 
smoke we could not see or hear it. The gunboats were, therefore, still 
fighting when the assault had proved unsuccessful. 

The army hare terrible work before them, and are fighting as well as 
soldiers ever fought before. But the works are stronger than any of us 
dreamed of. General Grant and his soldiers are confident that the brave 
and energetic generals in the army will soon overcome all obstacles and 
carry the works. 

DAVID D. POKTER, Acting Rear-Admiral, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron 


Having been repulsed with severe loss in several attempts to storm 
the rcibfl works, General Grant now detcrminod to approach the fortifica- 
tions by regular siege lines. It had been demonstrated that it was im- 
possible to approach any point of attack, with a force equal in uumbera 
to that with which the enemy would be prepared to resist him. 

General Pemberton deemed it prudeut at that time, to forbid all un- 
necessary waste of ammunition, and thus General Grant was able to com- 
mence throwing up works and erecting forts within a short distance of 
the opposing Hue of breastworks. The firing upon the town was m.ide 
only during the day, until the 2Gth of May, after which it was continued 
day and night. The mortars on the peninsula opposite Vicksburg opened 
fire on the 25th, and continued it until the surrender. It was estimated 
at Vicksburg that as many as six thousand mortar shells were thrown into 
ihe town every twenty-four hours, and on the line in the rear of the city, 
as many as four thousand in the same time. During about five days after 
the siege commenced, the troops in the city were allowed full rations. 
At the expiration of that time, they were gradually reduced to four 
ounces of flour, four ounces of bacon, one and a half ounce of rice, two 
ounces of peas, not eatable, and three ounces of sugar. The extent of 
the works, and the limited number of the Confederate troops, required 
every man to defend the lines, and no time was allowed to rest. Whole 
companies laid back of their breastworks for three weeks without leaving 
the line for a moment. 

Meantime every effort was made to strengthen the force under the 
command of General Grant. He had already ordered a division 
under General Lanraan, and four regiments at Memphis to join hiai. 
He now brought forward the divisions of Generals Smith and Kimball, 
of the Sixteenth army corps, and placed them under the command of 
Major-General C. C. Washburn. On the 11th of June, Major-Geiicral 
F. J.Herron's division, from the department of Missouri, arrived, and ou 
the 14th, two divisions of the Ninth army corps, Major-General J. G. 
Parke commanding, reached Vicksburg. These two divisions were a 
part of the forces of General Burnside, commanding in the Department 
of Ohio. This increase < f the forces of General Grant enabled him 
lo make the investment of Vicksburg more complete, and at the same 
time left him a large reserve with which to watch the movements of 
General Johnston. 

These reinforcements were arranged by placing General Herron's di- 
vision on the extreme left, south of the city. General Lanman's division 
was placed between Generals Ilerron and McClernand. General Smith's 
and General Kimball's divisions, and the force under General Parke, 
were sent to Haines's Bluff. This place was now fortified on the land 
side, and every preparation made to resist a heavy force. About the 25th 

214 THE WAR FOIt Tllli UNION. 

of June, General Johnston crossed the Iii<r Bhxck river with a portion of 
bis force, and everything indicated that he would make an aitnck. 

About this lime Kear-Admiral Porter reported to Secretary Welles, un- 
der date of May 27, the loss of one of the finest gunboats in his fleet, in 
the following dispatch : 

jSin : — Amidst our successes I regret to report any losses ; but we can- 
not expect to conquer a place like this without some loss. 

At the urgent request of Generals Grant and Sherman, I sent the Cin- 
cinnati to enfilade some rifle pits which barred the progress of the left 
wing of our army. 

General Sherman supposed that the enemy had removed his heavy guns 
to the rear of the city. On the contrary, he seemed to have placed more 
on the water side than usual. 

The Cincinnati was sunk in shoal water, with her flag flying. The 
eufeiny still continued to fire upon her, but the flag was not hauled down. 
Twenty-five were killed and wounded, and fifteen are missing. The lat- 
ter are supposed to be drowned. The vessel can be raised. The pilot 
was killed early in the action. 

DAVID D. PORTER, Acting Rear-Admlral, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

A successful naval expedition to Yazoo city, is thus described in the 
report of Rear Admiral Porter, under date of May 24 : 

Sir — 1 have the honor to inform you that the expedition sent up the 
Yazoo river the day after I took possession of the forts on Snyder's Bluff, 
has returned, having met with perfect success. As the steamers 
approached Yazoo city the rebel property was fired by Lieutenant Brown, 
of the ram Arkansas ; and what he began our forces finished. Three 
powerful rams were burned, the Mobile, a screw vessel, ready for 
plating ; the Republic, being fitted for a ram, with rail-road iron 
plating, and a vessel on the stocks — a rconstcr, three hundred 
and ten feet long and seventy-five feet beam. This vessel was to have 
been covered with four and a half inch iron plating, and was to have had 
six engines, four side wheels and propellers. She would have given us 
juuch trouble The rebels had under construction a fine navy yard, con- 
t-iining fine sawing and planing machines, and an extensive machine shop, 
carpenter and blacksmiths' shops, and all the necessary appliances for 
a large building and repairing yard. Lieutenant-Commander Walker 
burned all these, with a large quantity of valuable building timber Bo 
also burned a large saw mill that had beon used in constructing tho 
monster ra;u. The material destroyed, at a moderate estimate, would 


cost more than two millions of dollars. We had one man killed and seven 
wounded by field pieces from the enemy's batteries going up the river, 
but the wounded are doing well. I enclose Lieutenant-Commander 
Walker's report in relation to this affair. He deserves much credit for 
the handsome manner in which he performed the duty assigned him. If 
he could have obtained pilots he would have succeeded in getting posses- 
sion of all the rebel rams, instead of having them burned. I am, very 
respectfully, your obedient servant. 

Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 
Hon. Gid;:on Welles, Secretary of the Navy. 

From the 2"2d of May, until the 25th of June, no attempt was made to 
take the city by direct assault. During all tliat time, however, the 
mining operations had been carried on successfully, and on the latter 
d;iy a fort on the immediate right of the Jackson road was blown up. It 
was occupied by the Third Louisiana regiment, but the troops had been 
withdrawn, and only a few were wounded by the ex^jlosion. An advance 
by a small portion of the Federal force, immediately after, was the 
occasion of a blot)dy contest, in which the Unionists were defeated, and 
compelled to retire. 

Several portions of the enemy's defences were destroyed by the mining 
operations of the Federals at this time, but no decisive advantage bad 
thus far been obtained. The condition of affairs in the city is thus de- 
scribed by a Confederate officer : " About the thirty-fifth day provisions 
began to get very scarce, and the advent of General Johnston's relieving 
force was anxiously and momentarily looked for. Mule meat was the 
common fare of all alike, and even dogs became in request for the table. 
Bcian meal was made into bread, and corn meal into cofiee, and in these 
straits the garrison patiently dragged on the weary length of one day 
after anorher, under a scorching sun, the stench from the unburied 
corpses all around alone causing the strongest minded, firmest nerved to 
;jrow impatient for the day of deliverance. The enemy pushed their 
works : tl)cy blew up several forts, and with them the soldiers and 
attempted to charge ; but the meagre and famished yet steadfast garrison 
still defiantly held the key of the Mississippi. But everything must have 
an end. General Pemberton learned from General Johnston that he 
could not afford him relief, and as the garrison was too famished and 
reduced to cut its way out, he determined to capitulate." 

After resisting the Federal forces for fifteen months, and enduring a 
direct siege and bombardment for forty-seven days, Vicksburg was finally 
surrendered to General Grant, on the 4th of July. 


The following correspondence between Generals Grant and Pemberton 
embody the intcrestiug details of that event : 

Headquarters, Vicksburg, July 3, 1863. 
Major-General Grant, commanding United States forces : — 

Genkral — I have the honor to propose to you an armistice for 

hours, with a view to arranging terms for the capitulation of 

Vicksburg. To this end, if agreeable to you, I will appoint three com- 
missioners, to meet a like number to be named by yourself, at such 
place and hour to-day, as you may find convenient. I make this propo- 
sition to save the further effusion of blood, which must otherwise be shed 
to a frightful extent, feeling myself fully able to maintain my position for 
a yet indefinite period. This communication will be handed you under a 
flag of truce, by Major-General James Bowen. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 


To this General Grant replied as follows • 

Headquarters, Department of Tennessee, ) 

In the Field, near Vicksburg, July 3, 18G3. j 
Lieutenant-General J. C. Pemberton, commanding Confederate forces, 
&c.: — 

General — Your note of this date, just received, proposes an armistice 
of several hours, for the purpose of arranging terms of capitulation 
through commissioners to be appointed, «&c. The effusion of blood you 
propose stopping by this course, can be ended at any time you may- 
choose, by an unconditional surrender of the city and garrison. Men 
who have shown so much endurance and courage as those now in Vicks- 
burg, will always challenge the respect of an adversary, and I can assure 
you will be treated with all the respect due them as prisoners of war. I 
do not favor the proposition of appointing commissioners to arrange 
terms of capitulation, because I have no other terms than those indicated 

I am, General, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

U. S. GRANT, Major-General. 

General Bowen, the bearer of General Pemberton's letter, was received 
by General A. J. Smith. He expressed a strong desire to converse with 
General Grant, and accordingly, while declining this. General Grant re- 
quested General Smith to say that if General Pemberton desired to see 
him, an interview would be granted between the lines in McPherson's 
front, at any hour in the afternoon which General Pemberlon might ap- 


A message was soon sent back to General Smith, appointing three 
o'clock as the hour. General Grant was there with his staff, and with 
Generals Ord, McPherson, Logan, and A. J. Smith. General Pembertou 
came late, attended by General Bowcn, and Colonel Montgomery. He 
was much excited and pert in his answers to General Grant The 
conversation was held apart between General Pembei'ton and his offi- 
cers, and Generals Grant, McPherson, and A. J. Smith. The rebels in- 
sisted on being paroled, and allowed to march beyond our lines, officers 
and men, all with eight days' rations, drawn from their own stores, the 
officers to retain their private property and body servants. 

General Grant heard what they had to say, and left them at the end 
of an hour and a half, saying that he would send in his ultimatum in 
writing, to which General Pemberton promised to reply before night, 
hostilities to cease in the mean time. 

General Grant then conferred at his headquarters with his corps and 
division commanders, and sent the following letter to General Pemberton, 
by the hands of General Logan and Lieutenant-Colonel Wilson. 


Headquarters, Department of Tennessee, ) 
Near Vicksburg, July 3, 1863. ) 

Lieutenant-General J. C. Pemberton, commanding Confederate forces, 
Vicksburg, Miss. : 

General — In conformity with the agreement of this afternoon, I will 
submit the following proposition for the surrender of the city of Vicks- 
burg, public stores, &c. On your accepting the terms proposed, I will 
march in one division, as a guard, and take possession at eight o'clock 
to-morrow morning. As soon as paroles can be made out and signed by the 
officers and men, you will be allowed to march out of our lines, the officers 
taking with them their regimental clothing, and staff, field, and cavalry 
officers, one horse each. The rank and file will be allowed all their cloth- 
ing, but no other property. 

If these conditions are accepted, any amount of rations you may deem 
necessary can be taken from the stores you now have, and also the neces- 
sary cooking utensils ior preparing them ; thirty wagons also, counting 
two two-horse or mule teams as one. You will be allowed to transport 
such articles as cannot be carried along. The same conditions will be 
allowed to all sick and wounded officers and privates, as fast as they 
become able to travel. The paroles for these latter must be signed, how- 
ever, whilst officers are present authorized to sign the roll of prisoners. 
1 am, General, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

U. S. GRANT, Major-General. 

218 ^^^"^ i^(^^ TnR UNION. 

Tlu! officor who received tliis letter, stated that it would be impossible 
to answer it by night, and it was not till a little before peep of day, that 
the proposed reply was furnished. 

While those deliberations were pending, the men of both armies, who 
simply knew that a surrender was in contemplation, under intense excite- 
ment, were anxiously awaiting the result. Groups of soldiers, who a few 
hours before were engaged in a deathly struggle, now freely engaged in 
conversation from the edge of the opposing works. 


Headquarters, Vicksburg, July 3, 18G3. 
Major-General Grant, commanding United States forces : — 

General — I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your com- 
munication of this date, proposing terms for the surrender of this garri- 
son and post. In the main your terms are accepted ; but in justice both 
to the honor and spirit of my troops, manifested in the defence of Vicks- 
burg. I have the honor to submit the following amendments, which if 
acceded to by you, will perfect the agreement between us : — At ten 
o'clock to-morrow I propose to evacuate the works in and around Vicks- 
burg, and to surrender the city and garrison under my command, by 
marching out with my colors and arms, and stacking them in fnmt of my 
present limits, after which you will take possession ; officers to retain 
their side arms and personal property, and the rights and property of 
citizens to be respected. 

I am. General, yours very repectfully, 

J. C. PEMBERTON, Lieutenant-General. 

To this General Grant immediately replied as follows : — 

geneual gr.vnt declines to accede to the amendments proposed by 
general pemberton. 

Headquarters, Department of Tlnnessee, ) 
Before Vicksburg, July -4, 1SG3. ) 
Lieutenant-General Pe.\il;eiiton, commanding forces at Vicksburg : — 

General — I have the honor to acknowledge your communication of 
the 3rd of July. The amendments proposed by you cannot be acceded 
to in full. It will be nccessai-y to furnish every officer and man with a 
parole signed by himself, which, with the completion of the rolls of pris- 
oners, will necessarily take some time. Again, I can make no stipulation 
with regard to the treatment of citizens and their private property. 
While I do not propose to cause any of them any undue annoyance or 



A5TOP, <-■ 


lo's, I cannot consent to leave myself under restraint by stipulations. 
The property which officers can be allowed to take with them will be as 
stated in the proposition of last evening — that is, that officers will be al- 
lowed their private bn^sfage and side arras, and mounted officers one 
horse each. If you mean by your proposition for each brigade to march 
to the front of the lines now occupied by it, and stack their arms at ten 
o'clock A. M., and then return to the inside and remain as prisoners until 
properly paroled, I will make no objection to it. Should no modification 
be made of your acceptance of my terms by nine o'clock, a. m., t shall re- 
gard them as having been rejected, and act accordingly. Should these 
terms be accepted, white flags will be displayed along your lines, to pre- 
vent such of my troops as may not have been notified, from firing on your 

I am, General, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

U. S. GRANT, Major- General, U. S. A. 

To this the following was received : — 


Headquarters, Vicksburg, July 4, 1863. 
Major-General U. S. Grant, Commanding United States forces, &c. : — 
General — I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your com- 
munication of this date, and, in reply, to say that the terms proposed by 
you are accepted. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

J. C, PEMBERTON, Lieutenant-General. 

Of the terms of the surrender. General Grant thus speaks in his re- 
port: "These terms I regarded more favorable to the Government 
than an unconditional surrender. It saved us the transportation of 
them north, which, at that time, would have been very difficult, owing to 
the limited amount of river transportation on hand, and the expense of 
subsisting them. It left our army free to operate against Johnston, 
who was threatening us from the direction of Jackson ; and our river 
transportation to be used for the movement of troops to any point the ex- 
igency of the service might require." 

At ten o'clock on the 4th, the Confederate forces marched out and 
stacked arms in front of their works, while General Pemberton appeared 
for a nonienl with his staff upon the parapet of the central front. The 
city was immediately after occupied by the divisions of Generals Logan, 
J. B. Smith and Herron 

The result of his operations is thus summed up by General Grant : 

•' The result of this campaign has been the dofiiat of the oneray in five 
diflforent battles outside of Vicksburg ; the occupation of Jackson, the 
capital of the State of Mississippi, and the captare of Vicksburg and its 
garrison and munitions of war; a loss to the enemy of thirty-seven 
thousand prisoners, among whom were Qfteen general officers ; at least 
ton thousand killed and wounded, and among the killed, Grenerals Tracy, 
Tilghman, and Green ; and hundreds, and perhaps thousands, of strag- 
glers, who can never bo collected and reorganized. Arms and munitions 
of war for an army of sixty thousand men have fallen into our hands, be- 
sides a large amount of other public property, consisting of railroads, lo- 
comotives, cars, steamboats, cotton, etc., and much was destroyed to pre- 
vent our capturing it 

*' Our loss in the series of battles may be summed up as follows : 

Port Gibson 

Fourteen Mile Creek 



Champion's Ilill 

Big 15 lack railroad bridge 









5 1 



32 i 













" Of the wounded, many were but slightly wounded, and continued on 
duty ; many more required but a few days or weeks for their recovery. 
Not more than one-half of the wounded were permanently disabled." 

We will now turn our attention to a brilliant engagement which occur- 
red simultaneously with the fall of Vick.<burg. The town of Helena, in 
Arkansas, had been garrisoned by a small force under General Prentiss, a 
gallant otBcer, who had been captured at Pittsburg Landing with a large 
portion of his division, after bravely contending for more than half a 
day with a foe quadruple his own force. 

.July 4, 18G3. 

The town of Helena, in Arkansas, is situated upon the northern bank 
of the Mississippi river, and lies upon flat ground. Not more than a 
quarter of a mile from the river the city and its approaches are com- 
manded by high ridges, between which are ravines opening toward the 
river. The city had been strongly fortified by batteries placed upon 
these hills and connected in line by rifle-pits. 

An attack upon Helena had been anticipated for some days, and at 



four o'clock on the morning of the 4th of July, the attack was opened 
upon General Prentiss by a rebel force numbering iiftecn thousand, 
under Generals Holmes and Price. The Union forces, who had been 
two nights under arms and waiting the attack, were in readiness in a few- 
minutes, and infantry, cavalry, and artillery were immediately in the 
positions assigned them ]3etween the ridges and the river the low, flat 
ground was protected by cavalry and rifle-pits and flanking batteries of 
ten-pounder Parrotts, and six and twelve-pounder brass pieces, ]\Iaklng 
the city the base of operations. Battery A was placed upon the right, and 
Uattcrics B, C, and D, upon the left. The enemy attacked upon the left of 
the line, and were opposed by a strong force of cavalry, with a brigade of 
infantry and four pieces of artillery. Presently it was reported that a 
large force was assaulting Battery A ; and close upon the heels of this 
intelligence came the news that sharpshooters were harassing batteries 
C and D ; behind the sharpshooters came heavy columns of the enemy 
who were rapidly moving artillery into position. In front of Battery B 
could be seen a large force of cavalry, showing that the enemy had been 
disposed by the planning of a master mind. The enemy opened a 
spirited fire on both flanks of General Prentiss' troops at once, but with- 
out producing any efi'ect ; evidently no gre^t result was expected by the 
rebels in regard to this movement, and it was merely intended as a diver- 
sion while they were throwing their whole strength against the Union 
centre. This plan would, if successfully carried out, have given them 
possession of Fort Curtis, a point which was centrally located, and com- 
manded all the ridges surrounding tlie city. But the rebels were not 
aware of the presence at the city's landing of the gunboat Tyler, com- 
manded by Lieutenant James M. Pritchett, and they were equally 
astonished and disconcerted when, at a critical moment, the Tyler made 
them aware of her presence. The enemy were unable to open batteries 
upon tlie centre from being disappointed in finding ravines in which to 
place them, and therefore relied upon their infantry for the work. The 
attack upon Battery D was personally superintended by Lieutenant 
General Holmes, and Major-General Price directed that made upon 
Battery C. Half an hour after the battle first opened a regiment moved 
out to attack Battery D ; but as they advanced in line upon a bridge with- 
in range of the guns of Battery C. the latter opened upon them a furious 
fire of shell, which was imitated by the guns of Battery D, with such efi"eot 
as to create a perfect panic in their ranks which rapidly increased to a 
rout, and the rebels retired in great disorder. They were immediately 
reinforced, however, and their sharpshooters pressed close upon the guns 
of Battery C, so that they were turned upon them, vomiting forth canis- 
ter, and so eff"ectually checking their advance that they retreated again, 
and took refuge under cover of the raviues and lallen timber. 


About tills time operations on both sides ceased for a brief wliilc owing 
to a dense fog which had fallen, and continued to hang heavily in the air 
fur about three quarters of an hour. When il was light again the force 
in front of Battery D appeared to be much weakened, while a brigade of 
three regiments was seen crossing the ridges between that work and 
Battery C. Before any of the guns could be used against the approach- 
ing force the first line of pits in front of the battery was flanked, and the 
company forced back upon the battery, where they stood bravely. The 
guns of Battery D opened furiously upon the rebels, but notwithstanding 
the fierce fire they pressed forward upon the company of Battery C, 
swarming like locusts, and causing a sudden panic to fall upon the Union 
men. Two companies upon the left of the battery broke and fled in the 
wildest confusion ; but two more with the guns, and two in the pits to the 
right of them held their ground bravely, pouring in a heavy fire of 
canister and minnie balls into the ranks of the enemy. But the guns 
could not be saved ; seeing which the captain of the battery spiked one 
just as the enemy reached the piece, while the gunners, determined 
that the battery should be useless to its captors, secured all the friction- 
primers. At the foot of the hill the retreating Unionists made another 
Btand, and being promptly supported by portions of two regiments they 
proved to the rebels that they were not yet beaten. 

It was now that the services of the Tyler became of such value to the 
National forces ; and as the enemy, flushed with success, gathered 
together his scattered companies and charged down the hill toward Fort 
Curtis, a broadside from the gunboat poured death and destruction down 
the slopes of the hillside and enfiladed the. ravines, while the stern guns 
silenced the rebel battery below, and the bow guns at the same moment 
played upon the upper one. And yet the rebels bore the fire, nor once 
turned to flee, although it seemed worse thnn madness to go on. 

But in the language of a correspondent of the day, " With the howl of 
demons, the last mad, defiant impotent huwl of bnffled but still deter- 
mined traitors, exposed to history, to nations, and to themselves, whipped, 
naked, and hungry, on they came cursing, firing, riding like the ' Liglit 
BriL'ade' ' into the gates of death, into the mouth of hell.' " No hurrying, 
no excitement, and yet no hesitation in the fort and batteries, but steadily 
the shell, case, grape, and canister flew, with the swiftness of lightning 
atid the precision of fate straight in the faces of the infuriate mob. 
Heads, trunks, and limbs hurled asunder by bursting iron, flew into the 
air, nauseating and sickening all who witnessed the horrible sight. No 
body of men on earth could long endure such a tornado of iron as was 
hurled on them, while their shots all fell short or passed harmlessly 
over the gunners of the fort. Not a man was even wounded. Slow to 
receive conviction, but at last satisfied of the hopelessness of their 


assault, tlie mob turned about as if by common consent and broke into 
squads of twenty, ten, two, and at last, every man for himsjlf." Tlie 
rebels, who fought like madmen, made still another siand, and tried an 
approach through a ravine ; but one particular point which the line must 
pass was exposed to the fire of the Union troops ; and very soon the guns 
succeeded in getting such excellent range of this point that not a man 
could pass it. One regiment which had passed into the ravine could not 
return, nor could the brigade pass in to its support. At the mouth of 
the ravine one of General Prentiss' regiments was so placed as to rake 
the entire length of the rebel line, while another immediately took 
position on a ridge on the right flank of the rebel brigade, and both regi- 
ments poured in their fire at once ; and cross fires from the Fort and 
baitcries, aided by the gunboat, completely scattered the regiments left 
upon the ridges. In haste and confusion they abandoned the guns which 
they had captured, uninjured, and left the brave regiment whijch had 
passed into the ravine, with all their arms, officers, and colors, prisoners 
of war. About three hundred of the rebel killed and wounded, besides 
four hundred prisoners, were lost by the enemy in this charge. 

A similar attack had been made on Battery D. while this was going on 
again-t Battery C, and with much the same result to the enemy, who was 
driven back by a murderous fire from the battery's guns and from the 
sharpshooters. A few who succeeded in getting through the Utiion lines 
took position in a ravine to the left of the battery, but they made only a 
short fight, when they threw down their guns and formally surrendered. 
The following anecdote is related of a Lieutenant-Colonel who commanded 
the rebels. While they were still fighting he sprang upon a log and 
waved his sword, lustily cheering on his men. 

The captain of Battery D called out to hiiu : " What in thunder do you 
keep swinging that sword for ? Why don't you surrender? " 

" By what authority do you demand my surrender? " returned the 
rebel officer. 

'' By the authority of my 12-pound howitzer," replied the captain. 

The rebel looked sharpl}' around, and seeing no chance of escape 
passed his sabre-blade into his right hand and holding it out said, " Very 
well, sir, I surrender." 

At Battery D the enemy lost almost as heavily as at Battery C. 
Neiirly two hundred and fil'ty men were killed and wounded ; and between 
three and four hundred were taken prisoners, with arms, officers, and 
colors. This fight raged with almost unparalleled fury for six hours ; 
but it was still comparatively early in the day when it was at an end. 
At half past ten a. m. the firing had quite ceased, and the enemy had com- 
pletely retired. The white flag was at the same moment hoisted at 
Vicksburg. The total loss in killed, wounded, and missing to the 


National troops in this engagement was two hundred and thirty, while 
that of the enemy was not less than two thousand. 

July 3 to Jdly 26, 1863. 

While the advance of Lee into Pennsylvania was agitating the whole 
north, the rebels were making good use of their time elsewhere. A raid by 
a guerrilla band under their chieftain, John Morgan, was made into the 
three States of Indianii, Kentucky, and Oiiio. lie designed to sweep everv- 
thin" before him, and by attracting public attention to himself, give the 
rebel General Lee more opportunity to carry out his plans for the invasion 
of the North. His first attempt was to break off the railroad communica- 
tions by which reinforcements could be sent to the defence of Louisville ; 
haviuf done this, General Buckner, from Tennessee, with the whole rebel 
force under his command, was to dash into Kentucky, capture Louisville, 
and in cooperation with Morgan, make an attack upon Cincinnati. 

But General Buckner was prevented from participating in this move- 
ment. General Kosecrans's advance upon the army of General Bragg, 
which took place about this time, made it necessary that the rebel Buck- 
ner should remain where he was. At this time Morgan, with a force of 
four thousand men, was in Tennessee ; he had made a feint of attacking 
the town of Tompkinsville, the capital of Monroe county, in the State of 
Kentucky. Brigadier-General Hobson was ordered to Tompkinsville on 
the 20th of June. General Morgan immediately crossed the Cumber- 
land river, made a rapid advance on Columbia, where a brilliant defence 
was made against them by a small force under Captain Carter, consisting 
of only one hundred and fifty men of Colonel Wolford's regiment. They 
were, however, forced to retire before the guerrilla general, having first 
lost thfir biave commander. On July 4th, Morgan attacked Colonel 
Moore with two or three hundred men, at Green river bridge. There a 
fierce resistance was made to the rebel advance ; but it was ineffectual, 
and iMorgnn marched onward to Lebanon, which he reached the next 
day. His demand f<ir the surrender of the city was refused by the 
Union commander. Colonel Hanson, and the attack which was immedi- 
ately made uoon it was gallantly repelled for seven hours. At the 
end of that time Colonel Hanson, to save his men from utter destruction, 
was compelled to surrender. Many of the public buildings, and the 
whole northern part of the town was burnt by the guerrillas ; and the 
men who had surrendered were forced to march with the rebels to 
Springfield, keeping pace with the cavalry, and in such haste that the 

morgan's raid in INDIANA, KENTUCKY, AND OHIO. 227 

march was performed by the wearied Union men in one hour and a half, 
the distance being ten miles. From Springfield, the rebels marched to 
Shepherdsville, and then to Bardstown. On the 7th they reached 
Brandenburg, on tlie Ohio river, where they seized a steamer which had 
stopped to take in passengers ; having appropriated ever^'thing of value 
to them which the vessel contained, it was run out into the river, and 
anchored. A sliort time after, another vessel was decoyed into their pos- 
session by hoisting signals of distress on board the McUombs, the vessel 
which had already been taken. The Alice Dean, the second vessel, went 
alongside the McCoinbs, without any suspicion, and was immediately 
boarded and seized. On the following day, Morgan's entire force, which 
consisted of more than four thousand, eleven regiments, and ten pieces 
of artillery, including two howitzers, were taken across the river. The 
rebels then gave up the steamer McCombs, but burned the Alice Dean, 
and also the bridge at Brandenburg. By this time the pursuit of the vic- 
torious guerrilla band had begun, but the march was very slow. On the 
night of July 7th, the whole Union force in pursuit, which consisted of 
troops under General llobson, artillery and cavalry under Brigadier-Gen 
eral Shackelford, Colonel Wolford and his brigade, all under command of 
General Hobson (who had received orders to that effect from General 
Burnside), had reached a point within nine miles of Brandenburg; and 
on the next day they reached the river just as the last boat had crossed 
with the enemy. The rebels, still marching onwards, reached Corrydon 
in Indiana, on the 8th, where considerable resistance was made to them 
by the inhabitants. From Corrydon Morgan marched his men to Salem, 
where they took prisoners a force of three hundred and fifty men who had 
fallen back before the rebels fronl Palmyra ; subsequently these pris- 
oners were paroled. At Salem, the depot of the Louisville and Chicago 
railroad was burned, and General Morgan had issued orders to burn all 
the mills and factories in the town, but these were spared from destruc- 
tion on the payment of one thousand dollars for each of them. Much 
other damage waa done in breaking, destroying and burning ; and every 
good horse in the town was taken out, and appropriated to the use of the 
guerrilla invaders. 

From Salem they went to Canton, where they took over one hundred 
horses ; at this place General 3Iorgan's right column entered the town by 
way of riarristown, and his whole force was joined together, and marched 
in the direction of Vienna in Scott county, which they reached at tw;) 
o'clock on the morning of the next day. There much public property wms 
burned ; but private property was respected. The force of the guerrilla 
General was again divided into two columns, one of which was sent off in 
the direction of Madison, while the other under General Morgan marched 
in a northerly direction, and reached Old Vernon in Jennings county on 


the 11th of July. A surrender of the place was demanded by General 
Morgan ; and on the refusal of it, the town was threatened, and half an 
hour allowed for the women and children to leave the place ; but when, 
at the end of tliat time, the Union forces went out to meet the rebels they 
found that they were gone. The Unionists pursued, and many of Morgan's 
band were captured. The rebels moved southward, tearing up the 
tracks of tbc Madison and Indianapolis railroads on their way, and cutting 
the telegraph wires. Changing their course to the eastward, they 
reached Versailles on the 12th ; they then divided into several parties, 
and iidv;inced in various directions. On Sunday night a large body 
proceeded to Harrison ; another party of them reached Harrison on 
Monday. As they proceeded, on all sides, they helped themselves to 
the best horses in the towns they passed through, and leaving their own 
disabled aniuials behind, con inued on their way. On the moring of the 
14th they reached Miaraiville, having passed through Glendule, Spring- 
dale, Camp jMonroe, Sharon, Heading, and Montgomery. 

At Miumiville a body of guerrillas crossed the Little Miami railroad, 
and at a point known as Dangerous Crossing they placed some ties and 
rails across the track near a declivity, so that when the morning train 
came by the locomotive was thrown from the track, causing the death of 
the fireman, and seriously injuring the engineer. The rebels then rushed 
out from the woods in which they had been concealed and took prisoners 
a number of Union recruits, amounting to two hundred. The prisoners 
were paroled. Arrangements being now made by the National troops to 
cut ofi' the progress of the rebels by means of gunboats, Geiieral Morgan 
hastened his movements, until having passed through Williamsburg, 
Brown county, Sardinia, and Pikctown, he reached Jackson on the 
evening of Thursday, the 16th, where he remained until joined by his 
whole force. From Jackson he started for the Ohio river. 

During all this time the Union forces were in hot pursuit ot the rebels, 
but owing to all the best horses having been seized by Morgan he had 
necessarily the advantage of his pursuers. So soon as it became evident 
that Morgan was endeavoring to reach Gallipolisor Pomeroyon the Ohio, 
the inhabitants began felling trees across the roads, and (browing in his 
way every obstacle they could to interrupt and delay his progress. 
Morgan's men were much harassed in this way, and as in the course of 
their raid they had lost many of their numbers by exhaustion and by 
captivity the original force was greatly diminislied. On Sunday, 
the 19th, the main body of Morgan's guerrillas reached Buffingtr n island,, 
which lies in the Ohio river, close to the Ohio shore, about thirty-five 
miles above Pomeroy, and was chosen by the rebels as a place of cross- 
itig into Virginia on account of the shoals between it and Blannerhasset's 
Island, twenty miles abjve. They had doubtless been well adviocd of the 

morgan's raid in INDIANA. KENTUC:CY, AND OHIO. 220 

raovements of the Union forces sent from all points, to either he id thoiu 
off or to keep them confined to the only route eastward for them, until 
they reached the mountainous region and the eastern frontier. The 
National forces were fully prepared and, indued, exjected a fight with the 
rebels at this point ; and it very shortly became manifest th:it a severe 
battle was pending. On the evening of the IGth, General Jud;ih in com- 
mand of a large Union force, started from Portsmouth, and it was even 
then expected that an engagement would take place ; for trustworthy 
information had been received at the headquarters of Colonel P. Kinuy, 
commander of the post, during the afternoon, that the rebels were at 
Miamiville, about eleven miles out, and as it was not the design to either 
court or bring on an engagement, it being well known that the rebels 
were scattered over fifty or si.xty miles of country, the necessary concen- 
tration which they must make was rather humored than otherwise, so that 
the result might culminate in the complete capture or destruction of the 
entire force. 

General Judah kept as close as possible to the rebels, but between 
thcra and the river, when the doin.' so was practicable, until Morgan 
reached Jackson. Judah then pushed for Ceutreville, thinking that the 
enemy would take that route for the river ; but he avoided it, and went 
through Winchester and Vinton toward Pomcroy, and thence north of 
that to the scene of action. 

So soon as it had been definitely ascertained that Morgan was pushing 
eastward, the Union gunboats, Moose, Keindcer, Springfield, Naumkeag 
and Vif'tory, under command of Lieutenant-Commander Le Koy Fitch, 
were prepared to do service in the coming engagement. These boats had 
been patrol ing the river from an accessible point below Ripsey to Ports- 
mouth, but as soon as they were required upon the scene of action 
the Moose, towed by the Imperial, started up the stream, and was 
followed at regular distances by the rest of the boats. The Moose made 
the foot of Buffington Island on Saturday night, and remained until next 
morning, without changing position, on account of a dense fog. 

The rebel force upon the opposite side of the shore took position 
under cover of artillery, in an extensive corn and wheat field, skirted by 
hills and woods on its north and east sides. 

The rebels had their artillery placed on the highest elevation on the 
east and completely commanded the Pomeroy road, over which General 
Judah's force came tiling along unaware of the close proximity of the 
enemy. It should be noted here that the old stage road to Pomeroy, 
over which Morgan came, and the lower road traveled by Judah meet in 
an acute angle three-quarters of a mile from the battle-field. General 
Judah's column came along the lower road within range at six o'clock, 


after marching all iiiizlit, having,' started from Pomcrny, and not bcinii as 
fresh, by five or six hours' rest, as the enemy. 

The rebels met the National troops in solid column, and moved in 
battaiion<, and at the first fire repulsed the advance, A^hich was too far 
ahead to be assisted by the Union artillery. 

Although the rebels had here their best opportunity, they did not 
follow it up ; and the Union troops having fallen back to bring up their 
artillery, the fighting continued in a desultory manner until General 
Judah got his artillery into position and drew the lines of his army com- 
pletely around the enemy. His troops then made a furious onset upon 
the rebels, and drove them back over the field to the shelter of the woods 
beyond. By a fortunate circumstance Commodoie Fitch learned tlie 
exact position of the enemy, and was enabled so to direct his guns as to 
shower shell into the midst of their ranks, and render very signal service 
to the Union troops on the field. 

Unfortunately the dense fog which prevailed, prevented Colonel Fitch 
doing as great execution in the rebel works as he desired, but his shots 
from the larboard and forward guns were effective, and a quick scattering 
took place. The Moose opened at seven o'clock, and as the rebels were 
driven she kept steadily moving up the stream, throwing shell and shrap- 
nel over the heads of the Union soldiers into the ranks of the enemy. 

It was soon plainly perceived that Morgan's men were being pressed 
hard in all directions, and were evidently in dread of total discomfiture. 
An attempt to cross into Virginia was made by a simultaneous rush to- 
ward the river, the rebels throwing away arms and even clothing in their 
fear and consternation at finding themselves hemmed in by the Union 

The point chosen to effect the crossing was one mile and a half above 
the head of Bufington Island, and the movement would undoubtedlv 
have been attended with considerable success, but for the presence and 
performance of the gunboats. The crossing was covered by a 20-pounder 
Parroit and a 12-pounder howitzer, dragged into position by the rebels 
in their hasty retreat, but before the guns could be loaded and sighted. 
the bow guns of the Moose opened on the rebel guns and drove the gun- 
ners away, after which the pieces were captured. Some twenty or thirty 
men only succeeded in crossing into Virginia at this point. Several were 
killed in the water, and many returned to the shore. 

While this was transpiring on the river, the roar of battle was still raging 
on the shore and back in the country. Basil Duke, under whose gen- 
eralship the fight was conducted, was evidently getting the worst of it, 
and his wearied band of hurse-thieves, raiders, and nondescripts, be- 
gan to bethink them only of escape. Many threw down their arms, wltc 
taken prisouers, and sent to tin.' rear. Others sought the shelter of trees, 


or run wildl}' from one point to another, and thus exposed themselves far 
more to the deadly chances of the field than if they had displayed cour- 
age, and stood up to the fight. 

A running figlit next ensued, as the main force of the enemy retreated 
up stream toward a point on the Ohio shore opposite Belleville, Va. The 
retreat was made as rapidly as possible, but considerable confusion was 
apparent. The gunboat kept almost ahead of the retreating column, and 
when practicable, threw shell over the river bank toward it. 

The rebels next attempted to cross at Belleville ; but the Moose, 
which had reached that point, fired upon the first party which tried to 
land. They then pushed further along the shore, and made an eff >rt 
to cross at Hawkinsport, but were again foiled in their attempt by the 

While the Moose was winning her laurels, the other boats of the fleet 
were not failing to enact their regularly assigned part of the programme, 
which was to guard the fords below the island, and prevent iiiiy 
roaming squads of the rebels crossing to the much-wishcd-for VirL'iuiii 

It is said that some of Morgan's men sang, " Oh ! carry me back to 
Ole Virginny," with a pathos and sincerity of tone quite s-uggostive, not 
to say touching, and it certainly cannot be denied that Captain Fitch 
" went for them " with a degree of alacrity which proved his entire wil- 
lingness to assist them as far as he could. 

'I'hc engagement was kept up pretty briskly, and the rebels, as a body, 
efi"ectually prevented from crossing into Virginia ; the entire force was 
most gallantly fought, defeated, and utterly routed. A large number of 
the rebels were captured, with all of their arms, guns, and accoutre- 
ments ; and a great many of their horses, and the plunder they had 
carried away from the towns they passed through. Over one thousand and 
seven hundred of the guerrilla band was computed to have fallen into the 
hands of the Union soldiers ; and they admitted a loss of two hundred 
killed and wounded on ihe field. The Union loss was not more than one 
fourth of that number. The chief source of regret to the National troops 
was, of course, that the guerrilla general had effected his escape : 
but they had one and all fully determined that he should nut be 
allowed to roam at large for any length of time, nor have any opportunity 
of collecting together another band from the remnants of his scat- 
tered army. Accordingly, the pursuit was kept up vigorously, until 
on the 2Gth of July, the daring guerrilla leader was made prisoner 
near New Lisbon, where, with a small remnant of his men, he had 
tried to cross the river. The event was announced in the following way 
by General Shackelford, in a dispatch sent to General Buruside : 

232 TUK WAi: FOi: tiik union. 

" By the blessing of Almighty God, I have succeeded in capturing 
General John II. ^Morgan, Colonel Clickc, and the remainder of the com- 
mand, amounting to about four hundred prisoners." 

July 13-15, 18G3. 

Upon the 15th day of June, President Lincoln issued a proclamation 
calling for a draft of three hundred thousand men to fill the ranks of the 
Union army. The proclamation was received with murmurs of discontent 
from hirge masses of the populace in every city of the North ; and the mur- 
murs jiroved to be only the foreshadowings of very serious disturbances 
in New York, Boston, Brooklyn, Philadelphia, Troy, Buffalo, and in short, 
every city of importance. In New York, the draft commenced on Sat- 
urday, July 11th. It had previously been announced through the 
press, that on this day the ballots for one district would be publicly 
counted at the corner of Forty-sixth street and Third avenue, and that 
immediately afterward the wheel would be turned, and the draft begin. 

Quite a large crowd was assembled at an early hour at the office of the 
Provost-Marshal of the Ninth Congressional District ; and at about nine 
o'clock Assistant Provost-Marshal Cliarles E. Jenkins stepped upon the 
table and read out his orders in relation to the draft, and the manner in 
which it was to be conducted. Upon the table was a large wheel, con- 
taining the ballots, on which were inscribed the names of all those who 
had been enrolled ; one of the enrolling c.erks, having been blindfolded, 
then proceeded to make the drawings of the names. The business began 
and proceeded pleasantly, and with no demonstrations even of ill-humor ; 
and at the close of the day, there was no cause for apprehending a disturb- 
ance growing out of the draft. But so severe were the apprehensions of 
many of the working classes, lest they should be forced from their homes, 
that secret associations had been formed to resist the draft, even at the 
cost of bloodshed. The next day being Sunday, these parties took occa- 
sion to meet, and to make resolutions to resist upon Monday, to the ut- 
most extremity. Accordingly, upon the morning of the 1.3th, a very 
large crowd had gathered about the corner of Fort) -sixth street and 
Third avenue, and for a short time the business of the day proceeded 
quietly, and without any sign of disturbance ; from seventy-five to one 
hundred names had been drawn from the wheel and announced, when sud- 
denly the report of a pistol was heard in the street. 

This seemed to be the signal for an attack upon the office, for almost 
upon the instant a perfect shower of biickbats, paving stones, and other 


missiles, were hurled tVom the street into the building, a proceeding 
which took everybody by surprise. Following the shower of stones camo 
jin immense crowd, who poured into the office, carrying everything before 
tliem The wheel containing the remaining ballots of the Twenty-second 
Ward was carried by two of the clerks to the top story of the house, and 
placed in a room, the inmates of which refused to have it there, when it 
was placed in the hall. The Provost-Marshal, Commissioner, Surgeon, 
engrossing clerks, with the members of the press, effected their escape, 
by a back door. Captain Jenkins clambering a fence, and secreting him- 
self in the next house until a favorable moment arrived, when he made 
his way home. 

One of the clerks who endeavored to save some of the papers, was 
seized by the crowd, the papers taken from him by force, and torn in 
pieces. The mob now had possession of the building. In a few mo;uent3 
afterward, a man appeared with a can of turpentine, which he poured ou 
the floor of the office, and, setting fire to it, the room was soon in a blaze. 
All this time the mob were breaking up the pavement and assaulting the 
police and men attached to the office with stones. 

The fire which had been kindled in the back office, spread rapidly tu 
the upper part of the house, the flames in a little time communicating to 
tlie three houses on the north side, which were of equal size with the 
one oceupied by the Provost-Marshal, 

Around the bell-tower in Fifty-first street, the mob had sent their 
friends to stop the bell from ringing. When engine Number Thirty- 
three, and Hose Fifty-three were coming down Third avenue, they were 
cheered by the mob, but not allowed to work. 

The corner building having been nearly destroyed, one of the engi- 
neers now mounted the engine and appealed to the crowd for permission 
to throw water upon the fire, telling them that they had accomplished 
their purpose in burning the Marshal's office. 

About one o'clock Chief-Engineer Decker arrived at the scene of con- 
flagration, and seeing how matters stood, he ordered the firemen to go to 
work and extinguish the flames, and thus prevented the conflagration from 
extending to the neighboring buildings. 

But a great deal of damage had already been done ; and not le?s than 
six families were turned iiouseless into the streets. 

Shortly after eleven o'clock a detachment of the Provost-Guard, num- 
bering fifteen and a half files, belonging to the Invalid Corps, left the 
Park Barracks and reached the ground about noon. Upon reaching 
Thirty-fourth street, the mob began t<D surround them, hooting, yelling, 
and groaning. The guard formed in line between Forty-fourth and Forty- 
fifth btreets, but were so closely pressed upon all sides, that they were 
unable to " order arms." The mob now commenoed pushing and jolting 

234 /the war for the union. 

the soldiers, and throwing stones at them, when Lieutenant Reed, who 
was in command of the guard, ordered his men to load, and iuimcdiatoly 
after gave the order to " fire." The soldiers poured a blank volley into the 
crowd, and no one was hurt. The crowd, who had retreated a short dis- 
tance when the firing occurred, quickly rallied, and closing upon the 
guard, wrested arms from their hands, and discharged several of 
the pieces which had been re-loaded. The soldiers, thus attacked, re- 
treated quickly, but were pursued by the infuriated throng. 

The pursuit was kept up as far as Twentieth street, when it was aban- 
doned, and a majority of the men escaped. One of the soldiers was pur- 
sued up Forty-first street to First avenue, where a crowd of .some twenty 
men surrounded him, knocked him down, and beat him until he was in- 
sensible. A number of women joined in, and one of them endeavored to 
stab him with a bayonet, but another woman took the weapon out of her 
hand, and carried it oflF. The soldier was left dead on the walk. 

It was impossible to tell whence the first steps of this movement pro- 
ceeded ; for in twenty or thirty different places men ceased labor as if 
at some mysterious signal, and poured pell-mell into the streets to join 
the rioters. 

The streets from Forty-first to Sixty-third and the avenues were full of 
knots and throngs of laboring men, .some counseling violence at once, 
others discussing their power to effect anything, many drowning bitter 
judgment in frequent potations of ardent spirits. 

The telegraph polos were cut down, and thrown across the track of the 
street cars ; which were not allowed to run on the Third and Fourth 
avenue railroads. 

The rioters were composed of the employees of the several railroad 
companies ; the employees of Brown's iron factory, in Sixty-first street; 
Taylor's factory, in Forty-first street; Cummins,' street contractor, and 
numerous manufactories in the upper part of the city. The crowd 
marched thr:iugh many of the streets in the upper part uf the city, com- 
pelling laborers in every quarter to knock off work and full in. A few 
demurred, but were brought into the ranks by furious threats. Thus 
compelling all whom it met to swell its ranks the crowd soon reached 
vast proportions, every moment increasing in boldness. Well dressed 
men appeared to be specially obnoxious to it. The general cry 
was, " Down with the rich men." Three gentlemen talking together on 
Lexington avenue were set upon and knocked down, narrowly escaping 
with their lives. 

One of the Guard endeavored to make his escape by climbing the 
rocks near Forty second street. No sooner, however, was his intention 
discovered, than another portion of the rioters seized him, and 
taking him to the top of the rock stripped his uniform off him, and after 



beatino,' liim almost to a jolly, threw him over a precipice some twenty 
feet high on the hard rocks hene:ith. Not contented with this, stones and 
dirt were thrown at him as he lay helpless until he was half buried. 

Soon after the defeat of the soldiers a strong scjuad of police made their 
appearance in line of battle. As soon as the mob caught sight of them 
they fired a volley of stones, knocking down two of the officers. The 
police drew their clubs and revolvers, but after a contest of a few minutes 
they were also forced to retreat, which they did in good order until near 
Fortieth street, when one of them discharged his revolver four times into 
the midst of the throng, shooting a horse that was attached to a wagon 
standing on the corner. A rush was ni:ide at once for the officer, who 
immediately retreated into a store near by, the people of which at once 
barred the door and endeavored to give him protection. The crowd, 
however, went to the back of the house, tore down the fence, and ru.shed 
into the building, seized the policeman, knocked him down, and beat him 
in a fearful manner. 

Police Superintendent Kennedy, through in citizen's dress, was ob- 
served by the mob, who made a rush at him and knocked him headlong 
into the gutter, when several of the rioters kicked him and beat him 
dreadfully about the head, face, and bod}'. Some one of his friends who 
chanced to be near by, recognizing Mr. Kennedy, went to his assistance 
and succeeded in rescuing him. Mr, Kennedy was taken into a store 
and thence removed to his residence in a carriage. His injuries, though 
severe, did not prove fatal, as was at first feared by his Irieuds. 

Growing more violent every instant the mob continued to hoot and yell 
through the streets ; stopping before some of the handsomest dwellings 
they passed, attacking them with violence, and breaking in the doors and 
windows ; then entering they pillaged and destroyed at will. Those who 
were disposed to theft carried away every available article they could 
lay hands upon, and threw into the streets everything they could not 
conveniently carry with them — as handsome, marble-topped furniture, 
sofas, arm-chairs, pictures, &c. The chief objects of 
their rage were the unfortunate negro population, and after them all who 
sought in any way to protect them, or to quell the riot. 

The crowd divided into gangs, with their leaders bearing pieces of 
boards for banners on which were written " Independent," "No Draft," 
&c., and it was unsafe to express a single word in dissent from the pro- 
ceeding. Hundreds of mere boys, from fifteen to eighteen years of age 
were armed with clubs, or pickets, and marching in the ranks. 

The mob now began firing all the buildings they had sacked ; and in a 
dozen streets at once the incendiary flames shot up, and seemed to 
threaten a general conflagration. Tiie fire engines were brought out : but 


they were set upon by the frantic, yelling mob, which was rapidly 
swelling to dangerous proportions, and prevented from being set to work. 

About 2 o'clock p. m. a genfleman connected with the Press, while stand- 
ing on the corner of Forty-sixth street and Third avenue, was attacked 
by the crowd, crying out, " here's a d — d Abolitionist ; let's hang him." 
He was seized by the hair and dragged toward an awning post, but 
fortunately something else diverting the attention of the crowd, ht; 
escaped up Third avenue — but only for a short time, for a blow with a 
paving stone on the back of the head and another one in the face, stunned 
him so that he lost all consciouness, and while in this state, he was 
robbed of his gold watch and chain, diamond breast-pin and thirty-three 
dollars in money. 

At three o'clock a procession of about five thousand people marched 
up First avenue, all armed with bars, pistols, &c., threatening vengeance 
on all persons connected with the draft. They halted in front of tijc 
Eighteenth ward Station-IIouse in Twenty-second street, yelling in a de- 
moniacal manner. 

About four o'clock p. m. the rioters, perfectly frenzied with liquor, 
roamed about in every direction attacking people raiscelhmeously, and 
burning every building in which they saw a policeman take refuge. 

The police sufTered severely in these attacks of the first day, seven- 
teen of them having been badly wounded ; many of them so much injured 
that they were carried to hospitals. 

The city was particularly unsuited to resist a riot at the time when the 
ring-leaders of this one chose to begin it, as nearly every regiment in 
New York had been sent to the defence of Pennsylvania. The militia, 
however, were called out, by order of General Wool. 

The First and Third cavalry, which had been orlered to parade at the 
funeral of Colonel Zook, were sent forthwith to the Seventh avenue ar- 

Lieutenant Colonel Missing, with a portion of his force, was ordered to 
the upper arsenalt 

One hundred citizens of the Sixth ward reported themselves in readi- 
ness to General Sandford, for such duty as he might assign them to, and 
were sent by him to the arsenal in White street. 

The authorities at the Brooklyn Navy Yard were notified of the dis- 
turbances, and a large force of United States Marines, besides a consid- 
erable number of soldiers of the regular army, were ordered into instant 

General Sandford issued the following order, calling a meeting a( the 
Seventh regiment armory, at eight o'clock in the evening of the loth, 
to concert measures for the protection of the city : 



New York. July 13, 18G3. j 

The ex-ofEcers of this division, and of the United States Volunteers 
now in this city, who are disposed to assist in preserving the peace of the 
city, are requested to meet at the Seventh regiment drill-rooms, over 
Tompkins Market, this evening at eight o'clock. 



In answer to the call of General Sandford, the ex-officers then in the 
city met at the Seventh regiment armory on the same evening, and took 
steps toward the formation of one or more regiments to assist in protect- 
ing New York. 

One of the greatest outrages perpetrated during the four days' riot, was 
the burning of 


This building was fired about five o'clock in the afternoon. The infu- 
riated mob, eager for any violence, were turned that way by the simple 
suggestion that it was full of colored children. They clamored around 
the house like demons, filling the air with yells. A few policemen, 
who attempted to make a stand, were instantly overpowered — several 
being severely or fatally injured. While this was going on, a few of the 
less evil disposed gave notice to the inmates to quit the building. 

The sight of the helpless creatures stayed for a moment, even the insen- 
sate mob ; but the orphans were no sooner out, than the work of demolition 
commenced. First the main building was gutted, and then set on fire. 
While it was burning, the large wing adjoining — used ag a dormitory — 
was stripped, inside and out. Several hundred iron bedsteads were car- 
ried ofi" — such an exodus of this article was probably never witnessed be- 
fore. They radiated in every direction for half a mile. 

Carpets were dragged away at length ; desks, stools, chairs, tables, 
books of all kinds — everything moveable — was carried off. Even the 
caps and bonnets of the poor children were stolen. While the rioters 
stripped the building of its furniture, their wives and children, and hun- 
dreds who were too cowardly to assist the work of demolition, carried it 
off. Tlie wing, while burning, swarmed with rioters, who seemed 
endowed with a demoniacal energy to rend in pieces, rob and destroy. 

Shutters and doors were torn off and tumbled into the streets. These 
were seized and torn to pieces almost before they touched the ground, 
and, with everything else, carried off with surprising celerity. Several 
persons were injured, and one killed, by the falling of shutters and fur- 
niture from the windows. What was very marked as the destruction 


proceeiled, was the absence of excitement. Things were done as coolly 
by the rioters, as if tlioy were saving instead of destroying property. 

In the early part of the day the building occupied by the Provost- 
Marshal, corner of Twenty-eighth street and Broadway, was attacked by 
a mob, fired, and together with the adjoining buildings, laid in ashes. 

Mr. John Decker, Chief-engineer of tlie Fire Dopartraont, now made 
an eflfort to stay the devouring flames, by addressing himself to the in- 
sane mob, and counselling them, as a matter of common sense, to allow 
the engines to work, and so save the property of those who were entirely 
innocent of bringing on the draft. At first there seemed a disposition to 
listen to him, and the engines were got ready, but before taey could be 
set to work, the largest portion of the mob, which had gone tearing down 
Broadway, learning the firemen's intentions, came rushing back — 
howling, cursing, swearing, and vowing vengeance. 

In less than a minute they cleared the streets, drove the firemen from 
their engines, stoned the police from the sidewalks, and again took pos- 
session of the engines, hose-carriages, etc., which, however, they did not 

Half an hour later, Chief Decker got his engines at work, and suc- 
ceeded in eventually saving a part of the building on the corner of Forty- 
seventh street, the whole of the rest of the block having been de- 

About eight o'clock in the evening, the frenzied rioters having reached 
Printing House Square, commenced an attack on the Tribune office, hurl- 
inc bricks and stones into its windows, and utterly destroying them. An 
entrance to the counting-room was nest efiected, and an attempt made to 
set the building on fire. At this instant a strong police force c.^.ine upon 
the full run across the Park, scattering the rioters. A heavy rain som set 
in, and the mob dispersed in every direction ; though a great deal of petty 
mischief continued to be done during the night by those who did not seek 
their homes, or had none to seek. Whole blocks of buildings were 
burned during this one day's riot ; and the damage to government 
property alone was estimated at two hundred and fifty thousand dollars. 


At an early hour on Tuesday morning, after a night of sleepless anx- 
iety to the inhabitants of the city, demonstrations of violence began, and 
the outrages of the previous day were renewed. At about half-past eight 
o'clock, it was reported at the Police Headquarters that a large body of 
rioters were gathering along the Second avenue, threatening every house 
along the thoroughfare. A police force of three hundred men was imme- 
diately detailed under Inspector Carpenter, for the purpose of breaking 


up the crowd ; finding the railroad track obstructed, they left the street 
cars, and marched in solid column toward Second avunue, where the uiob 
received them with ominous silence. 

When the whole force had renchcd the block between Thirty-fourth 
and Thirty fifth streets, they were closed in upon by the mob, and as- 
sailed by a thick shower of bricks and stones, which rained from the 
houses and windows in the neighborhood. For some moments the men 
wavered, and the peril was imminent, when the reassuring voices of the 
ofiicers in command recalled them, and they returned the shower of 
stones with a volley of bullets from their revolvers. The order was 
then given to charge, and a most furious onset was made upon the rioters 
— the police driving them into the houses, chasing them all over the 
buildings and again into the street, where they were scattered by a most 
vigorous application of clubs. All the side streets were then cleared, 
and the police marched over the battle-ground victorious. The men be- 
haved bravely, hunting every rioter, and clubbing him if he made any 

The police then marched through the Avenue, and were met by a 
detachment of the Eleventh regiment of the N. Y S. V., headed by Colo- 
nel O'Brien and a couple of field-pieces, under command of Lieutenant 
Eagleson. The forces united, and countermarched down the avenue. 
The mob had in the mean time rallied, when the military formed a line 
of battle, and fired upon the crowd. Bullets whistled through the air in 
every direction, shattering shutters and doors. 

Many of the rioters fell, and some were killed ; two children were 
killed also, and a woman wounded. At this point no further hostile de- 
monstrations occurred on the partof the mob ; and the police and military 
force marched to the Central ofiiee. About noon, however, the riot was 
resumed on Second avenue. About five hundred of the mob entered the 
Union Steam works at the corner of Twenty-second street and Second 
avenue, and commenced carrying away the muskets which had been de- 
posited there the day previous, the arms having been taken from Mr. 
Opdyke's armory in Second avenue before the building was fired by the 

During the morning all the factories and shops in the neighborhood 
were visited, and threats made to burn each establishment to the ground 
unless it was clo-ed. As a consequence, every factory for a mile around 
the Union Steam Works was shut up, and the streets swarmed with infu- 
riated men. 

The mob had taken possession of the latter building for the purpose 
of using it as a fortification from which to resist the police. 

About two o'clock, a force of two hundred police, under command of 
Inspector Dilks, arrived on the ground. Some of the rioters, becoming 


alarmed at being thus ca;.'cd, endeavored to escape, but were too late, for 
upon the moment Inspector Dilks gave the order to charge. In an in- 
stant four of the rioters were stretched upon the pavement. Tlie men, 
with all the pluck of veterans, rushed into the building upon the mob, 
and after a desperate fight of a few moments, during which some of the 
policemen as well as the rioters, were injured, succeeded in conquering 
the crowd, causing them to leap from the windows, and ruah to every 
other avenue of escape. 

A large number of women at this m(fhient attacked the police, cursing 
them in a fearful manner, and in some instances stoning them. 

Having cleared the building of the rioters, the police came into the 
street again, each man holding a musket, and charged upon the mob, 
which scattered in every direction. 

At this same place the mob subsequently augmented so greatly that 
they stormed the place and notwithstanding the resistance of the small 
force of police kfc for protection, took possession of it. Reinforcements 
speedily arrived, and again the building was emptied of the mob ; the 
police then marched through the district, the military bringing up in the 
rear ; and again the crowd rallied, following them, and sent into their 
ranks a shower of o .y sort of missile they could lay hands upon. Quick 
as thought Caiit ii'rankliu gave the order " 'bout face," which brought 
the soldiers ^ ; to face with the crowd. In an instant thereafter the 
order to • ^le" was given, and a volley was poured into the mob. 
Fifteen >\L;re reported killed and wounded. A charge was made with 
fixed biiyonets, when the mob broke and scattered like sheep. The force 
then returned to their rendezvous with about two hundred carbines which 
they had captured. 

The crowd was being constantly reinforced as the day wore on. A 
number of gentlemen attacked one gang of the ruiSans, and suc- 
ceeded in capturing two of them. About five o'clock a large squad of 
rioters attacked a building on Twenty-ninth street, because it was alleged 
that " Horace Greeley lived there." While engaged in the destruction of 
the house and its contents a detiil of about fifty soldiers and thirty police- 
men appeared on the ground and marched through the street clearing it 
of all obstructions. 

A short time afterwards, in another poition of the street a gang of 
rioters raised a cry against a gentleman passing by " that he was a 
Tribune reporter," and instantly he was set u{)on by the infuriated mob, 
who pursued, knocked him down, and beat and kicked him about the body, 
face and head in such a way as to leave him nearly dead. A gentleman 
present interfered and succeeded in saving the young mnn's life. He 
was taken to his residence near, and it was found on examination that he 
had received no mortal wound. 


Tins same mob while in the vicinity set upon a man against whom they 
had conceived some fancied anti[iathy, and beat him to death. 

The riot was now increasing in all parts of the city notwithstanding the 
vigorous measures adopted for quelling it. An attack was made upon the 
residence of Mayor Op'lyke by a compavativnly small body of men and a 
party of boys, who threw stones and brick-bats at the wind uvs. Not 
more than half of the rioters, however, entered the building, their 
object evidently being plunder. About twenty gentlemen living in the 
neighborhood, having anticipated the attack, assembled at a given place, 
and, with such weapons as were at hand, rushed upon the crowd and 
drove them from the door. They then entered the Mayor's house and 
speedily expelled the riotere. Meantime the mob was increasing and the 
cry was " Burn the building !" Tho front steps were then occupied by the 
small party of gentlemen whose determined looks the crowd did not seem 
to relish. 

Happily, a body of police appeared, and charging upon the rioters put 
them to flight. The policemen were relieved by a detachment of two 
hundred soldiers. 

One of the most atrocious and bloodthirsty acts of the second day's 
riot was the murder of Colonel O'Brien, who had command of a por- 
tion of the military troops. The mob having been in great measure 
dispersed, a temporary quiet ensued toward evening, and Colonel 
O'Brien took advantage of this circumstance to return to his resi- 
dence, and remove his family to a place of safety, fearing the violence 
of the rioters against them, for he had heard many threats to that effect. 
He alighted from his carriage in Thirty-fifth street, and had just 
entered his house when a part of the mob, who had apparently been 
watching for him, made their appearance, and pouncing upon him dragged 
him into the yard, where they beat and kicked him in the most brutal 

Several women who were among the crowd also kicked the unfortunate 
man. Yelling like so many devils, three or four men seized the Colonel 
by his hair, and dragged him into the street, where they again kicked and 
beat him. 

A man keeping a drug store on the corner, carried out a glass of water 
to give the Colonel, whereupon the mob turned about and completely 
gutted his store. 

After beating Colonel O'Brien until he was insensible, they again 
dragged him into the yard and threw him into a corner, where every 
now and then they visited him and renewed their attack upon him 

Several persons witnessed this outrage from their near windows, and 
protested against it, when the mob cried out " kill them too, don't let's 
have any witnesses." The ringleaders notified the neighbors that they 


intended burning the block at night, and were going to burn the body of 
the Colonel. 

Tlie brutal murderers watched over his body until life was extinct, 
refusing to allow any one to approach to give him the slightest assistance. 
Two lloman Catholic priests 6nally came up and conveyed his body in a 
hand-cart to the Bellevue Hospital Dead-House. He was terribly 
mangled, and his body was almost naked and covered with gore. 

Among the acts of the rioters during Tuesday, were the following : The 
main track of the Hudson River railroad from Fifty-ninth to Fifty-third 
streets was torn up by the insurgents about ten o'clock in the morning, 
the Albany express train which left at that hour being compelled to back 
out of town on one of the turn outs. The crowd was armed with cart- 
rungs, small clubs, and other weapons. After damaging the railroad they 
proceeded down the avenue, amusing themselves by applying the torch 
to the house of any person whom they considered opposed to them. 

The Western Hotel, the Western Drove-Yards, and other buildings, 
were in this manner destroyed. 

At the corner of Twenty-.sixth street and Eleventh avenue, the 
Hudson River cars were stopped and threatened with destruction, but 
were eventually allowed to proceed on their way. 

The residence of Colonel Nugent, Eighty-sixth street, was utterly 
destroyed ; and an adjoining building was burned to the ground. A large 
factory in Harlem was fired, and completely consumed. Post-Ma.ster 
Wakeman's residence in Yorkville was pillaged of everything it con- 
tained, and then reduced to ashes ; an attack was made on the clothing 
store of Mr. Brooks, Catherine street, the rioters carrying away articles 
of clothing of great value. The robbery was interrupted, and the 
probable subsequent destruction of the bui'ding prevented, by the arrival 
of a police force, who fell upon the mob with great fierceness, capturing 
many, and scattering the remainder in confusion. Thieves, garroters, 
rowdies and ruffinns of all descriptions took this opportunity of joining 
the mob and robbing and plundering at their pleasure. iMany of the 
rioters arrested by the police were recounized as old offenders. 

Another assault upon the Tribune Office was attempted, but did not 
amount to anything. A large crowd was collected in the Park, and 
around the City Hall. Governor Seymour made his appearance u[)on 
the front steps of the building, and addressed the crowd in the following 
manner : 

" My Friends : I have come down here from the qniet of the country 
to see what was the difficulty, to learn what all this trouble was concern- 
ing the Draft. Let me assure you that I am your friend. [Uproarious 
cheering ] You have been my friends — [cries of " Yes," " Yes," " That's 
so " — " We are and will be again "j — and now I assure you, my fellow- 


citizens, that I am here to show you a test of my friendship. [Cheers.] 
I wish to inform you that I have sent ray Adjutant-General to Washing- 
ton to confer with the authorities tliero, and to have this Draft suspended 
and stopped. [Vociferous cheers.] I now ask you as good citizens to 
wait for his return, and I assure you that I will do all that I can to see 
that there is no inequality, and no wrong done to any one. I wish you 
to take good care of all property as good citizens, and see that every 
person is safe. The safe keeping of property and persons rests with you, 
and I charge you to disturb neither. It is your duty to maintain the 
good order of the city, and I know you will do it. I wish you now to 
separate as good citizens, and you can assemble again whenever you wish 
to do so. I ask you to leave all to me now, and I will see to your rights. 
Wait until my adjutant returns from Washington, and you shall b« 
satisfied. Listen to me, and see that no harm is done to either persons 
or property, but retire peaceably." [Cheers.] Some of the crowd here 
shouted, " Send away those bayonets," referring to a company of soldiers 
who were drawn up in front of the City Hall, but the Governor declined 
to interfere with the military, and bowing to the crowd, retired. 

A person named Andrews, formerly of Virginia, then introduced 
himself and asked the crowd to disperse, and await the reply from Wash- 
ington, which he was certain would come by telegraph this afternoon, 
and which he knew would be, that no draft would take place. [Cries of 
" Send these soldiers away, then we'll go."] Upon the suggestion of some 
person, Mr. Perrin told the crowd that the soldiers present were subject 
to the command of Governor Seymour, and could not go unless he 
ordered them away. The speaker then retired, as did also the crowd, 
after many muttcrings against the troops. 

Those of the mob who had gathered solely with a view to oppose the 
draft, gradually dispersed ; but the crowd had attracted to itself too 
many who were only anxious to pillage and destroy, to be so readily 
broken up ; and the rioters only left the City Ilall to assemble elsewhere. 
Again niglit, but not quiet, descended upon the scene. From end to end 
of the city the feeling of anxious fear was increased rather than 
diminished. Violence, theft and bloodshed reigned in all directions, 
and the sky was lurid with the lights of the still burning buildings. 


The Seventh regiment had been sent for, and were hourly expected 
on this day, the 15ih ; but the expected arrival of a body of military 
fresh from the seat of war did not, apparently, in the least intimidate 
the rioters, who went about threatening the houses, property, and 
lives of all who came under their displeasure, and boasting that they were 


80 well organized as to fear nothing. One of the first acts of the rioters 
upon this day was a cowardly and brutal outrage upon an unfortunate 
ner^ro, whom it was alleged had shot one of their number in self-defence. 
Immediately a crowd of two or three hundred rioters surrounded the 
unfortunate wretch, and seized him as he was endeavoring to enter 
his house. Dragging him into tho middle of the street, they jumped upon 
him and pounded him with their fists and with stones, until life was 
extinct. "Hang him" — "hang him," was the cry, and procuring a 
piece of clothes line, the crowd suspended the lifeles.s body from the 
limb of a tree, where he remained hanging several hours. This fiendish 
act accomplished, the insurgents cried, " burn his house," when a rush 
was made upon the building, and the door burst open. After emptying 
it they set fire to and destroyed it. The firemen arriving upon the 
ground in response to the alarm, saved the adjoining property from 

Mi-antirae a woman told the mob that a row of tenement houses in the 
rear were occupied by colored people, when the ringleader, armed with a 
cudgel, led to the place in search of the inmates, but they had effected 
their escape, having been apprised of their danger by some frieudly 
neighbors at the commencement of the outbreak. Incensed at the escape 
of their prey, the mob burned the buildings, and fled on the arrival 
of the police. The body of the unfortunate negro was cut down, and 
removed to the dead-house. 

At a later hour, the mob, strongly rcinfnrced, again appeared in the 
nein-hborhoud, when they were fired upon by a company of military who 
had been ordered to the spot. Several of the rioters were killed, but 
their names were never ascertained. 

About half past two o'clock a large force of the mob stopped at a 
lumber-yard on Fourteenth street, fired it, and burnt it to the ground, 
causins the luckless owner a loss of ten thousand dollars. The rage of 
the bloodthirsty rioters continued to expend itself upon the colored 
population, and upon all who had the reputation of being abolitionists. 
Many beautiful buildings were laid in ashes, for no other reason 
than because some maliciously disposed person volunteered the infor- 
mation that " an abolitionist lived in the pile somewhere." 

It was certain death not only to any negro to be seen upon the streets 
but to any white person who expressed pity for the bad treatment to 
which the poor wretches were subjected. The telegraph wires were cut 
in many directions ; and much inconvenience as well as a great deal of 
damaf^e caused thereby. All the principal hotels in the city were organ- 
ized for defence, and the male boarders armed themselves in case of 
attack ; while in private families there was an almost universal com- 
pulsory fast, both because the markets were closed up, and because it 


was dangerous to go into the streets even for the purpose of purchasin* 
the uecossaries of life. 

Nearly all day there were demonstrations by the rioters in Seventh 
avenue, in the vicinity of the arsenal. Cannon had been placed so as to 
ciimraand all the aj)proachos to the arsenal, and a strong force of cavalry 
was on the ground. These preparations had the cSect of keeping the mob 
at a respectful distance, but the spirit of turbulence manifested itself 
occasionally, and was often met by a terrible retribution from the mili- 
tary. Cannon were held in readiness, and the conflicts during the day, 
resulted in the killing and wounding of between forty and fifty men, 
women, and children. Toward night the mob fjund a negro man, and, 
having expended their rage by nearly killing him, they then hung him 
to a lumj) post at the corner of Twenty-eighth street and Seventh avenue. 

An attack upon the gas-house was made, but before it resulted in any- 
thing disastrous, a detachment of infantry ca ;ie up, and immediately 
put the rioters to flight. To protect the works from any further dama^'e 
the military kept guard upon them all night. 

Late in the afternoon a consultation was held by Governor Seymour, 
General Sand ord, General Wool and General Brown on the propriety of 
proclaiming martial law ; but Governor Seymour was averse to such an 
extreme measure, depending upon the military forces then in the city 
and those expected to arrive to quell the disturbance?. 

In the course of the day the mob increased to the number of eight 
hundred person.^. A large body of them attacked a shoe store on Grand 
street, and having appropriated every article of property it contained 
they set the building on fire, and reduced it to ashes. The citizens of the 
Tenth, Eleventh, Fifteenth, Seventeenth, and Nineteenth Wards having 
organized themselves into Committees nf Safety, patrolled the streets car- 
rying arms. Toward evening the Tcn:h, and Sixty-fifth regiaienta- 
returned to the city, and were loudly cheered as they walked up Broad- 
way. This somewhat sobered the rioters, but robbery and pillaging con- 
tinued during the succeeding night, although both the military and police 
were on the alert. On this day the excitement had spread on the one 
side of the city to Brooklyn ; and on the other to Iloboken ; fires occurring 
in both cities ignited by the incendiaries, who profited by their wicked 
acts. Boston, Troy, Buffalo, and very many other cities of the North 
suffered by the riot during the fifteenth, and for several days succeeding. 


The morning of the fourth day of the riot opened under auspicious cir- 
cumstances. People awoke to find the cars and omnibuses running, and 
they never were so glad to see them before. The railroads and stage 


lines were assured ample protection by an order of Governor Seymour 
requiring' General Sandford to furnish the Police Commissioners such 
force as (hey might require to protect their depots and stables. 

The public confidence was still further increased by the arrival of the 
Seventh, and Seventy-fourth Regiments, and the battery of the Eighth. 

The Sixty-fifth, Colonel Burns, of Buffalo, was placed by Governor Sey- 
mour under the orders of General Wool, and at an early hour three compa- 
nies of it were assigned to the sub-treasury building. The other four com- 
panies were retained for street service at General Brown's headquarters. 

The battery of the Eighth regiment, Captain Brown, which arrived 
with the Sixty fifth, was threatened by a mob at the Battery, but the two 
neo-ro servants accompanying it were firmly protected. 

The expectation of the other regiments, five of New York and five of 
Brooklyn, a hose return Governor Seymour had requested, tended to in- 
crease the fcelitig of safety which was growing with the citizens. A 
Michigan regiment, whose term of service had nearly expired, was also 
expected to return home by way of the metropolis. 

The appropriation, moreover, of two million five hundred thousand dol- 
lars by the Common Council to satisfy the three hundred dollar exemp- 
tion clause, withdrew most of those who feared the draft from the mob ; 
and few but the thieves were left. 

About noon a large gang of rioters fired upon a company of soldiers 
from a house on the Seventh avenue. The soldiers returned the fire, and 
immediately ten or a dozen desperate fellows, armed with clubs and guns, 
rushed out of the house, and pur.sued the soldiers, who wheeled about 
and poured the contents of their muskets into them. In an incredibly 
short space of time, the streets became thronged with rioters, who made 
the moj^t violent demonstrations against the soldiers, but were soon 
driven from the vicinity. When the military were out of sight, the mob 
finished sackin"' some houses they had broken into, and threatened to use 
the torch forthwith for the balance of the block. 

Very fortunately the mob was foiled in all its ofibrts to obtain posses- 
sion of the Arsenal, the lower floor of which was filled with artillery and 
equipments, and the second floor with muskets, swords, sabres, pistols, and 
all kinds of infantry and cavalry equipments. Had the rioters gained 
possession of the building, there would have been no lack of arms for 
any number they could have mustered. The third floor, of the size of the 
entire building, is the drill-room, now used for barracks and guard-house. 
In the centre and arourid the sides muskets were stacked, and soldiers 
lyin<T, with knapsacks under their heads, asleep. It looked almost like a 
battle-field ; coats, equipments, arms, soldiers lying indiscriminately to- 
gether. " Here," said Major Kicrnan, of the Sixth Missouri, to a gen- 
tleman present, " you have a glimpse of war as it is." 


TIic military being present in large force, the rioters became hourly 
less demonstrative. Notwithstanding this, however, a great deal of dam- 
age was done in various parts of the city. The most violent demonstra- 
tions of the rioters were now subdued; and ou the following day busi- 
ness was resumed throughout the city, and all the stores which had been 
obliged to be closed, were again opened. As the disturbance in New 
York city subsided, the rioting in adjacent towns, and all other places 
affected by it, gradually decreased ; and quiet again succeeded the short, 
but bloody " reign of terror." 


The headquarters of the Army of the Cumberland was established at 
Murfrecsboro' on the fifth of January, 18G3, the army itself occu{)ying a 
position in front of the town which was completely encircled by extensive 
earthworks, constructed with the view of rendering it a depot of supplies 
and the base of prospective operations. The rainy season set in and a 
suspension of activity on the part of the Federals ensued, but the cavalry 
of the enemy was as lively and ubiquitous as ever, and not only often 
succeeded in capturing many men and wagons, but also in burning a 
number of steamers on the Cumberland, with the view of cutting off the 
comnuiuications of the Union army, and of stopping its supplies. 

On the 31st, Biigadier-General Jefi'crson C. Davis with three brigades, 
made a bold dash in the direction of Rover and Franklin. During an 
absence of thirteen days the two brigades of cavalry he had with him 
visited eight towns and secured one hundred and forty-one prisoners, 
including two colonels and several other officers, without the loss of a 


On the 3rd of February, 1863, Major-General "Wheeler, Brigadier- 
General Wharton and Colonel Forrest, with five thousand Confederates 
and twelve cannon, marched on Fort Donelson. They were met half a 
mill! from the fort by a skirmishing party, under Captain McClanahan, 
sent out by Colonel A. C. Harding, commanding the garrison, which con- 
sisted of nine companies of the Eighty-third Illinois, one company of ihe 
Fifih Iowa cavalry, and two sections of Flood's battery, in all about six 
hundred effective men. The battery consisted of four rifled brass pieces, 
in addition to which there was one siege gun, a rifled thirty-two pounder, 
in position. The skirmishers fell inward slowly, firing upon the enemy 
as they retired, until they were called in. The Confederates now dis- 
played a white flag and demanded the surrender of the fort and garrison. 


Colonel Harding replied that he " would fight while he had a man left." 
lie liad formed Lis line of battle, (in the shape of a crescent,) one flank 
on the river and the other extending to a brick building near the in- 
trenchmcnts ; lie had sent for gunboats, and was content to abide the 
issue. The enemy completely encompassed the town ; and the fire of 
artillery opened on both sides. His men were all mounted ; and made 
charge after charge u[ion the gallant defenders, who>e Springfield rifles 
empiied scores of saddles at each assault. The rebel General Wharton 
dismounted his men, gained the rear of the town, and they then forced 
their way into it. Colonel Forrest, who had fired his troops with daring 
emulation, led his brigade, in line more than a mile long, to the attack. 
It was met by a perfect storm of lead. The troops pressed on through 
the fatal hail, driving the Federals from their riflcpita and chasing theui 
into the town, but here the pursuers were greeted with a deadly shower 
that threatened them with annihilation, and they wavered, turned and 
fljd. But they were soon rallied, reformed, and again urged into the 
mouth of destruction ; and, in this spirit, was the contest kept up fr./m 
noon till half past seven o'clock, when anuther flag of truce was sent in 
with a second demand for an unconditional surrender. 

Fiuod's battery had lost forty-eight out of sixty-four horses ; one piece, 
Lad every gun dismounted, and had fired its last cartridge. The rebels 
asSdred Colonel Harding that he had done all that could be expected of 
a brave man, and that further resistance on his part would only lead to a 
u.seless efi"usion of blood. The hero replied, " I Lave no orders to sur- 
render, 1 cannot think of such a thing — I'll take the consequences." 

The struggle was renewed. It appeared a Lopeless one for the Union- 
ists, till a cheering sight appeared on the river. It was the sable Lex- 
ington, followed by her consorts moving majestically into the rear of the 
position. The gunboat, always the rebels' terror, began to speak in her 
tones of thunder. 

The enemy had posted his main body in line of battle in the graveyard 
at the westerly extremity of the town, with his left wing exposed to a 
raking fire in a ravine which led down to the river ; and the fire of the 
gunl>oats Lexington, Fairplay, Brilliant, St. Clair, Robb and Silver Lake, 
which fairly rocked the Post -.vith the force of the concussion, did fright- 
ful executiun among the terror-stricken and fleeing masses of rebels tliat 
filled the surrounding valleys and ravines. 

In this gallant defence, the Federal loss was sixteen killed and sixty 
wounded. The cavalry, which had been sent to reconnoitre fuur hours 
before the commencement of the engagement, were all captured except 
four, making the loss in prisoners about fifty. The rebels had fully one 
hundred and fifty killed, four hundred wounded, and left one hundred 
and fifty prisoners with the Unionists. 


JM.vucii 5, 18G3. 

On the fi)urtli of March, an expedition coinj)08cd of the Thirt^^-tlilrJ 
Inliana, Twenty-second Wiseonsin, Nineteenth Michigan, Eii^hty fifth 
Indiana, One Hundred and Twenty-fourth Ohio infantry, with detacli- 
mcnts of the Second Michigan, Ninth Pennsylvania, and Fourth Kentucky 
cavalry, left Franklin, Tenn., under the command of Colonel John Cubuin, 
to meet a force which General Rosecrans was to send Irom Mnrfreesboro' 
at a point some twelve miles from Franklin. The column had proceeded 
about three miles when it eticountered the enemy, and a slight artillery 
engagement ensued, in which he was defeated with the loss of ten killed, 
left on the field. Here the train, which consisted of about one hundred 
wagons, proving too cumbersome, was, with the exception of the baggage- 
wagons, sent back, and the army went into camp. The next morning in- 
formation was brought by two negroes that the enemy under Colonel 
Forrest was reinforced by Major- General Yan Dorn, and now numbered 
ten thousand men. The negroes were dispatched, under guard, to Gen- 
eral Gilbert to whom Colonel Colburn had already sent a letter inform- 
ing him of the probable number of the enemy and asking for reinlorce- 
mcnts " Tlie Colonel must be scared," observed the General, as ho 
wrote this laconic order : " your force is sufl&cient, move forward." 

At eight o'clock, a. m. the column resumed its march, throwing out 
skirmishers ; and when it had advanced about four miles, fire was opened 
from a battery immediately in front. Colonel Colburn drew up his com- 
mand in line of battle, placed three pieces on its right and two on the 
left, so that the battery might bear simultaneously on two points. 
Another of the enemy's batteries immediately revealed itself on tlie 
right, but no force was visible. The Eighty-fifih and Tiiirty-third 
Indiana were ordered to take it. They started down the hill, and were 
received with a murderous volley from infantry behind a stone wall and 
around the depot, where they disclo.sed overwhehning numbers. At the 
same moment another rebel battery opened on the left. The two regi- 
ments were ordered to retire. The l']ighteenth Ohio battery on the left 
failed to stand the scathing fire of the enemy's guns, and being out of 
amuuiniiion, had also without orders moved down to the pike. The 
enemy now advanced on the left in line of battle, and Colonel Colburn 
was leading the Thirty-third and the Eighty-fifth Indiana into the fierj 
snare laid for them. The Twenty-second Wisconsin and Nineteenth 
Michigan, on the summit of a hill, held their positions ag-iinst over- 
whelming odds. The section of the battery on its right had also kept up 
a constant fire, but that on the pike was retreating in double quick time, 
uud was only too aoun tuUuwed by the other section, which hud hitherto 


tehaved so well. Lieutenant-Colonel Bloodgood of the Twenty second 
Wisconsin, seeing the enemy closing round the hill to cut him off, gave 
the order to move the regiment in that direction by the flajik : one 
hundred and fifty obeyed the command, and, with that number, he escaped. 
The cavalry had already retired half a mile from the scene of action. 
The Union brigade was now driven into a hollow, the enemy closing in 
upon it on every side, shell and round shot pouring upon it, thick and 
fast, and bullets raining so rapidly, that further resistance appearedlike a 
useless immolation of hundreds of lives.. Colonel Colburu therefore 

The Union loss in this disastrous engagement was one hundred killed, 
three hundred wounled, besides many prisoners, and a valuable train. 
The rebel loss in killed and wounded was much less than that sustained 
by the Federal forces. 

On the tenth of xMarch a detachment of Federal troops, comprising the 
Sixth and Seventh Illinois cavalry, commanded by Colonel Grierson, 
surprised Colonel Richardson's guerrilla band, four hundred strong, near 
Covington, Tenn , killed twenty-five, captured a number of them, and 
dispersed the rest. 

On the twelfth Major-General Gordon Granger with his division, sup- 
ported by Colonel Minty, returned to Franklin from an expedition which 
had been attended with a success so brilliant as to efface in great 
measure the disgrace of the failure of Colonel Colburn's expedition. 
General Van Dorn and his command, flushed with their recent victory 
over Colonel Colburn, were met by this expeditionary force, and " sent 
Dying" over the Duck river. 

On the eighteenth, fourteen hundred men, consisting of the One 
hundred and filth Ohio, the Eightietli, and One Hundred and Twenty-third 
Illinois, an Indiana battery, and one company of Tenuessee cavalry, 
under the command of Colonel A. S. Hall, left Murfreesboru' and started 
in the direction of Liberty. On the next morning the enemy was 
encouutered, but in numbers so overwhelming that Colonel Hall was com 
pellcd to return. He was attacked the next day at Milton by the rebel 
forces under General John Morgan. A fierce fight, lasting tljree hours 
and a half, ensued, but the enemy were finally repulsed with the loss of 
four captains and sixty men left on the field, dead or mortally wounded, 
be.«ides nearly three hundred placed hors du combat. Colonel Hall had 
six killed, forty wounded, and seven missing. 

From this time, a great many expeditions of the above description 
were sent out from time to time with more or less success. A force of 
rebels, under Major-General Van Dorn, on the 10th of April, attacked 


tho National force under Major-Gcneral G. Granger, at Franklin. The 
rebel f^rce w:is estimated at nine thousand cavalry, besides two regi- 
ments of infantry, and was greatly superior to the Union force, which 
consisted of only two regiments, under Generals liaird and Gilbert, 
numbering about sixteen hundred men, and sixteen guns ; and two cav- 
alry brigades under General Smith and Colonel Stanley, numbering about 
twenty-seven hundred men, and two guns. The only natural defence of 
the place was a fort, not yet completed, and which mounted two siege, and 
two three-inch rifled guns. This fort was elevated some forty feet above 
the surrounding country, and commanded most of the approaches to the 
town. General Granger's camp was f<ituated on the north side of the river, 
and about two-thirds of a mile from Franklin. General Baird received 
orders to check any force of the enemy attempting to cross the fords below, 
and General Gilbert was so placed as to meet any attack made upon tho 
front, with orders to reinforce either flank if required. About four miles 
on the road to Murfreesboro', Colonel Stanley was stationed, and Gen- 
eral Smith's cavalry was held in reserve to reinforce Colonel Stanley. 
The attack was opened by General Van Dorn on General Granger's front, 
which was instantly repulsed. The attack was then renewed on Col- 
onel Stanley, who was driven back before reinforcements could reach 
him. The enemy pressed close upon them ; when they had advanced 
into an open field, they halted, and the Unionists suddenly faced about, 
and delivered such a hot fire into their ranks that they fell back in con- 
fusion. Speedily recovering, however, the enemy charged again, and 
were again repulsed with loss. They fell back again ; and the Unionists 
not wishing to follow up the advantage they had gained, continued to 
retreat till they had nearcd the town, and there they were charged 
upon by the whole force of the enemy's cavalry. The Unionists kept up 
a continuous firing upon the advancing rebels, but the enemy's column 
came steadily onward. The National troops now executed a brilliant, 
and very skillful movement — each front company delivered its fire, and 
then retreated to the rear, leaving the next one behind in front, and so 
succeeding until the one in rear was again in front. In this way the 
retreating Unionists, etill under a hot fire from the rebels, held them in 
check till the town was gained in safety. Once there, the National 
troops concealed themselves within the shelter of the houses, yard-fences, 
hedges, &c., and from this cover they poured into the enemy's ranks a 
constant and murderous fire. The siege guns and batteries now opened 
upon them, also, and succeeded in driving them discomfited from the 
field. In this engagement, the National loss was very much le.<5s than 
that of the rebels, notwithstanding the latter had so far outnumbered the 

On the 20th, a skirmish occurred beiween a Union force, part of 


Major-Gcncrnl Reynolds's division, Colonel "NVilder's mounted brigndc, 
and a cavalry fovcc under Colonel Minty, and the enemy, who were sta- 
tioned at a place called IMcMinnsville. The rebels formed a line, and 
charged upon the Unionists as the latter approached the city, where they 
hnd been sent frt^m Murfreosboro', to scatter any Confederate force 
which might be found at McMinnsville. The National troons encoun- 
tered the rebel line, breaking through it at once, and drove the 
whole force, consisting of seven hundred men, from the town. Many 
men v ere taken prisoners by this Union force, and much destruction of 
rebel property accomplished. On the 29th, a small body of Union men, 
under Colonel Watkins, captured one of the enemy's camps, taking 
prisoners one hundred and thirty-eight men. 

May 3, 18G3. 

About the 20th of April, an expedition was fitted out to proceed into 
Northern Georgia, in charge of Colonel A. J). Streight, under whose 
command was placed the Fifty-first Indiana and Eightieth Illinois, 
together with portions of two Ohio regiments. 

Colonel Streight was officially notified that the chief object of his 
expedition was to push into Western Georgia, and cut the railroads which 
supplied the rebel army, by way of Chattanooga ; and that in pursuance 
of this plan, he was not to allow incidental schemes, however promising 
as to results, to involve him in such delays, as would endanger his safe 
return. In order in deceive the enemy, he was to march long enough 
in company with the army of General Dodge, to give rise to the belief 
that lie was a part of the expedition of the latter. He was further com- 
manded to refrain from pillage and marauding, but to destroy all depots 
of supplies for the rebel army, all manufactories organs, ammunition, 
equipment, and clothing for their use, which could be done without 
endangering their return. 

In obedience to these instructions. Colonel Streight embarked his 
soldiers from Nashville, and landed near Fort Donelson. From there he 
crossed the country to the Tennessee river, thence proceeded to East- 
port, and conjointly with the forces of General Dodge, at the time 
marching upon Tuscumbia, gave battle to the Confederate troops, and 
defeated them with considerable loss. 

At this point. Colonel Streight parted company with General Dodge, 
and pursued his course toward Rome and Atlanta. General Forrest and 
Colonel Rody, with a Confederate force, happening to be in the neigh- 
borhood of Colonel Streight's proposed route, were at once apprised of 


liis inovomftnts. and falling upon \m rear, cngag-iil in a running figlit, 
which lasted full four days, and comprised several sharp skirmishes, and 
two battles, Tlie Federal troops, however, nvinaged to advance over a 
Inimlred miles into the interior of tlie Sure, destroying on their way some 
bridge-;, a large quantity of meal, and a foundry for the manufacture of 
elii't and cannon. B;it as the Confederate forces eontinuilly increased, 
and both the ammunition and the men of Colonel Streight finally became 
exhausted, he was obliged at a point some fifteen miles from Rome, 
(Ga.,) to make a complete surrender. His men, to the number of 
thirteen hundred, we.c, according to custom, at once paroled, but his 
officers were held and imprisoned, on the charge of having incurred the 
penalty fixed by a statute of the State of Georgia, for inciting slaves to 
rebellion. In substantiation of this claim, it was stated tliat black men, 
uniformed, and bearing arms, were fou.nd in the command of Colonel 
Streight On the other hand, it was declared that these negroes had 
marclied from Nashville with the raiders. 

In consequence of this refusal to parole Colonel Streight, the Govern- 
ment suspended the exchange of Confederate officers, and General Morgan 
and his officers were thrown into the penitentiary of Ohio. 

Colonel Streight was subsequently released from imprisonment. 

It was toward the end of June that General llosecrans commenced a 
series of movements, which were designed to bring on a conflict between 
the forces under his C( mmand, and the rebels under General Bragg. His 
purpose was to march small portions of his army on Shelby ville, and by 
feints give an idea that a serious movement was intended in that direc- 
tion ; while his really decisive blow was aimed at Tullahoma. Accord- 
ingly the Twentieth corps, under General McCook, was selected to make 
the advance on the right ; and about seven o'clock General Sheridan's 
division, preceded by five companies of mounted infantry, under Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Jones, proceeded on the way to Shelby ville. During the 
night, this division bivouacked on each side of the wood, and the divisions 
of General Johnson and Davis advanced six miles on the road, and on 
the left turned to Liberty Gap. The following day was very stormy — 
notwithstanding which the mounted infantry under Colonel Wilder, 
marched along the road leading to Manchester, and were closely followed 
by General Reynolds, with the remainder of his division. 

At about nine o'clock in the morning, Colonel Wilder met the enemy's 
pickets eight miles from Mnrfreesboro', and drove them, together with 
all their reserves, on a quick run before him, to beyond Hoover's Gap, 
which is a long winding hollow through a chain of hills which divide tho 
Stone and Duck rivers. For about two-thirds the distance through the 


gaps the rebels liarl fortified a strong position, but were driven so closely 
b)' the men undi^r C )lonc!l Wilder, that before they had time to deploy 
into their works, ilio Union soldiers were inside also. The rebels fled 
instantly, leaving be'.iind the battle-flag of the First Kentucky cavalry 
regiment, and also forty-two prisoners. For full four miles beyond 
Hoover's Gap, Colonel Wilder's men drove them on a sharp run ; when 
he heard the long-rull sounded in the enemy's infantry camp two miles 
beyond the Garrison Fork, down Duck river toward the right. Immedi- 
ately the proper dispositions were made for an expected figlit, for Colonel 
Wilder determined to hold the gap until General Reynolds with his 
force should come up to his assistance. Almost on the instant, two 
brigades of rebel infantry came up on the double-quick, and formed in 
line of battle ; the Unionists poured a volley into their ranks, which 
caused them to hastily turn about and beat a retreat ; upon the right of 
Colonel Wilder's column five regiments of rebels had charged, and out- 
flanked the Seventeenth. The Ninety-eighth Illinois, Colonel Fern- 
houser, hastened to their relief, before whom the rebels did not stand 
more than five minutes. Wheeling about, the enemy, despite the cries 
and entreaties of their officers, beat a hasty retreat, and with great noise 
and clatter carried their batteries away with them, and posted them be- 
hind some hills iu their rear. General Pieynolds' division held posses- 
sion of the gap. 

During these and subsequent preliminary movements, the rebel 
position was as follows : Bragg's main army occupied a strong position 
north of Duck river, with their cavalry on the right toward McMinnville, 
and their infantry extending from Shelbyville to Wantrace ; on the left, to- 
ward Columbia and Spring Hill, Forrest was concentrating and threaten- 
ing Franklin. Their main base of supplies was, of course, at Chattanoo- 
ga ; but their superior and efficient cavalry force had enabled them to com- 
mand all the resources of Duck river valley, and the country toward 
the south. Tullahoma, the large intrenched camp of the rebels, was 
situated on the " barrens" at the intersection of the Nashville and Chat- 
tanooga railroad with the McMinnville branch, and was their main depot. 
The rebel infantry was well protected by a high range of rough and 
rocky hills ; the principal routes passed southward from Murfreesboro' 
toward Tullahoma, and the enemy's line of communications. By the way 
of McMinnville, Tullahoma is distant seveniy-five miles from Chattanooga ; 
the Manchester pike passes the hills above referred to, goes through 
Hoover's Gap, and ascends to the " barrens," through a long and diiScult 
canon called Matt's Hollow. The Wantrace road passes through Liberty 
Gap, and into a road which runs parallel with the railroad at Bellbuekle 
Gap. The Shelbyville road runs through a detile called Guy's Gap. 
A road called the Middleton dirt road, is also situated near here ; and 


the road along Versailles runs into the Shelbyville and Triune roads, 
neither of which have any passes, and but few denies. 

The enemy held all these passes, his main position being in front of 
Shelbyville, and strengthened by a redan line which extended from 
Horse Mountain on the east, to Duck river on the west, and was covered 
by a line of abattis. 

It being still uncertain whether the enemy would advance to test the 
strength of the whole Union force, the following disposition of the latter 
was made for the 25th : Major-Gencral Crittenden was ordered to 
advance on Lannon's Stand, and from thence open communication with 
General Thomas, who was then to drive the rebels toward Fairfield, 
where the Fourteenth corps was stationed to receive them ; and General 
McCook, with that portion of his corps under his own imreediate com- 
mand was to make a feint along the Wantrace road by the way of Liberty 
Gap. General Stanley, with the cavalry under his command, was to oc- 
cupy the attention of the rebels at Fosterville ; while General Granger 
with the infantry, was to support Stanley at Christiana. If General 
Thomas succeeded in his manoeuvre, and found the rebels retreating to- 
wards Wartrace, he was to cover that road with a division, and thus move 
on to Manchester with the remainder of his command, while General Mc- 
Coolc, moving in on Beech Grove, was to hold Liberty Gap with one 
division, and after a time to withdraw quietly, leaving a force sufficient 
to protect it, and move on to 3Ianchester. 

During this day it rained heavily and continuously ; and General 
Brannan was, in consequence, prevented from joining the Fourteenth 
corps as soon as was necessary. Finally everything was in position ; 
General Reynolds' division advanced upon the heights toward Fairfiehi, 
but made no demonstration against the enemy. At Liberty Gap the 
enemy endeavored to regain possession, but were utterly routed, and 
compelled to leave it in possession of the Unionists. 

The greater part of the movements ordered on the 25th were com- 
pleted on the 26th, notwithstanding the drenching rain which had con- 
tinued day and night. The divisions of Generals Reynolds, Rousseau and 
Brannan, made a combined advance upon the enemy, and forced him to 
retreat toward Fairfield ; Wilder's cavalry seized Matt's Hollow, and 
held it, thus securing the passage toward Manchester for Reynolds to 
move forward with his division, which the gallant General did during the 
same night. Headquarters were established in Manchester duriug the 27th ; 
and in the course of the night all the remaining portion of General 
Thomas' corps came in from the difi'erent directions in which they had 
been posted. All was now in readiness to prepare for the coming contest ; 
rations were distributed to the troops, and the column was closed up 
around Manchester. 


While these preparations were going forward, General Kosecrans saw 
an opportunity for cutting off the railroad in the rebel rear, and thus 
accomplishing one of his main objects. He therefore sent forward Wil- 
der's briirade to burn the bridges across Elk river, and to destroy the 
railroad between Deckhard and Cowan. Brigadier-General John Beatty 
was sent to Ilillsboro' with a brigade of infantry, to cover, and if neces- 
sary, support the movements of Colonel Wilder. Upon reaching Elk 
river it was found to be so swollen, in consequence of the recent rains, 
that it was impossible to ford it. Nothing daunted, the brave Colonel 
proceeded upstream along the banks, till he came to a place where there 
seemed a possibility of swimming his horse across. A raft was hastily 
constructed from the ruins of an old saw-mill, and he thus floated his 
mountain howitzer over, by towing it with ropes. The One hundred and 
twenty-third Illinois, Colonel Monroe, had been sent on to destroy the 
brid<Te, but on arriving there found that he was late by about ten minutes, 
as three regiments of the rebel Withers' division of infantry had arrived 
there and were protecting the bridge. Colonel Monroe, therefore, re- 
turned from his fruitless errand ; and with the rest of Wilder's command, 
moved on to Deckhard during the same night. There they had a sharp 
skirmish with about eighty men of the garrison, but finally drove them 
out, and in the darkness the rebels effected their escape. Colonel Wil- 
der then destroyed the telegraph-wires, captured the instruments, set 
fire to the depot, and tore up about three hundred yards of the Chatta- 
nooga railroad track. From there Colonel Wilder took the road across 
the mountains to Chattanooga intending to strike the bridges at Cow's 
creek, near Stevenson, but was prevented on finding three trains loaded 
with rebel infantry awaiting him, while the enemy's cavalry was in hot 
pursuit of him. Unwilling to give up his object, he next attempted to 
attack Anderson, ten miles further on, and destroy all the bridges in that 
dii taction, but there, also, he found a rebel brigade awaiting him. Being 
thus threatened on every hand, he was obliged to make his escape in 
order to save his troops from capture ; and, with Buckner's brigade close 
upon his heels, made all possible speed to return to Manchester. His 
men were utterly exhausted ; they were out of rations, and the horses, 
which had scarcely been unsaddled for seven days, were nearly starved. 
But men and animals exhibited alike great powers of endurance ; and 
by his admirable management, Colonel Wilder got his troops back to 
Manchester in safety, and without the loss of a single man, at about one 
o'clock on the afternoon of the 30th, having marched one hundred and 
twenty-six miles, swam four streams, and tore up three railroad tracks. 

In the mean time a force of the enemy's artillery and cavalry at Guy'a 
Gap had been attacked by General Stanley's cavalry, and the infantry 
under General Granger. The enemy was completely routed, driven 


from stind to stand, till they reached their intrenchments. whore the 
Unionists made an impetuous charge upon theiu, and drove them out, 
capturing three pieces ot" artillery. From the iiitreiichments, the rebels 
fled back to Shelby ville, and gathering fogeiher all their remaining force, 
made another stand, and for a time withstood the National forces with the 
courage of desperation. It was in vain. The Union cavalry swept down 
upon them with resistless strength and fire, and drove them back in dire 
confusion into the river. .Large numbers fell on the field, many were 
drowned, and a large force were taken prisoners, together with much 
commissary stores, and a quantity of arras. The Union troops then 
took possession of Shelbyville, amid the waving of flags, and the cheera 
of welcome from the inhabitants. 

Upon the 30th, the whole Union force, in mass, was prepared to move 
upon Tullahoma ; but on the next day a dispatch was received by Ge'n- 
eral Rosecrans from General Tliomas, announcing to him that the enemy 
had evacuated Tullahoma dui^ng the night. Pursuit was ordered 
instantly. The divisions of Brannan, Negley, and Sheridan entered Tulla- 
homa, and took possession. The infantry arrived about noon ; and the 
divisions of Negley and Ilousseau pushed on after the retreatin,' rebels, 
and overtook their rear-guard at Bctlipage Bridge, two miles above the 
railroad crossing. The rebels, in strong force, occupied the heights at 
this place ; and the Unionists engaged in a brisk skirmish with them, in 
which the National forces entirely routed the rebels. General MeCook, 
in command of two divisions, pursued the enemy, on the next day, along 
the road which lay west of the railroad. The Elk river was found to be 
almost unfordable hy the cavalry ; while the rebel cavalry on the 
opposite side did everything in their power to resist the attempted cross- 
ing by the Union forces. But the rebels were speedily driven away, and 
the National troops took po.ssession of the ford. General Thomas, with 
similar difficulty, effected a crossing, the enemy having during the night 
burned the bridge by which he had expected to cross. The small 
cavalry force under General Turchin pushed forward to Hillsboro,' oa 
the Deokliard road; and finding the enemy's cavalry at Elk Ford, near 
Morris Ferry, engaged them, and being very soon reinforced by General 
Mitchell's troops they forced a passage across the river, after a sharp 
conflict. Night then closed the pursuit. Upon the 3d July. General 
Sheridan succeeded in crossing Elk river, and, supported by General J. 
C. Davis's division, pushed the enemy to Cowan, where he learned that the 
rebels, with their artillery and infantry, had crossed the mountains by 
University and Sweden's Cove, and that the cavalry alone would be 
found covering their rear. On the same day General Thomas got his 
troops across, also; portions of the cavalry from Sheridan's division, and 
also from the main column were sent forward, but they only learned that 


the enemy was gone. The roads "were founl to be almost impassable 
from the heavy rains, and the troops being well nigh out of provisions a 
halt was ordered until supplies could be forwarded from Mnrfroe-boro'. 

Thus ended a campaign of nine days' duration, in which tlie enemy had 
been driven from two strongly fortified positions, and which had resulted 
in giving the Union forces possession of the whole of Middle Tennessee, 
and preserving Kentucky from the danger of a second invasion. 

The next advance of General Rosecrans was against Cliattanonga. Gen- 
eral Bragg retreating on the south side of the Tennessee had reached this 
place, and had there thrown up defensive fortifications. General llose- 
crans commenced his movement on the IGth of August ; having spent the 
time from July 3d to the middle of August in making the necessary pre- 
parations. The advance was made, of course, across the mountains, its 
front extending from the head of Sequatchie Valley in East Tennessee to 
Athens in Alabama, a distance of about one hundred and fifty miles. 
The army advanced in divisions, availing itself of various gaps in the 
mountains, and crossing the Tennessee at various points. In the early 
days of September the army of the Cumberland was threatening the rebels 
under Bragg, all along that river from Wliitcsburg to Biythe's Ferry. 

General Rosecrans, having become convinced, from evidence gathered 
from various source?, that General Bragg had commenced on the 6:h of 
September, to move on Rome, directed General Crittenden to hold 
Chattanooga with one brigade and to pursue the enemy vigorously with 
the remaining force at his disposal. General Crittenden occupied 
Rinirgold on the 11th, but Wildor's mounted infantry pushed forward, 
skirmishing sharply with the enemy as far as Tunnel Hill. Logan 
having joined Crittenden, the whole corps advanced rapidly, ou the 
twelfth, to Gordons Mill. Wilder, while engaged in covering this 
movement, had a desperate struggle with the encuiy at Letts' Tanyard. 
Ne^ley, who had, in the mean time, been reconnoitering in the vicinity of 
Dug Gap, where he found the enemy in heavy force, was joined on the 
11th by Baird's division, and, after a severe skirmish with the rebels, 
secured a strong position in front of Stevens' Gap, On the twelfth Rey- 
nolds and Brenuan closed up to sustain these two advanced positions. 

General Rosecrans, having now ascertained that Bragg was not retreat- 
inT on Rome, but concentrating all his forces near La Fayette, behind 
Pigeon Mountain, where he was receiving reinforcements from Johnstoa 
and from Virginia, proceeded at once to concentrate his army. General 
McCook was ordered to hold Dougherty's Gap, with two briga<les, and to 
join General Tiiomas with the remainder of his command, with whom 
however, he did not close up till the 17th. On the arrival of General 


McCook's corps, General Thomas moved down the Ghickaraanga, toward 
Gordon's Mill. A manojuvrc was now made to cover the La Fayette 
road to Chic'kaniauga, but it was retarded by the narrowness of the roads 
and the disposition of the troops, and, during its progress. Colonel Minty 
became engaged with the enemy near Ptccd's Bridge, and Wilder's 
" Lightning Brigade " dashed into a superior force, from which they 
escaped by the La Fayette road. On the 11th, Minty's cavalry and Wil- 
der's mounted brigade, were, after an obstinate f-truggle, driven by tho 
enemy from Reed's and Alexander's bridges, to the Rossvillc road. 
General Thomas advanced during tho night to Kelly's House on tho 
La Fayette road, where Baird's division was posted. Here it was re- 
ported to him tliat a rebel brigade, isolated by the burning of Ileed'a 
bridge, was on his side of the Chickamauga. Brennan, with two brigades, 
was sent out to capture it, and encountered a strong column of the 
enemy, bent on turning the left of the Union army, and on getting pos- 
session of the road between it and Chattanooga. This movement opened 
the combat, and on the 19th of September. lSC)o, was commenced 


The enemy combined in heavy masses on tho extrcm.e left, and Crox- 
ton's brigade of Brennan's division became engaged with the rebel Gen- 
eral Forrest's cavalry, about ten a m. General McCook, who had closed 
up to Crawfish Springs as soon as Thomas's column was out of his way, 
now sent Johnson's division to Thomas's assistance. General Crittenden 
had dispatched Palmer's for the same puri)0se. The support was 
afforded most opportunely. Croxton's brigale, which had driven the 
cavalry under Forest near half a mile, met at last Ector's and Wilson's 
brigades, which made a resistance so obstinate, that Baird's whole divi- 
sion was advanced to Croxton's support. The foe was again pushed back 
and many prisoners captured. After an hour's hard fighting against 
overwhelming numbers, the ammuniuon of Croxton's brigade was ex- 
hausted, and the men wore moved to the rear to enable them to fill their 
boxes. The united forces of Baird and Brennan had driven the enemy 
from tht ir immediate front, and I5aird was disposing his lines to receive 
an attack he had reason to appreliend on his right, when Walthall's and 
Govan's rebel brigades, under Liddcll, impetuously assaulted Scribner's 
and King's, and put them to flight, making several hundred prisoners, 
and capturing; Loomis's and other batteries. 

Tlie regulars, out-flanked after the withdrawal of Brannan's men, 
fought like tigers, but were rolled back and over Scribner's brigade — 


the right of which being too far advanced, was crumpled up and literally 
surrounded. At this conjuncture, Johnson's division of McCook's 
corps, and Reynolds' division of Thomas's arrived, and were placed in 
position, connecting with the brigades already engaged. 

The storm rolled upon them, and, as the most desperate valor was dis- 
played by both rebels and Unionists, the fortune of the fight wavered, 
first on one side and then on the other. A tremendous onslaught of 
the enemy broke Palmer's lines, and scattered several of his regiments 
in wild dismay. General Reynolds threw himself among the brave but 
broken ranks, shouting, " Boys I are you the soldiers of the Sixth Ohio, 
who fought so gallantly with me at Cheat Mountain in Virginia ? You 
never turned your backs upon traitors — will you do it now ? " 

" No I no!" they screamed, with frantic enthusiasm. " Lead us back. 
We will fight it out I Lead us back ! " 

Back came the scattered fragments of regiments ; with magic swiftness 
ranks were formed, and the order was issued for the entire line to 
advance — and never was a finer charge made than that which followed. 
But they were Longstreet's men who opposed, and they rallied and 
rallied again, maintaining their reputation desperately ; but Thomas, 
Reynolds, and other heroic leaders inspirited their men with their own 
ardor ; the foe was still driven and L)ngstreet threatened with annihila- 
tion. Attacked both in front and in the flank, the enemy was slaugh- 
tered mercilessly ; the artillery he had captured was, with the exception 
of three pieces, recovered; and he was finally compelled to fall back, in 
confusion, on his reserves, posted in a strong position on the west side of 
Chickamauga creek. 

While the contest was progressing so gloriously on the left, Polk and 
Cheatham, with a powerful force, fell upon Palmer and Van Cleve, and 
upon Reynolds' right. The assault was made with such suddenness and 
efi"ect that Palmer's division was staggered, and Van Clove's completely 
shattered. Prisoners and artillery fell into the hands of the exultant 
foe, and he was driving everythiug before him, when General Davis' 
division came upon him and restored the fortunes of the day. But tho 
chosen legions of the enemy, and all his available forces, were massed in 
this quarter, and the unparalleled obstinacy of Davis's men would have 
proved unequal to the occasion, had not Brannan's division arrived on 
the scene just in time to defeat Cheatham's efibrts to turn Reynolds' 
right and rear. General Negley had been ordered to afford succor, and 
responded readily to the summons. The gallant Wilder was however the 
first to scatter the enemy in tsrror before him, but they rallied, and 
forced him slowly back. General Sheridan now joined in the wavering 
struggle and led Colonel Bradley's noble brigade into the midst of it. 
The rebels opened, from some timber near his flank, an enfilading fire, 



which rained death into his ranks and compelled him to gi%'e way. But 
Wood and Ncgley, who had been busied hitherto, repelling feigned 
attacks, came at last to the rescue, and the tide was stayed. The 
scattered troops reorganized, and lately broken brigades resumed their 
places. A weltering fire now blazed along the whole Union front, with 
guch terrible effect tbat the rebels shrank from it. The Union centre 
was restored to its integrity, and victory, was snatched from the grasp of 
the loe. 


Sunday, the twentieth of September, proved an eventful day to the 
Army of the Cumberland. The sun rose bright and clear, but an impene- 
trable mist hung over the field between the two ho.stile armies. Gen- 
eral Kosecrans was anxious and alarmed, from the fact that, at the close 
of the preceding day, there were only two of his brigades which had not 
been brought opportunely and squarely into the action. This convinced 
him that he was greatly outnumbered, and he must now fight, not only 
for the position of Chattanooga, but for the very existence of his army. 
The corps commanders met at headquarters, at Widow Glen's house, and, 
after particpating in long and grave consultation, received orders for the 
disposition of the troops for the following day. General Thomas, with hia 
reinforcements, was to maintain the line he had assumed, with Brenuan in 
reserve ; General McCook, when his pickets were driven in, was to close 
on Thomas, and enclose the position at Widow Glen's house. Crittenden 
with two divisions in reserve, near the junction of Thomas's and McCook's 
lines, was to place himself in position to succor either. But MoCook 
stationed his troops too far on the crest, and the reserve under General 
Davis was removed to a wooded hill side, west of the Dry Valley road: 
instead of being placed in close column in a sheltered position more to 
the left. General Crittenden was in the valley close by, too far to the 
right, and the indispensable necessity of keeping near to the left 
where the enemy's first assault might be expected, was not suflUciently 
regarded. General Negley withdrew his reserve brigade from the line 
and joined General Thomas, but General Crittenden failed to relieve him. 
Wood's troops were, however, finally moved into the position vacated 
by Negley's reserves ; but the delay proved of serious consequence, fur 
the battle had already begun, at half past eight a. m., on the extreme left, 
as was expected. General Thomas sent for Negley's remaining brigades, 
and as he continued to be hard pressed. Van Cleve was sent to his assist 
ance. General Reynolds's right was now found to be exposed, by an 
opening in the line, to the enemy. General Wood was ordered to close 
up on Reynolds, and General Davis on General Wood, and General 
McCook to concentrate his whole command to the left. General Wood, 


however, withdrew from the line and passed to the west of General 
Braunan, who was in echelon, thus opening in the line of battle 

" A g:ip tor ruin's wasteful entrance," 

into which the enemy poured like au avalanche. The keen eyes of the 
rebel Generals Lont^street and Buckner had seen it. They opened on 
Wood, Davis, and Brannan with a terrific fire of grape, canister and 
schrapnel, shivering the woods behind which the timid attempted to 
lako shelter ; and Stewart's division fell furiously upon the left flank 
of Davis, and sent it to the right in utter disorder. The 
rebel torrent, on the other side, struck Van Cleve, and what remained 
of Palmer's command, and shivered them as if by a thunderbolt. 
Kosccrans, sword in hand, expostulating, shouting, and exposing himself 
and staff to the pelting storm of the missiles of death, strove in 
vain to check the rout. After this fatal break the line of battle was not 
again reformed that day. The army was cut in two. Rosecrana 
attempted to rejoin Thomas, by passing to the rear of the broken portion 
of his line, but could not make his way through the broken throngs 
pressing to the left ; and the enemy advancing, compelled him to retire to 
Chattanooga. Davis's two brigades, one of Van Cleve's, and Sheridan's 
entire division were driven from the field, and the remainder, consisting 
uf the divisions of Baird, Johnson, lleynolds, Palmer, Brannan and Wood, 
two of Negley's and one of Van Cleve's, were left to sustain the conflict 
against the whole power of the rebel army. Davis's and Sharldan's 
divisions were forced off toward the right, in their retreat, and were 
fearfully cut up. Men, animals, and vehicles became a mass of strug- 
gling, cursing, shouting, frightened life. Everything and everybody 
appeared to dash headlong through the narrow gaps, and men, horses, 
mules, ambulances, luggage wagons, ammunition wagons, artillery 
carriages, and caissons were rolled and tumbled together \n a confused, 
inextricable, and finally motionless mass, completely blocking up the 
mouth of the gaps. Nearly all this booty subsequently fell into the 
hands of the enemy. The exultant rebels boasted of the capture of 
forty -nine pieces of cannon, prisoners amounting to over eight thousand, 
thirty thousand stand of arms, and forty stands of regimental colors. 
The boast was an exaggeration, but no doubt General Bragg and his army 
were elated beyond measure, and their delight and exultation would 
doubtless have been justified by the event, had not their victorious army 
encountered a lion, or rather a roi;k of adamant, in the corps of the 
invincible General Thomas. 

During the night. General Thomas's troops had thrown up temporary 
breastworks of logs ; and he had with the prescience which distinguishes 
genius in whatever art or science it engages, made every disposition for 


the impending stnigglo. General Negloy, sent for and projiiscd, did 
not come in time, for the enemy held him in check ; but General IJeatty's 
brigade arrived and assisted in stemming the furious assault which the 
enemy were making on Baird's left. But Beatty was not strong enough 
for the work, and was obliged to recede before an overwhelming force. 
Johnson's reserve was sent to strengthen him, and with a helping hand 
from Vandeveer's brigade of Brannan's division, a portion of Stanley's 
and Wood's forces, drove the foe from Baird's rear, where he had thrust 
himself, entirely away from his left. Thomas now directed the mass- 
ing of artillery on Missionary llidge, so as to sweep the ground to the 
left and rear of Baird's position. Similar assaults to that above described 
were simultaneously made upon Johnson, Palmer and Reynolds, and 
renewed again and again with fresh troops, but were met with Roman 
coolness and deliberation. 

The rude breastworks of logs and rails, constructed the night before, 
saved the lives of thousands of Thomas's troops. The men placed them- 
selves behind these, their artillery in the rear firing over their heads. 
Their long line of defences appeared like an immense pyrotechnic 
serpent, instinct with hideous and withering life, which it belched con- 
tinually, in volumes of smoke and flame, from its ghastly length. Again 
and again the rebel lines emerged from t,he cover of the woods, into the 
open corn-fields, charged with impetuous fury and terrific yells toward 
this formidable obstacle, but each of the fiery blasts from the Union 
batteries and battalions met them, and their ranks were swept away as if 
washed by a rushing flood. But as fast as the line fell ofi", another 
appeared, rushing sternly on over the dead and bleeding bodies of their 
fallen comrades. 

Thomas fought with his forces of Saturday, weakened by Saturday's 
heavy losses. It was an unequal contest. He now learned that the 
Union richt had been turned, and thus the enemy was in his rear, in 
force. He notified General Reynolds of the fact. General Wood had 
barely time to dispose his troops, on the left of Brennan, before they were 
both exposed to a succession of such assaults as are above described. 
General Gordon Granger, at the head of Steedman's division of his corps, 
appeared now on Thomas's right, and was ordered to push forward and 
take position on Brennan's right. Steedman moved his troops into 
position with almost as much precision as if on drill, and, fighting his way 
to the crest of the hill on Brennan's right, moved forward his artillery, 
driving the enemy down the southern slope, and inflicting on him a most 
terrible loss in killed and wounded. The opportune arrival of fresh 
troops revived the flagging spirits of the Federals, and every assault 
from that time till nightfall was repulsed in the most gallant style by the 
whole line. Their ammunition, however, ran very low, for the ammuni- 


tion trains Lad been by some mistake removed to tbe rear ; and, had it 
not been for the small supply furnished by General Steedman's command. 
Thomas's men would have had no resource but the bayonet. 

General Thomas now received General Rosecrans' despatch from Chat- 
tanooga, directing him to take command of all the forces, and assume a 
threatening attitude at Rossville. Accordingly, at half past five p. M. 
the retirement of the Union troops commenced, under the direction of 
General Thomas. Turchin, of General Reynolds' division, executed a 
manoeuvre, with the view of covering the retreat, by which two hundred 
prisoners were captured. A brigade commanded by Colonel Robinson of 
Reynolds' division, assisted by Turchin and General Wiilich, were 
posted on the road leading through the ridge, to hold the ground while 
the troops passed by to Rossville. The rebel leaders Stoull, Gibson, 
Helm, Wood, and Poik had all day been hurling their commands against 
General Thomas's lines, and now prepared to make a final effort. The 
signal was given and forward they pressed, with their wonted wild yell. 
Johnson's and Bairu's division, which were preparing to retire, saluted 
them with several volleys as they advanced, but nothing could stay the 
tide and the exhausted veterans began to waver in the face of the 
chart^ino', shouting, thundering host which confronted them ; the next 
moment, wave after wave of the rebel sea came surging upon the breast- 
works, dashing madly against and over the barrier, and greedily swallow- 
ino- up many of its defenders, with their ammunition and material. 
Never was resistance more stubborn and determined, and never was 
attack prosecuted with more devilish pertinacity. 

" But all too late the advantage came 
To turn the odds of deadly game ;" 

for nitrht had come on ; the enemy's forces were moving undisturbed 
toward Rossville ; and the Army of the Cumberland, after having had 
the narrowest possible escape from annihilation, was saved by the mas- 
terly generalship and intrepidity of General Thomas. 

Major-General George II. Thomas was born in Virginia, July 31, 1816, 
He graduated at West Point in 1840, and served with distinction in the 
war with Mexico. He was subsequently stationed in Texas and in (lie 
Indian territories. When the rebellion broke out, he was a M ijor in the 
regular cavalry. A sincere patriot, he remained true to the flag which 
he had so long and so honorably served, and he soon rose to the rank of 
Colonel In August, 1861, he was made Brigadier-General of Volunteers 
in the Department of the Cumberland. After much active service, and 
after thorousrhly beating the rebels at Mill Spring, he, with his division, 
joined General Buell, at Nashville. In April, 1862, he was constituted 
Major-General of Volunteers. When General Rosecrans assumed com- 


rnand of the Army of the Curnbcrland, lie wiis assigned to the command 
of the centre. 


Tn personal appearance Gcueral Thomas is dignified and manly ; in 
habit temperate, and distinguished alike for wisdom in council and 
courage in battle, " George H. Tbomas," said General Rosecrans, " is a 
man of extraordinary character. Years ago, at the Military Academy, 1 
conceived that there were points of strong resemblance between his 
character and that of Washington ; and I was in the habit of calling him 
General Washington," General Thomas is singularly modest and un- 
obtrusive in his demeanor. He was a brigadier-general for some 
months before he put on the uniform of that office. lie did not assume 
the double star till after the battle uf Stone river, though made a major- 
general more than six mouths before. 



The National forco in North Carolina was comparatively small durin:; 
the year 18G3, as it was the purpose of the Govcrniueut only to occapy 
the important posts already gained there, and act merely on the defen- 

On Saturday, the 14th of March, a demonstration was made against 
Newbern by the rebel forces under Groiieral Pettigru. At about day- 
bre:'.k sixteen guns were placed in position near a small fort just opposite 
the town on the north, and across the river Neuse. The enemy's artillery 
was supported by about three hundred infantry. Even while placing the 
guns in position they commenced a tire of shell and canister a.;ainst the 
fort ; but after firing a few rounds they sent in a flag of truce, demanding 
a surrender, with information that further resistance was useless, and they 
threatened a combined attack by the whole command under General 
Longstreet. Colonel Anderson, in command of the Union forces, with a 
view of gaining time for the National gunboats to get into position, 
asked for a half hour's time for consideration and opportunity to consult 
with General Foster. The half hour was granted, and at the end of that 
time Colonel Anderson's answer was ready — ' 3Iy orders are to hold this 
place, and I shall never surrender it." The rebels in the mean time 
liavino' got everything in readiness in the event of such a reply, imme- 
diately opened a rapid and furious fire. Inside the fort the Unionists, 
desiring to conceal their real strength until a charge should be madj, 
lay close back against the sand wall, and got themselves in readiness by 
bitino- off cartridges, and putting them up before them on the logs, that 
they might be able to open a quick fire upon the enemy when they ad- 
vanced to the assault. Soon one of the gunboats was in position ; and 
a schooner with one gun, and manned by negroes, was tlie tirst to enter 
the contest. The firing raged incessantly for upwards of four hours, 
thouoh very ineffective, and the rebels were apparently gaining ground, 
when there came a favorable change to the Federals in the tide of 
battle. The gunboats came round from the Trent river, with strains of 
music floating on the air, and the batteries and gunboats poured forth a 
storm of shells, weighing from six to one hundred pounds; the rebels were 
compelled to retreat toward the bushes in great disorder. About fifteen 
was the enemy's loss in killed, and thirty wounded. The Union loss was 
two killed and four wounded. 

In April the town of Washington, on the Tar river, was laid siege to 
by General Hill. The town had but a very small garrison, and was but 



slightly fortified ; but General Foster caused the works to be strengthened 
so that the Union force was enabled to hold the city till reinforcements 
arrived from Newbern, and the siege vvas raised. 

Attack on Gum Swamp. — The next movement was made on the 22nd 
of May. General Foster sent Colonel Lee's brigade, consisting of the 
Fifth, Twenty-fifth, and Forty-sixth Massachusetts regiments, a batta- 
lion of cavalry, and three pieces of Bogg's battery, to report to Colonel 
Jones, who had declared his belief that the enemy's outpost regiments at 
Gum Swamp could be captured. Colonel Jones ordered a portion of 
the brigade to attack the enemy in front, while the rest should close up 
on his rear. 

At daylight of the 22nd, the main body of Colonel Lee's command 
drove in the enemy's pickets, and commenced an attack upon their front. 
Upon the rear, some of the Union batteries had been deployed, and im- 
mediately opened fire. The enemy made but faint resistance, and then 
scattered in confusion in every direction. One hundred and sixty-five 
prisoners were captured by the Unionists, and the rebel works were com- 
pletely demolished. Colonel Jones then made a demonstration towards 
Kinston, a few miles distant; but the same evening his pickets . were 
driven in, and he was attacked by the enemy in such strong force, that 
he was obliged to beat a hasty retreat, pursued by the rebels to the very 
edge of the Union outpost line. On the afternoon of the following day, 
the enemy again attacked the Unionists, but were severely repulsed at 
every point. In this second attack of the enemy. Colonel Jones was 
shot through the heart; and the army lost- in him a gallant leader and 
efficient officer. 

July 34, 180:J. 

The last, and indeed the most important movement of the year in North 
Carolina, was made on the above date. General Foster sent a force con- 
sisting of the Third New York cavalry, and a squadron of the T.velfth, 
and one company of a North Carolina regiment, under comm lad of 
Brigadier-General Edward E. Potter, to destroy the railroad bridge at 
Rocky Mount. This bridge, which was three hundred and fifty feet in 
length, was completely demolished. Besides this valuable bridge, a 
cotton mill filled with cotton ; a flour mill, containing one thousand bar- 
rels of flour, and large quantities of hard bread; a machine-shop, filled 
with shells, gunpowder, and munitions of war ; a large depot, with all 
its offices and outbuildings ; an engine and a train of cars ; a wagon 


train of twenty -five wagons, filled with stores and munitiuns ; an armory 
and niafliine shop, with all the machii)cry and materials, and eight hun- 
dred bales of cotton, were destroyed in the same expedition. Furtlicr 
on, at Tarboro', on Tar river, two steamboats, and a large iron-clad, in 
process of construction, were destroyed ; and a saw mill, a train of cars, 
one hundred bales of cotton, and a very large quantity of subsistence and 
ordinary stores were destroyed, and about one hundred prisoners, and 
three hundred head of horses and mules, captured. The expedition was 
followed on its return to Newbcrn by about three hundred negroes. Dur- 
ing the entire time from its leaving Newbern till its return, the force 
was engaged in constant skirmishing with the enemy, particularly on the 
return, the rebels making every effort to impede their way, but being in 
every instance compelled to retire, frequently with loss. The Union loss 
in killed, wounded and missing, did not exceed twenty-five men. For the 
next few months the Department of North Carolina was transferred from 
General Foster, and united with that of Virginia, under General Dix, 
who was subsequently transferred to the Department of the East, when 
General Foster was reinstated in his former position. Later in the year 
General Foster was transferred to the command of the Department of the 
Ohio, and General B. F. Butler was placed in tlie vacant position, as com- 
mander of the combined armies of the Departments of Southern Virginia 
and North Carolina. 


Active operations in South Carolina were until the month of March as 
dull as in North Carolina, and for the same reason. Up to this time the 
only events that broke the strict monotony of inactivity were the occa- 
sional running of the blockade by English and by rebel vessels ; and 
rare skirmishing with the enemy. But heavy work was soon to 
come. An attack upon Fort Sumter and Charleston had long been 
contemplated by the Navy Department, and success was regarded as 
certain, as it had been arranged that the operations of the iron-clads were 
to be assisted by a large land force prepared to join in the attack. The 
rebels were not unaware of the measures that were in contemplation 
ag-tiust one of their strongest positions, and were busily preparing to 
resist them. General Beauregard issued a proclamation in Charleston 
in March, in which he declared it to be his duty to inform the " citizens 
of Charleston and Savannah, that a land and naval attack on one or both 
cities, might be expected at a very early date." lie conjured the citi- 
zens of Charleston to arm themselves, adding, "Be not too exact- 
ing in the choice of weapons. Picks and scythes will do for extermin- 


at ing your enemies, spades and shovels for protecting your firesides," 
The citizens of Charleston and Savannah reported promptly, and the 
preparations for the attack, and for resisting the attack went on simul- 

April 7, 18G8. 

The defences of Charleston harbor were now somewhat changed in 
their character, since the memorable attack on Fort Sumter, in 1861, and 
require a new description from that furnished in the first volume of this 
work. The chief works of the enemy for the defence of Charleston iat 
this time may be thus briefly described : On the upper or north end of 
Sullivan's Island a powerful sand battery guarding Maffit.'s Channel ; 
another large sand battery, called Furt Beauregard, between this and the 
Moultrie House ; Fort Moultrie, which had been greatly streugthened 
since the commencement of the war; Fort Sumter, built upon an artificial 
island in the middle to the channel, near the entrance of the inner 
harbor, and about one and a half miles west of Fort Moultrie ; Battery 
B, adjoining Fort Moultrie, on the western extremity of Sullivan's 
Inland ; the Mount Pleasant battery on the mainland between Sullivan's 
Island and Cooper river ; Cas le Piuckuey, built on an island about a 
mile distant from Charleston ; all, with the exception of Sumter, be'.tig 
on the right or northerly side of the harbor. On the oilier side of the 
harbor, in the immediate vicinity of the city, was the Wappoo battery ou 
James island, commanding the embouchure of Ashley river ; next to 
which was Fort Johnson, and between it and Castle Pinckney, Fort 
Ripley, a work erected on an artificial island in what was known as the 
•' MiJdle Ground." On Cummings' Point, Morris Island, opposite Fort 
Moultrie, was Battery Gregg, and a mile south of this Fort Wagner, an 
extensive sand battery of the most powerful construction. Finally, at 
Light House Inlet, which divides Morris Island from Folly Island, was 
another fortification covering the landing at that place. Within a few 
days of the attack the enemy also erected a new sand work between the 
two last mentioned. The number of guns mounted on these works was 
estimated at several hundred, comprising the heaviest smooth-bore 
ordnance, and many rifled pieces of English manufacture ; and as an 
additional means of protection, the channel between Fort Sumter and 
Sullivan's Island was obstructed by rows of floating casks supporting 
torpedoes and other submarine obstacles, and in that between Sumter and 
Cummings' Point were no less than four rows of piles extenliug nearly 
up to Charleston. 


Upon the Gth of April die whole Niitional fleet crossed the Charleston 
Harbor bar, inteniing to reduce Fort Suiuter at once, and proceed 
thence direct to the city ; 1 but the day turned out to be pariicultirly 
fugcry, and the attack was necessarily deferred until the fulljwin;^ dny. 
About noun, ufion the 7th, the signal was given by Admiral Dupont from 
his flagship for the vessels to weigh anchor. According to the plan of 
attack the vessels were to form in the following order ahead, at intervals 
of one cable's length : 1. Weehawken, Captain John Rogers ; 2. Passaic, 
Captain Pcrcival Drayton; 3. 3Iontauk, Commander John L. Worden ; 
4. Patipsco, Commander Daniel Ammen ; 5. New Ironsides, Commodore 
Thomas Turner ; 6. Catskill, Commander George W. llodgers ; 7. Nan- 
tucket, Commander Donald McN. Fairfax; 8. Nahant, Commander Juau 
Downes ; 9. Keokuk, Lieutenant-Commander Alexander C. Pihind. The 
squadron was then to pass up the main ship channel without returning 
the Are of the batteries on M irris Island, unless signalized to do so, and 
wa-i to take up a position to the northward and westward of Fort Sumter, 
and engage its northwest face at a distance of from one thousand to eight, 
hundred yards. A squadron of reserve, c^)usisting of the Canandaigua, 
Unadilia, ILuis^atonic, Wissahickon, and Huron, under the command of 
Captain Joseph H. Green, of the Canandaigua, was ordered to remain 
outside the bar, and be in readiness to support the ironclads, when they 
should attack tlie batteries on Morris Island, which would be subsoquenu 
to tlie reduction of Fort Sumter. 

At half past twelve the whole fleet was in motion ; but almost im- 
mediately a raft attached to the Weehawken became disarranged, and 
nearly an hour was consumed in putting it to riglits. The fleet then 
moved forward again, and passed the works on Morris Island which 
remained perfectly silent. In stately majesty the fleet moved on, 
till within range of the fire of Fort Sumter and the batteries upon 
Sullivan's Island, but still the same ominous silence continued ; 
not a sound broke the stillness of the listening air, and the unbroken 
quiet was growing into suspense that was painful. But scarcely 
had that feeling of suspense time to manifest itself, when all around 
was clamor, and a noise that equalled the loudest thunder, burst 
vith a deafening uproar on the ear. At precisely four minutes past 
three o'clock, a terrific fire burst from Fort Sumter upon the Union 
fleet. The W^eehawken, being the leading vessel, was of course the first 
to receive the enemy's fire, but instead of moving forward as the rest of 
the fleet moved up toward her, she was seen to come to a dead halt, just 
between Sumter and Moultrie 1 It was impossible to those who were 
eagerly, anxiously looking on, to assign any reason for such a halt. But 
very soon the cause became startlingly apparent. The enemy had thrown 
a strong hawser, floating on beer casks, across the river ; upon this 


hawser, nets, linos, and catlets, strung with torpedoes, were hung, and 
should the vessel run into it, slie would immediately become entangled, 
be deprived of her motive power, and so be left at the mercy of the cur- 
rent, to drift straight into the hands of the rebels. To attempt this dan- 
ger was not to be thought of, 4vnd all attention was turned toward the left 
hand channel, to see what could be done between Sumter and Cummings' 
Point. But this was found to be still more impassable. A row of piles, 
rising ten feet above the water, and extending the whole distance across 
the channel, blockaded the passage ; and on further observation, it waa 
di^-covered that another row of piles stretched across the middle ground be- 
tween Forts Kipley and Johnson. This did not compass the whole passage, 
but left an opening for the fleet, which was the most dangerous of all the 
entanglements for its destruction. Beneath the water in that passage 
was a torpedo of enormous size, containing five thousand pounds of gun- 
powder. Beyond this the three rebel ironclads were drawn up in line 
of battle. Thus again did the enemy display his wonderful tact and 
ability in protecting the north-west face of Sumter, which they well 
knew to be its weakest point. It was impossible to carry out the first 
intentions with regard to the action of the National fleet ; and it only re- 
mained to put the vessels in the most advantageous positions which 
circumstances would admit. To add to all the other embarrassments 
attending the movements of the Union ironclads, the flag-ship caught in 
the tideway, and became, for the moment, unmanageable ; while the 
steamers Catskill and Nantucket, who kept in the Ironsides' wake, fell 
a-foul of her. Accordingly, Admiral Dupont was obliged to signal to the 
rest of the fleet to disregard the movements of the flag-ship ; and shortly 
before four o'clock the remaining eight vessels were ranged opposite the 
northeast front of Sumter, at distances varying from five hundred and 
fifty to eight hundred yards. The enemy duriug this time had not been 
idle, and from Forts Beauregard, Moultrie and Sumter, Battery Bee 
and Fort Wagner, the concentrated fire of three hundred guns was poured 
upon the devoted fleet, exceeding probably in rapidity and power any 
cannonade previously known in warfare. To this the eight ironclads 
could oppose but sixteen guns. During the climax of the fire one 
hundred and sixty shots were counted in a single minute ; and projectiles 
struck the vessels at every moment. It has been estimated that during 
that brief engagement the enemy fired three thousand five hundred round 
of ammunition. 

The whole fury of the fight was comprised within the space of thirty 
minutes, during which time it is impossible by the use of words to give 
even a faint idea of the perpetual roar of the guns, and the unceasing glare 
and flash of the fire. During this terrible fight it is not to be supposed 
that the Union vessels were merely receiving the enemy's fire. At the 


order to disregard the movements of the Ironsides, Cnptaia Rhind ran 
the Keokuk up through the others, and laid it, apparently, under the 
very walls of Fort Sumter, and scarcely more than five hundred yards 
distant from it. Close behind the Keokuk came the Catskill, and close 
upon this vessel the Moutauk, the Passaic, the Patapsco, the Nahant, the 
Nantucket, the Weohawken, and the Ironsides. The last named vessel 
poured forth its whole strength upon Fort Moultrie, while the remainder 
of the fleet directed all its fire against Fort Sumter. The face of Sumter 
soon bc^an to show the marks of the severe treatment it was receiving 
from the heavy projectiles ; and the brave men on board the Union iron- 
clads were eagerly and hopefully looking forward to the breach they 
expected to make, if their vessels could but remain under the storm of 
rebel fire long enough to effect it. But on this occasion the National 
cause was doomed to disappointment, and the bombardment of Fort 
Sumter was a crushing failure. Already the Kt>okuk was utterly disabled, 
and twelve of her men wounded ; among whom was her gallant com- 
mander. Captain Rhind. The Nahant received thirty gaping wounds ; 
six of her men were wounded, and the Quartermaster, Edward Cobb of 
Massachusetts, received his death blow. The Paasaic was struck in 
twenty five places : the Nantucket was badly injured ; and the Catskill 
and Ironsides slightly damaged. The remainder of the vessels, though 
often struck, received no serious injury ; but in the opinion of Admiral 
Dupont another half hour would have placed them, also, hors du couthut, 
and accordingly, at five o'clock the signal was given to retire. 

During the night following this disastrous fight it was confidently 
expected that the attack would be renewed in the morning ; but when 
the morrow came Admiral Dupont had decided that, for the time, the 
bombardment of Fort Sumter was at an end. 

On the I'ith of April, then, the whole fleet — with the exception of the 
Keokuk, which had sunk, and the Ironsides, which was left outside of 
Charleston Harbor Bay — returned to Port Royal. 

June 17. 

About the middle of June, Admiral Dupont, learning that the Atlanta 
and othtr reoei vessels at Savannah, meditated an attack upon the blockad- 
in" vessels in Warsaw Sound, despatched the Weehawken (Capt. Rogers) 
and the Nahant (Commander J. Downes), to prevent any disaster to the 
fleet. The Atlanta, originally a swift and powerful British steamer called 
the Fingal, had early in the war run the blockade of Savaunah, and beou 
couveiied by the enemy into an ironclad at a great expense. She was 

CAPTn^r 07 •::!!: t::oxclad Atlanta. 277 

ono Imncircii and iiincty-one feet in lengt'i, and forty feet beam, soine- 
Avhiit over one thousand tons in nieasurem':;iif, and had a low deck with 
a casein ;at or co"ered iroa-pl:ito 1 ho js3 iti th?, with sh)i)ing 
sides and ends, iti which was her battery, consisting of two six-inch and 
two I'ight-inch rifled gnns. Of those the former were broadside guns, and 
tlie latter worked on a pivot, cither as biM:nlsido or bow or stern guns. 
She was further armed with a powerful ran), and had att;)ched to her 
bow a submarine torpedo, charged with about fifty pounds of powder No 
efforts had been spared to render her formidable, and it was believed by 
the enemy that her speed, her heavy armament, and her ram, would ren- 
der her more than a match for any two vessels of the monitor type. Ac- 
cordingly at dawn of June 17th, she steamed down the sound ; followed 
by several small steamers containing pleasure parties who were to be the 
witnesses of the confidently expected triumph of the rebel vessel. 

At 4 A.M. she was perceived by the Union ironclads, — lying at anchor 
near the north of the Wilmington river — and they at once prepared for 
action. The Weehawken was nearest to the enemy, and getting under 
way stood up the sound, the Nahant following in her wake. The Atlanta 
lay across the channel and quietly awaited the attack from the National 
vessels i but at five o'clock she tonk the initiative and fired a single shot at 
the Nahant, which, however, failed to have any effect. The Weehawken 
steamed toward the Atlanta ; and when within three hundred yards opened 
upon her with a fifteen-inch gun. Slie then approached still nearer, and 
when within two hundred yards she suddenly poured in upon the rebel ves- 
sel the full contents of her two guns. The effect was disastrous to the 
Atlanta, who immediately hauled down her colors, and ran up the white 
fl;ig in token of surrender. Another discharge from the Union ironclad 
was poured in upon her before the signal was understood, after which all 
firing ceased, and the Weehawken, having done all the fighting, took pos- of her prize after a contest that lasted barely fifteen minutes. In 
this engagement one hundred and forty-five prisoners were captured. 

Commenced July 3, 18()3. 

It was felt by the U. S. Government that the attack on Fort Sumter, of 
April 7th, was a somewhat humiliating failure ; but, notwithstanding this, 
the original intention of redeeming Charleston was not abandoned. It was 
understood, from the tone of Admiral Porter's letters, that he was opposed 
to a renewal of the attack on Charleston ; and he was, accordingly, re- 
lieved of command, and Rear-Admiral Foote was appointed in his place. 
Defore the period fixed for taking command of his squadron had expired, 

27S Till-: WAlt KOK THE UXION". 

Admiral Footc died in N.nv York, and a second appoiutmeiit was made 
in t.ia person of Admiral Dahlgrcen, who entered upon his duties on 
July 6th. About this time General Gilmure was constituted com nandor- 
in-cliief of the military department of tlio south, and arrangements were 
cutorcd into fur combined operations by land and sea. 

On July 10th, an attack was made upon Morris island by the land 
forces under Gc'neral Gilmore, and the ironclads Catskill, Montauk, Na- 
h.inr, and Weehawken, under command of Admiral Dahlgren. On Mor- 
ris island, on the opposite side of Light-house Inlet, the rebels had 
erected, after the naval attack upon Fort Sumter, several batteries, in all 
mounting nine heavy columbiads, and three lOinch mortars, all bearing 
upon Folly island, and tlie mouth of Lighthouse i.ilet, and the approach 
to the island by way of Folly river. 

At five A. M. the Union fire opened upon the batteries on Morris Island, 
being directed from the entire line of works recently erected on Folly 
Island. The rebels were taken by surprise, and as the fire from the 
Union ranks poured in upon them, they sprang to the tops of the sand- 
hills, eagerly looking whence it came, but speedily dropped back again, 
and remained concealed till they were taken prisoners by the Union 
troops. The fleet, with Admiral Dahlgren on board the Catskill, had, at 
an early hour in the morning, crossed the southern channel, and had 
drawn up in line of battle along the southern end of Morris island, in or- 
der to deliver an enfilading fire and harass the enemy on his left and 

A vigorous fire was also kept up, during the greater part of the day, 
upon Fort Wagner. For three hours the cannonading continued against 
the Morris island works, and when at length it began ^ slacken. 
General Gilmore signalled to General Strong, who with his little 
boat fleet lay concealed in Folly river, to land his forces, and 
assault and carry the batteries at the point of the bayonet. The order 
TTas no sooner given than executed. With shouts and cheers the troups 
sprang ashore, formod in line of battle, with the Sixth and Seventh Con- 
necticut on the riL'ht, the Ninth Maine and Seventy-sixth Pennsylvania 
in the centre, and the Third iVew Hampshire and the Forty-eighth New 
York on the left. In less than ten minutes the right and centre had 
carried all the batteries, and lefc all the rifle-pits — capturing ten Colum- 
biads, two 10-inch mortars, one Whitworth gun, together with nearly the 
eniire garrison, consisting of the First South Carolina Artillery, and ten 
companies of the Twenty-first South Carolina Volunteers, in all number- 
ing one hundred and eighty five men. 


This unexpectedly quick and brilliant success in capturing these strong 
■works, and obtaining so important a footing upon the island, filled the 
troops with the greatest enthusiasm. Cheer after cheer rent the air. 

lu a i'ew moments General liiilmorc and staff crossed to the island, 
and, under a burning sun, examined the works, and ascertained the ex- 
tent of the victory. The batteries had been in command of Captain 
Mitchell, son of the Irish orator, John Mitchell. 

With the exception of Fort Wagner and Cummings' point, all the 
works on Morris island had been taken by this tiuie ; and during the 
whole afternoon the monitors continued to throw shell into the fort. It 
was determined that at daylight on the following morning, an attempt 
should be made to carry Fort Wagner at the point of the bayonet. 

July 11, 1803. 

At three o'clock, a. m. the attack was made. General Strong led tlie 
Seventh Connecticut, under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Kodman ; 
the Seventy-sixth Pennsylvania, Major Henks, and the Ninth Maine, 
Colonel Eng, boldly to the attack, drove in the first line of the enemy's 
pickets, thrown out about half a mile from the fort, received a viaorous 
fire from three platoons of infantry in rifle-pits, advanced upon and drove 
all not brought d.jwn by the Union rifles up to and through the gates of 
the fort, while the Seventh Connecticut pushed aside the abattis. waded 
through the ditch, took the south-oast bastion, bayoneted all who offered 
any resistance, and ran thtir first line all along the parapet facin^ the 
sea, and in five minutes more would have had posses.sion of the whole 
fort if the Seventy-sixth Pennsylvania and the Ninth Maine had supported 
them as gallantly as the Seventh Connecticut led. 

The garrison of the fort, which was about seven hundred strong, now 
belched forth from their howitzers both grape and canister, against aa 
advancing force of only one hundred and eighty men ; for the Seventy- 
sixth Pennsylvania and Ninth Maine regiments were so completely 
demoralized by the heavy fire of the enemy, that they instantly fell on 
their faces, and rose only to retire beyond range. 

Slowly the gallant little detachment fri,m the Seventh Connecticut 
were compelled to fall back, but not until they had left two-thirds of 
their number in the ditches, on the parapet, and within the walls of the 
fort. Lieutenant-Colonel Rodman and nearly ail his captains were 
wounded. Colonel Rodman behaved with the greatest gallantry, and re- 
ceived two severe wounds. 

During the rest of the day, nothing more was done by the laud fcuce ■ 


but the monitors kept up a constant fire against Fort Wagner and Oum- 
mings' point. The enemy made strong efforts to reinforce the garrison 
at Fort Wagner, but without success. 

From tliis time nothing of importance transpired as regarded the 
takinf of Charleston, for upwards of a month. General Gillmore was 
engaged in pushing his intrenchments toward Fort Wagner, and ihe navy 
■was comparatively inactive until such time as the land forces would be 
ready to cooperate. Almost every day two or three of the ironclads bom- 
barded Fort Wagner and Battery Gregg on Cummings' point, without 
receiving any injury in return, while at the same time the firing served 
to divert the enemy's attention from the siege works ia progress. 

August 17-23, 18G3. 

At early morning on the 17th August, General Gillmore opened alibis 
batteries on Fort Sumter, firing directly over Fort Wagner. Admiral 
Dahlgren, during the same time, was making good use of the five iron- 
clads, Ironsides, Weehawken, Nahant, Montauk and Catskill ; he brought 
these vessels abreast of Fort Wagner, and effectually silenced tliat 
troublesome work for the remainder of the day. About two thousand 
yards from Fort Sumter, the Passaic and Patapscohad taken up position, 
and cooperated with the batteries on shore in the attack upon it. No 
material injury was done to any of the vessels, but the service lost a val- 
uable officer in the person of General Dahlgren's chief-of-staff. Captain 
George W. Rudgers. Captain Rodgers was in the pilot house when be 
met his death by a flying piece of fractured plating, which killed him in- 
stantly, I'aymaster Woodbury was al.-o killed at the same time. 

Within the city of Charleston, during this long siege, much fear and 
dread troubled the hearts of the inhabitants. The future loomed up 
dark and terrible before their affrighted minds, although the cbruniclers 
of the time declared that there was no panic, nor any prospect of one. 
Business of all kinds was, however, a. most entirely suspended ; and the 
cannonading without Fort Sumter, the storm of shot and shell continu- 
ally burled against its walls, brought anxiety to every mind, and a death- 
like pallor to very many cheeks. 

At about 2 o'clock in the afternoon all the fleet had retired, with the 
exception of the Weehawken and the Nahaut, which remained to keep 
Fort Wagner silent, and to prevent the remounting of her guns. During 
the whole afternoon and night the shore batteries continued firing upon 
Fort Sumter with such effect that the shore damage done to it was visi- 


blc to the Union men without the aid of a glass. The enemj' had erected 
a false wall outside of Sumter, which was completely battered and 
crushed to pieces ; the inner wall was perforated in many places ; and 
the nortli-west comer hacked and cracked down almost to the edge of the 
water. Upon the next morning the batteries were all briskly at work at 
an early hour, the siege guns hurling shell at Sumter at the rate of five 
shells to the minute. The masonry of the f)rt was gradually but surely 
crumbling to pieces ; but still the rebel flag floated above it, although it 
hid been twice shot away. Often as it was riddled and torn, a fresh one 
was run up, while the determined band within seemed little inclined to 
surrender. Since the previous day a severe storm was raging with a 
high wind, which prevented the monitors from being of any marked as- 
sistance ; but during its utmost violence the land batteries continued to 
pour in a deliberate and destructive fire, doing great damage to the 
gorge wall, which had been strengthened in every possible way. Before 
the close of the day the parapet was utterly demolished, and great 
breaches were to be seen in the main wall, through which the projectiles 
hurled against it entered, and struck the wall upon the other side, kill- 
ing any that came within their deadly path. 

During the day a new flagship, the Philadelphia, arrived from Hamp- 
ton Roads, having been refitted for the use of Acmlral Dahlgren, who 
transferred his fl.ig to her, as she was a much more roomy vessel than 
the one he had been occupying. 

During the long day's engagement, the cannonading from the National 
guns was terrific ; and the shriek and scream of shells made the very air 
alive with turmoil, while the enemy's fire was very feeble ; Warner, 
owing to the close watcli kept upon her, being unable to get even an 
occasional shot at the Unionists, and Sumter being too thoroughly disarmed 
to attempt a full-voiced return to the countless thundering defiances sent 
to her. By way of proving that life was not entirely extinct within her, 
she did, however, at long intervals, hurl forth an occasional shell. 

The " SwAMr Angel," — On the evening of the 18th, the enemy dis- 
covered that a battery was being constructed on the Union left, in a 
marsh which lay in that direction, and they immediately, from their guns 
on James Island, began firing upon the men who were at work there. 
The erection of thnt battery was of considerable importance, for it was 
nearer to Charleston than any of the others. The men stood boldly 
against the enemy's fire, and bravely continued their work. One man 
was killed, and two wounded. From the time that the enemy first 
discovered this battery until the evening of the 20th, they devoted most 
particular attention to the work, and within that time one hundred and 


sixteen shells were hurled at it from the James Island butteries. Only 
one struck it. and there were no fui flier casualties than those named 
a'jove. The men christened the battery in the marsh " The Swamp 
Angel," from the great service it did in couceutratiug the enemy's attea< 
tiou upon itself. 

Continuation of the Bombardment. — Upon the morning of the 20th, 
Fort Sumter still stood, notwithstanding its fall had been confidently and 
speedily anticipated on the night of the 18th ; but it was an obstinate 
and very strong work, and from every flagstaff visible upon it, the blood- 
red battle-flag of the " Confederate States Army " still floated proudly 
and defiantly on the breeze. Tlie gorge wall still stood obstinately 
upright, notwithstanding the fearful fire directed against it from end to 
end of the Union lines ; although the effect of the projectiles was plainly 
visible. Fort Wagner, too, in defiance of the severe treatment it 
had received, remained as strong as ever, although its walls showed the 
bruises of the many and formiilable blows which had been levelled 
against it ; and it had now the farther advantage of having been strongly 
reinforced. Before Sumter could be occupied by the Union troops, it 
was absolutely necessary to reduce Forts Gregg and Wagner ; and active 
operations to this end were constantly going forward. 

The storm, which still continued, and at times raged with great 
violence, rendered it impossible for the monitors to be of any immediate 
service, although the whole fleet moved up abreast of Fort Sumter on 
the evening of the 19th, but were obliged to retire without firing a single 
shot. When the port-holes were opened the heavy ocean swell washed 
in, and effectually prevented the accurate elevation of the guns. 

The troops still continued in excellent spirits ; though from their con- 
fidence of ultimate success, and the monotony of the long continued 
bombardment, some of them showed a slight disposition to carelessness. 
But this was speedi'y put an end to, and the hottest fighting since 
the opening of the bombardment, began in terrible earnest. The 
firing increased so rapidly that the loud and continuous roar was abso- 
lutely deafening ; every battery was at work. At six o'clock in the 
evening, the entire top of the fort was completely gone, and every para- 
pet gun was dismounted, most of them having fallen into the sea. Tiie flags 
were of course shot away ; the garrison no longer making any effort to 
return the Union fire, which hardly ceased during the whole day. The 
southwest side presented a mere mass of ruins, when at length the guns 
were silenced for the night ; and on the next day, nine enormous br aches 
were visible in the strongest portion of the fort. The firing was again 
resumed ; and, upon rebel authority, " kept up heavier than ever 


during the 21st." From five o'clock in the morning, till seven in the 
evening, nine hundred and twenty-three shots wore fired, of which n® 
less than seven hundred and four struck the fort. The Ironsides, on 
this morning, also opened fire, and Sumter occasionally replied. Fort 
Wagner fired briskly on the Union advanced works, too, but without 
doing much damage. The National fire upon Wagner was, however, very 
destructive, and with every hour continued to grow more so. At eleven 
r. M., a demand for the surrender of Fort Sumter was sent to General 
Beauregard, with a threat that, if the demand was not complied with, the 
city of Charleston should be shelled within four hours. The demand 
was refused, although the fort was a ruin ; and the paper contiining the 
demand was returned at seven o'clock on the morning of the 2l2d to Gen- 
eral Gilmore. The flag of truce which had been hoisted during the 
sending of and return of the demand, was now lowered, and the firing 
recommenced in all its fury, passing from end to end of the Union line, 
and continuing with unabated fierceness for the remainder of the day. 
General Gilmore, (after allowing time for the removal of the women and 
children,) gave orders to Lieutenant Scllm^r, commanding the " Swamp 
Angel," to open with his heavy rifled gun upon the city of Charleston; 
and accordingly, fit'teen shells (of Birncy's invention), were thrown across 
the James Island batteries into the town. The arrival of these projectiles 
caused the utmost terror and dismay to the inhabitants, who rushed 
blindly to and fro in indescribable confusion, while the light of burning 
buildings and the ringing of alarm bells, gave proof to the Unionists of 
the consternation caused by the unexpected arrival of the mcssenwera 
from the " Swamp Angel." 

Fort Wagner now gathered up her whole strength to throw against the 
Union forces, and her firing, directed exclusively against the right, 
became really terrific. The Ironsides and two other monitors came up, 
and for four hours poured a torrent of shells into the Confederate fort, 
which finally silenced her. 

Another flag of truce was hoisted during the day to receive a message 
from General Beauregard, which turned out to be an indignant protest 
against what he was pleased to call General Gilmore's " unchristian and 
uncivilized mode of warfare " in shelling the city of Charleston. The 
dispatches were instantly replied to, and in a manner not calculated to 
quiet Beauregard's indignation. Again there was a suspension of hostili- 
ties while the message was being carried, but the firing recommenced as 
soi>n as the dispatch had been delivered. 

During the night only a few shots were exchanged by the combatants ; 
and on the next morning such a dense fog hung over the bay that opera- 
tions were temporarily suspended. The " Swamp Angel " was again 
trained on Charleston; and the shelling of the city continued with great 


violence for a good part of the night, while the rebel batterio-; on Janie.^ 
island continued playing away on the " Swamp Angel," but without doing 
it any great damage. 

Fort Sumter itself was by this time so utterly ruined that no further 
damage could be done to it by continued tiring, in rendering it useless as 
a defence to Charleston ; and as it was not deemed necessary to abso- 
lutely level it with the earth, firing upon it was discontinued after tho 
23d August. Fort Wagner was found to be very difficult to overcome. 
Day after day the bombardment had been continued against the place, 
which was evidently one of the strongest of the enemy's forts. It was 
commanded by Colonel Keith, of South Carolina, and garrisoned by four- 
teen hiiiidied effective men ; but notwithstanding its brave defence and 
its .-strength, it could not much longer hold out against the Union forces. 
On the 2Jth General Gilmore succeeded in running a parallel very close 
to Wagner. A ridge of sand whicli interposed, could, he perceivcl, be 
made useful, as it was constantly occupied by a body of the enemy's 
pickets, and at night by a large force protected by rifle-pits. To push 
the rebels from this sand ridge and take possession of it himself was the 
intention of General Gilmore; and just before dark the position wag 
assaulted, and carried by the Twenty-fourth Massachusetts regiment. 
The bombardment of the fort itself then continued more actively than 
ever, while from Fort Johnson and all the other works on Jainea island, 
the booming of cannon continued to make itself heard loud and furious. 

On the 30th of August the bombardment of Fort Sumter was resumed. 
For seven days the firing had ceased against it, but as that was quite 
long enough for the enemy to make necessary repairs, and in some degree 
fit it up again, firing was recommenced in order to prevent the rebels 
from making any important advance in their work of recon.>truction, sup- 
posing thcra to have begun it. No reply came from the fort in answer 
to the firing directed against it, which only increased its battered aad 
helpless appearance. 

On September 1st a gcn'^ral engagement took place between Forts 
"Wagner, Moultrie, and Sumter, and the Union ironclads, in which two 
of the forts suffered severely, but the apparently invincible Wagner 
but slightly injured. To mine the work was impossible, because of its 
low position. The men who attempted to lay a train, discovered water 
at the depth of only two feet. But the sappers succeeded, on the 
night of the 6th September, in mining the outerscrap, after long and 
tedious work ; and in this way all its guns were unmasked, and an order 
was issued to carry the place by assault at nine o'clock on the following 
morning, that being the hour of low tide. It was then discovered that 
the enemy had commenced evacuating the fort late on the previous 
night, and with the exception of seventy-five men, had escaped. The Xa- 

bombakdmi:nt of fout sumticr. 2S5 

tlonal troops invested the fort, and took possession of Ctimmings' point. 
A large supply of excellent ammunition was captured, aud nineteen 
pieces of artillery ; aud thus the city and harbor uf Chariest. )n were com- 
j)letely covered by the Union guns. 

An assault upon Fort Sumter was made during the same night, by a 
flutilla of twenty-five boats, manned by one hundred sailors, under 
Lieutenant-Commander Williams, and about one hundred marines under 
Captain McCauIey. The entire force was under the command of Com- 
mander Stephens, of the Patapsco. 

The boats landed, and the men attempted to run up the parapet, but 
were repulsed. At a signal from Fort Sumter, all tiie batteries bearing 
on it opened at once on the boats, and a rebel ram coming up engaged 
them at close quarter. Three boats were completely demolished and 
forty or fifty sailors and marines were killed and wounded. Lieutenant 
Bayard was mortally wounded and captured. Tlie other officers captured 
were CommanderWiliiams, Lieutenant Rcnny, Lieutenant Hueston, Lieu* 
tenant Rowell, Lieutenant Bunco, Doctor Wheeler, and Ensign Porter, 
The entire list of casualties numbered about eighty ; and the remainder 
of the command retired in safety. 

After this ineffectual attempt to take possession of Fort Sumter by tha 
navy, little progress in the siege of Charleston was made during 
the remainder of the year. All the captured forts on Morris island were 
enlarged and strengthened ; and new batteries, which effectually com- 
mandu'l Fort Sumter, were erected by order of General Gilmore, which 
could also be made most valuable in aiding any further naval attack 
against Charleston. 

The next event of marked importance was an attempt on the part of 
the enemy to blow up the frigate Ironsides, on the 5th Octi^ber. Tlic shell- 
ing of the city was continued at intervals ; and occasionally the forts were 
severely bombarded. The portion of Charleston which was within reach of 
the shells, was greatly injured, and had been quite abandoned by its inhab- 
itants at an early stage of the proceedings against the city. Fort Sumter 
was furiously bombarded late in October, with severe damage to the sea 
wall, but its devoted garrison still clung to it, and the return fire was, at 
times, very severe. The year drew to its close, and the rebels had 
their strongest forts — the National troops occupied Wagner ; Sumter was 
a ruin ; and the city of Charleston, already severely shelled, lay under 
the guns of the Union. 

2S6 Tin: wak fok tue u^•ION. 


On llic 1st of July 1863, General Steele arrived at Helena, and re- 
ported to General Hurlbut, the commander of the Sixteenth Army corps, 
in order to receive instructions as to an expedition planned by General 
Grant, against Little Rock, in that State. All of the troops then in Helena, 
toi^ether with a cavalry division, operating in various parts of the State at 
that time, and led by Brigadier-General Davidson, were immediately 
placed under General Steele's command. But the climate of Helena, 
which was unfavorable to the troops, had weakened a large number who 
were either sick or convalescent from sickness. The number mustered 
at this point for the expedition, was about six thousand. The artillery 
consisted of three six-gun batteries, one four-gun battery, and six ten-pound 
Parrot guns. The cavalry numbered less than five hundred men fit for 
duty, and consisted of the First Indiana and the Fifth Kansas regiments. 
General Davidson's cavalry division consisted of six thousand men. On 
taking comiuand at Helena, General Steele proceeded to organize his 
forces, and to establish camps for the sick. This done, he commenced 
an advance movement. General Davidson pushed on to Clarendon, a 
point on White river, where corduroying two miles of bottom, he threw a 
bridi'e over Rock Roe Bayou. Another division advanced toward the 
same point, under command of General Rice, and still another under com- 
mand of Colonel W. E. McClean. The entire force was congregated, on 
the 17th of August, at Clarendon. Beyond the river lay the enemy. 
General Steele's design, now, was to establish an Hospital at Duvall's 
Biuff, a healthy point on the river, and thence to advance against Little 
Rock, the capital of the State, and the headquarters of the rebels, sit- 
uated on the west bank of the Arkansas river. This plan was pursued 
with equal energy and success. As early as the 23rd July, the Hospital 
was established ; and, on the 2.5th, General Davidson, still advancing, 
skirmished with the rebel General Marmaduke's cavalry, which he finally 
drove into their intrenchmeuts at Bayou Meton. On the 27th he again 
attacked the enemy, and drove them from their iutreuchments ; but the 
rebels burned their bridges in returning, and thus, for a time, succeeded 
in checking the Union advance. General Davidson then concentrated 
his forces at Brownsville, where he remained until the end of the month. 
On the 30th of August General Steele was re-inforced, by True's brigade, 
from Memphis, and ou the 14th of September he commenced a general 
advance against the rebels beyond Bayou Meton. At first he resolved 
to endeavor to turn the left flank of the rebel forces, and for this pur- 
pose he sent out General Davidson to recounoitre. This reconuoissanoe, 



mnde by way of Austin, lasted two days. At the end of that time, how- 
ever, General Steele was in possession of such infurniation concerning the 
roads and the disposition of the foe, as determined him to advance on the 
right. On the Gth of September, therefore, the general advance was 
resumed, True's brigade, and Hitter's cavalry being left to guard the sick 
at Brownsville. On the 7tli the advance reaohcd the Arkansas river, at 
or near Ashley's Mills, a point above Little Hock. General Steele's plans 
were now laid with equal boldness and skill. General Davidson was 
directed to cross the Arkansas with a considerable force, and to move 
down the south bank of the river directly against the capital. General 
Steele meantime marched doivn the south bank, and threatened the city 
in front. The passage of the river was effected by means of a pon'oou 
bridge, on the 10th, and General Davidson advanced to Bayou Fourche 
before encountering any opposition. At this place, however, he was met 
by a Confederate force, in regular line of battle, consisting of Fagan's and 
Tappan's brigades and Marmaduke's cavalry. A brisk engagement ensued, 
but the rebels, galled by artillery fire from the other side of die river, 
and steadily pushed by the gallant troops of Davidson, were speedily com- 
pelled to retreat. The Union advance meanwhile was continued — simul- 
taneously upon both sides of the stream. In a short time, volumes of 
smoke and clouds of dust, in the direction of Little Rock, made it evi- 
dent that the rebels were retreating from the city, burning the bridges 
as they passed over. Marmaduke's cavalry was thus found to be the 
only obstacle to the Union occupation of the capital. A bold push soou 
swept that foe away, and on the night of September 10th, Little Rock 
was formally surrendered. The forces, however, were too weary to con- 
tinue the pursuit, until the next day, when Merrill's and Clayton's cavalry 
followed the flying foe for twenty miles, taking a number of prisoners 
and causing the destruction of a part of the rebel bagga.fe train. The 
Union loss in this battle did not exceed one hundred ; the rebel loss was 
at least five tiuus as great, including prisoners. So ended a campaign of 
forty-five days, which resulted in substantially freeing the State of Aikan- 
sas from the clutches of rebellion. 

The capture of Little Rock, however, was succeeded by a variety of 
incidents, which deserve to be summed up in a brief statement, as mark- 
ing the close of the war in Arkansas. 

On the 28th of October a portion of the retreating troops of the discom- 
fited rebel General Price, having eluded pursuit, attacked Pine Bluff, 
hoping, if successful, to recapture Little Rock, and enfeeble tlu; Union 
troops by cutting off their line of communication Avith the Mississippi. 
But ilie Unionists repulsed this attack, and on the same day captured Ar- 
kadelphia, forcing the Confederates to retreat towards the Red river. 

Thus, at the close of the year 1863, the entire State of Arkansas, 


excepting a small pari in the ^^outh west, and anotlier small part in the 
North-west, in istcd by guerrillas, was restored to the authority of the 

United Stales (Juvcrnment. 


In the early part of 18G3, there were no important military events 
transpiring/n Southern Virginia. There were three important positions 
which the rebels were desirous of obtaining, and these were Suffolk, 
Norfolk, and Portsmouth. The Union troops in that Department were, 
at the time, under the immediate command of General Dix. The garrison 
occupying Suffolk numbered thirteen thousand men, and was commanded 
by General Peck, who, as events proved, was eminently capable of main- 
taining the prisition he held. The intcTition of the enemy appeared to be 
to reduce Suffolk, and then to march directlj^ into Norfolk and Ports- 
moutli, wiiich places were both weakly garrisoned by small and raw regi- 
ments. General Longstreet was in command of the rebel force which 
had for its object the capture of Suffolk; and the intention of that able 
commander was either to descend suddenly upon the city and overpower 
its garrisju by superior numbers ; or to cut off all the roads by which it 
received supplies, and thus be enabled to carry it after a short fight. 

The town of Suffolk is situated at the head of Nansemond Creek, about 
twelve miles from its confluence with the James river. In the town, 
two railroads unite, by which General Peck received all his supplies. 
These roads, passing through Suffolk, proceeded the one from Norfolk to 
Peteraburj;h, and the other from Portsmouth to Weldon. 

Ai'uiL 11-May 3, 1SG;j. 

General Longstreet was well aware that Suffolk was strongly gar- 
risoned, and he did not open the attack upon it rashly. In order to 
m:ike his undertaking thoroughly successful, he perceived that several 
preliminary inoveineiits were necessary, and he set about carefully exe- 
cuting them. The first of these was a manojuvre by which the Suffolk 
garrison might be materially weakened. Accordingly, General Hill was 
sent to attack Little Washington, North Carolina; a subject which has 
been elsewhere treated ; and, as anticipated by the skillful rebel General, 
this movement against Little Washington made it necessary for General 
Peck to send a reinforcement to the assistance of the imperilled Union 


position. Three thousand men were ordered forward to aid General 
Foster in his defence of Little Washington. 

General Longstrcet had already collected several pontoon and siege 
tniiiis at various convenient points, which were held in readiness for an 
immediate move as soon as it should bo deemed necessary. Having 
been informed by his spies of the removal of three thousand of General 
Peck's men, the rebel General instantly put his army in motion, and 
crossed the Blackwater on several bridges, with the divisions of Hood, 
French, Pickett, and Hendcrsou, numbering in all thirty thousand men. 
This comparatively large array, moving forward in three distinct columns, 
was, by means of a forced march, placed in front of the Union camps in a 
few hours. The cavalry pickets, utterly surprised, were quietly captured 
by the rebels as they advanced. But here terminated the easy success 
which the rebel General h:id anticipated. General Peck had not been 
idle while Longstrcet was making his preparations and watching for a good 
opjiortunity to advance. The Union General was aware of the move- 
ments of the rebel, and had fathomed his designs sufficiently well to be 
prepared for him. Besides which General Longstrcet had frustrated 
one of his best laid plans ; for at the moment that his troops captured 
the Union pickets, the trains containing the rehiforceraents for General 
Foster were about to be set in mo; ion. The trains were delayed of 
course ; and the three thousand men were retained to aid in the defence 
of Suffolk. 

The enemy, making the best of their mistake, advanced boldly on the 
works, but found them strongly garrisoned and bristling with steel. It 
required but a few moments to convince them that their surprise was an 
utter failure ; and that nothing remained for them but to fall back on 
their superior numbers, and capture the town, if at all, by hard fighting 
The rebel General then directed his attention toward the Nanseinond — in 
which were stationed several army gunboats, sent tliere by Admiral Lee 
— having first left a large force in front of the main defences of the town, 
to engage the Union troops and divert attention from the real rebel 

Again General Longstrcet was disappointed in what he had regarded 
as a sure and easy success. The gunboats did not apparently, to liim, 
present a formidable resistance ; nor yet the two army gunboats. Smith 
Briggs, and West End, which were commanded by two youthful officers 
— Captain Howe, and Captain Lee — whose skill and bravery put them on 
a level with veterans in the service. Strong batteries of the enemy 
engaged the gunboats at early dawn of the 12th of April, after having 
spent the entire night in constructing battery after battery ; and altliough 
the frail boats wore completely riddled, and their men were shot dowa 
so fast that the decks were strewn with the killed and wounded, the 


staunch little vessels, with their bravo crews, obstinately refused to 
leiivii the iivor. The Nanseraond, which was so small a stream that a 
moderately sizod steamer could not turn round in it, was defended by 
this .small fljtilla agaiuat a force thirty thousand strong, eager and deter- 
niiiied to cr.-s<,*and having opposed to them six navy gunboats, two army 
gunbiiats, a force, in all numbering but five thousand men, to hold a 
line ei;rht miles in length. IJri-a lier Goneral Getty, who had been 
entrusted with the arduous task of defending the Nanseniond river, was 
eminently suited to defend it successfully. The Nansemond had tho 
further disidvautage of being surrounded with various swamps and 
creeks, so that it was absolutely impossible for troops to pass, as 
reinforcements, from one point to another, with )ut great loss of time. 
To remedy this inconvenience. General Getty liai undertaken the con- 
struction of a military several miles in len.'lh, which .should include 
many bridges and hug spnces of corduroy ; and l)y extraordinary exer- 
tions the troops had coni[ileted this road in the space of three days. 

While the enemy's batteries were brought into play upon the gunboats. 
General Getty was putting into service all his skill as an artillerist. Aided 
by Colonel Dutton, who commanded the Third brigade, he at once be- 
gan selecting positions for rifle-pits and batteries, which, on the next 
morning, were in working order, and thundered forth a storm of shell 
upon the astonished enemy. For several days this warfare continued, 
the rebels persistently endeavoring to gain a foothold on the shore, and 
being as persistently driven back by the Union fire from batteries, rifle- 
pits and gunboats. Not until the 18th day of the month did the rebels at 
all advance in their efibrts : but on that day they succeeded in establish- 
ing on Hill's Point, six miles from Suffolk, an earthwork which mounted 
five heavy rifled guns. Against this formidable work the Union fire was 
powerless ; the missiles for the most part harmlessly burying themselves 
in its parapet, while from this strong position the enemy maintained a 
constant and destructive fire upon the National gunboats. Beneath this 
severe fire the Mount Washington grounded directly under the rebel 
guns, and her brave companions refused to leave her in such a strait. 
The Commodore B irney received fifty-eight holes in her hull and 
machinery ; and while the gallant captain of the Mount Washington stood 
over the guns of his shattered vessel, still hoping to save her, a severe 
contest raged for six long hours. At last came the rising tide, and 
floated off" the boats in safety. 

Admiral Lee now ordered the gunboats out of the Upper Nansemond ; 
and affairs began to wear a discouraging aspect. But already the dawn 
that succeeds the darkest hour was slowly breakinn through its blackness, 
soon to shine forth in the noontide glory of success. It was proposed by 


Lieutenant Lansom to capture the Hill's Point battery, and flic proposal 
was received with favor by General Peck. 

The following, which is an extract from a description by an eyo-witucsa 
does not over-color this brilliant feat : 

" Shortly before sunset the gunboats on the river, and the four rifled 
guns at and near battery Stevens, opened a terrific fire upon ilie rebel 
battery. Meantime, detachments from the Eighty-ninth New York Vol- 
unteers, Lieutenant-Colonel England, and the Eighth Connecticut, Col- 
onel Ward, in all two hundred and eighty men, embarked on board the 
gunboat Stepping Stones, Lieutenant Lansoin, at a point about a mile 
above the battery. Protected by the artillery fire, the gunboat boldly 
steamed down the river about two hundred yards above the rebel works, 
the shore at that point being an abrupt bluff. Immediately the troops 
disembarked, wading to their waists in water, ascended the bluff, and 
with loud cheers charged on the rear of the fort. Meantime, the gun- 
boat's crew had landed four boat howitzers, placed them in position, and 
opened on the fort. The enemy, taken completely by surprise, were 
only able to deliver two or three volleys of musketry, and tire one gun, 
when our troops entered the work, and captured the entire party of seven 
officers and one hundred and thirty men, with five brass guns, and a 
large supply of ammunition." 

The capture of this battery so alarmed the rebels that they at once 
turned all their attention to their own position, and the most earnest 
preparations were made in all haste to resist the terrible artillery fire of 
the Union batteries, which was now turned with all their strength a<i-ainst 
their front. 

Perpetually on the look-out for any change in the plans or position of 
the enemy. General Peck was constantly sending out reconnoitering par- 
ties, who, getting into skirmishes with the enemy's outposts, would drive 
them back to the rebel main line, and were then in turn forced back them- 
selves by formidable numbers. The work of fortifying continued to "■o 
on during the whole three weeks of the siege ; the labor of erecting bat- 
teries, building roads and bridges, and cutting timber, went briskly for- 
ward during the night, after days of severe fiirhting. Nothln"- could 
exceed, nor no praise do justice to the constant patience, courage, 
and devotion to duty manifested by the bravo troops who defended 

Rebel reinforcements began to arrive about the 20th of April, re- 
turning from their unsuccessful attack on Fort Washington. Day by day 
the enemy grew stronger. But no fear of defeat troubled the brave 
Unionists, nor did the thought of surrender occur to them. 

By the 30th of April a rebel reinforcement, consisting of General 


D. IT. Ilill's troops, and numbering ten thousand, arrived and joined tbe 
already strong army of Goneral Loiigstreet ; and such was Long^trect'a 
opinion of the town's fortificationsand innerstrcngth, that notwithstanding 
his own very superior numbers, he beyan to feel that after all he would 
be compelled to forego his plan of capturing Suff)lk. He would not re- 
tire, however, without a final effort ; and new batteries were constantly 
constructed, but no sooner unmasked, than they were silenced by the 
deadly (ire of the gunboats, and Parrotts from the Uuion works. Victory 
had spread her wings above the Union forces, and was waiting to fold 
them and settle down upon the National banner. General Longstreet was 
soon (■ompelled to acknowledge his attack a failure ; and the approaching 
conflict between the armies of Hooker and Lee (elsewhere described), 
gave him a good excuse for raising the siege of Suffolk. 

On the 3rd of May General Longstreet drew off his men, and com- 
menced his retreat. They were pursued by a strong Union force under 
General Getty and General Harland ; the enemy was overtaken, and 
some sharp skirmishing took place between him and his pursuers, which 
was at length ended by darkness. Under cover of the night the rebels re- 

The next day a rebel cavalry force, numbering four hundred, was en- 
countered at Chuckatuck by small Union force, who routed them with 
musketry and artillery. A f^hort distance from Hill's Point, the rebels 
were encountered by another Union force under Colonel Dutton, and 
caused them considerable annoyance for the remainder of the day. At 
midnight on the 3rd of May, the Union troops under Corcoran, Dodge 
and Foster, started in pursuit of the flying rebels ; but without any 
result except the capture of a few hundred stragglers. This ended the 
sieire of Suffolk ; during which the National loss was forty-four killed, 
two hundred and one wounded and fourteen missing. Four hundred 
rebel prisoners were captured in all ; and the enemy had gained abso- 
lutely nothing, with a loss of one thousand five hundred men in killed 
wounded and prisoners ; five guns, and a very large quantity of stores 
and small arms. 

NovEMBEU 17-December 6, 1863. 

From the commencement of hostilities nntil the fall of 186.^, no suc- 
cessful measures had been adopted to relieve the inhabitants of East 
Tennessee from the iron rule of rebellion. More than three-fourths of 
the population were unconditionally loyal, and her brave soldiers fought 
side by side with the men of the North and West in defence of the Gov- 


crnmcnt, while their homes were being desolated by a stern and vindic- 
tive foe. Hundreds of her citizens had sufFcrod dcatli from imjuisoninent 
and privati.jus, while thousands were unwillingly conscripted in the rebel 

Much had been hoped for, when General Buell led a gallant army 
through Kentucky, almost to her border, but the day of her emancipation 
had not yet arrived. 

In the fall of 1863, a determined effort was made by the Government 
to occupy East Tennessee. General Burnside had been called to the 
command of the Department of the Ohio, in the month of March, but the 
exigencies of the Vicksburg campaign had deprived him of his troops, and 
he had susequently remained inactive. The surrender of that stronghold 
had placed an army again at his disposal, and by the latter part of August 
he was in condition to attempt the occupation of East Tennessee, and thus 
cooperate with General Rosecrans, who was then in the midst of liis 
heavy campaign bearing on Chattanooga. It was feared that reinforce- 
ments would reach Brngg at Chattanooga, through East Tennessee from 
Virginia, and to General Burnside was assigned the duty of destroying 
the communications between these points. He entered the State late in 
August, about midway between the eastern and western boundaries, and 
immediately occupied Knoxville, which was evacuated by the rebel Gen- 
eral Buckner, without a struggle. His retreat was so precipitate, and 
his surprise so great, that he had no opportunity to notify the garrison at 
Cumberland Gap of their danger, consequently the rebel forces at that 
point, numbering some two thousand men, were environed by the Union 
army, and compelled to surrender. 

Knoxville was now delivered from the rebel rule ; and the inhabitants 
hailed the presence of their deliverers with the warmest tokens of joy. 
Recruits flocked to the Union army by hundreds, from all the surround- 
ing country, much faster than they could be either armed or clad. 

Though the capture of Knoxville was an easy enterprise on the p-rt of 
General Burnside, its retention promised to be a work of great ditheulty. 
He was two hundred and fifty miles fiom the base of his supplies in Ken- 
tucky, and on either side of him were the two great armies of the rebel- 
lion — Lee on the east, and Bragg on the south. The country in tlie 
neighborhood swarmed with guerrillas, and important posts in the vii:inity 
were liable to, and subjected to frequented attacks from the Confederate 
forces, yet too feeble to attack the main Union army. Clothes and shoes 
began to fail, and economy became necessary in all means of subsistence. 
The disastrous battle of Chickamauga, which imperilled the existence of 
General Rosecrans' army, tended to increase the difficulties of General 

Durin-- the mouth of November it became certain that General Long- 


street had been detached from the army of General Bngg, with the 
design of attacking General Jjurnside, at Knoxville. After fortifying 
the city in such manner as to insure confidence in his ability to maintain 
it, General Buriiside advanced to meet his antagonist, cautiously luring 
him on, to invite his withdrawal from the support of Bragj, and finally 
falling back within the defences of Knoxville, on the ITih of November, 
•with tlic rebel army pressing close upon his rear. The Union army was 
informed that there was now to be no more retreating. The old defences 
■wer ! strengthened and new ones erected, rifle-pits dug, and trees felled 
to resist the approach of the besiegers. 

The city lies on the north bank of the Holston river, and a range of 
hilN protects it on the west. The rebels, therefore, prepared to attack 
tlie defences from the north and east. Their line extended in a circular 
form, with their right touching the river, thus cutting off all water com- 
munication, and the supplies of the army were thenceforward to be ob- 
tained by forage trains alone. A long siege was not feared by General 
Buvnside, as he had the promise of assistance from General Grant, who 
had just been called to the command of the army confronting Bragg. 
The brilliant victories of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge now 
cnibled General Grant to hasten forward the expected succor. Of this 
fact Longstreet soon became informed, but as he had confidently antici- 
pated the capture of the city and its defenders, he was loth to leave his 
anticipated prey without a desperate and hasty effort for its seizure. lie 
would try to carry Knoxville by storm. 

One of the principal defences of the place was called Fort Sanders, 
in honor of a brave general who had fallen in the early part of the 
siefe. It was situated on a high hill on the north-east corner of the 
town, and was composed of well-planned earthworks. This fort com- 
manded the approaches to the city both from the north and east, and its 
capture was a necessity before the assailants could enter Knoxville. Tiie 
sides of the hill had been covered with a dense forest of pine, which 
had been felled, and now presented an abattis or network of brush or 
timber, almost impassable, to wihin two or three hundred yards of the 
fort, where a cleared space intervened, affording free range for grape or 
canister. The works consisted of a ditch and parapet. 

Three picked regiments were assigned the duty of storming this furt 
by General Longstreet. On the night of the twenty-eighth of Novem- 
ber these regiments succeeded in pushing their way through the pine 
abattis, reaching the edge of the clearing, after a short interval of 
skirmishing with the defenders, and lay on their arms at the edge of the 
abatti.s until daybreak on the morning of the twenty-ninth, when a charge 
was ordered. A scene of carnage and desperate valor now ensued, 
which hud many parallels during this fratricidal war. As the rebels ad- 


vanced across the open space, a furious storm of grape and canister met 
them, and decimated their ranks. A network of unseen wires, which 
had been interlaced across the approach, now entangled their ranks, and 
threw many of the men to the ground, who were trampled under feet by 
their comraih'^. The air was filled with the whiz of minie balls. Yet; 
still the intrepid assailants rushed on, over the bodies of their dead and 
wounded comrades, until they reached the ditch, where they encountered 
a continuous storm of hand-grenades thrown into the midst of the strug- 
gling mass, and exploding with horrible effect. One of the assailants 
reached the parapet, and waved a Confederate flag, only to be hurled 
into the ditch the next, instant, a mangled corpse. None of the rebels 
entered the fort, while scores lay dead before it. The whole force of the 
garrison was but three hundred — far less than the dead and dj'ing wlio 
strewed the ground around it. The Federal loss was four killed and 
eleven wounded. 

General Longstrect, now despairing of success, abandoned the siege, 
and retreated southward. On the sixth of December General Shermau 
entered the city with reinforcements, and railroad communication wilU 
Chattanooga was opened. 

Septembeu 20— Decemlier 31, 18G3. 

The great battle of Chickamauga, ending on the 20th of September, 
1863, resulted, as we have seen, in no material advantage to the rebels 
and in no additional success to the arms of the Union. It was substantially 
an equal and a fiuitless contest — " a drawn battle." Upon both sides the 
losses were very heavy. General Rosecrans lost sixteen thousand ei^ht 
hundred and fifty-one men, all told, and a large quantity of material of 
war. General Bragg, on the other hand, lost eighteen thousand. Upward 
of two thousand rebels . ere captured by the National troops. 

On the 2d of October, General Rosecrans issued the following order, 
dated at the Headquarters of the Department of the Cumberland, at 

"Army of the Cumberland: You have made a grand and successful 
campaign ; you have driven the rebels from Middle Tennessee. You 
crossed a great mountain range, placed yourselves on the banks of a 
broad river, crossed it in the face of a powerful opposing army, and 
crossed two other great mountain ranges at the only practicable passes, 
some forty miles between extremes. You concentrated in the face of 
superior numbers ; fought the combined armies of Bragg, which you drove 


from Shelbyville to Tullaliomn, of Johnston's army from Mississippi, and 
the tried veterans of Longstreet's corps, and for two days held them at 
bay, giving thoni blow for blow, with heavy interest. When the day 
closed, you hold the field, from which you withdrew, in the face of over- 
powering numbers, to occupy the point for which you sot out — Chatta- 

" You have accomplished the great work of the campaign ; you hold the 
key of East Tennessee, of Northern Georgia, and of the enemy's mines of 
coal and nitre. Let these achievements console you for the regret you 
experience that arrivals of fresh hostile troops foriiade your remaining on 
the field to renew the battle ; for the right of burying your gallant dead, 
and caring for your brave companions who lay wounded on the field. The 
loiises you have sustained, though heavy, arc slight, considering the odds 
against you, and the stake you have won. 

" You hold in your hands the substantial fruits of a victory, r.%d deserve 
and will receive the honors and plaudits of a grateful nation, which asks 
nothing of even those who have been fighting us, but; obe iioncc to the 
Constitution and laws established for our own common benefit. 

" The General commanding earnestly bogs every officer and soldier of 
this army to unite with him in thanking Almighty God for His favors to 
us. He presents his hearty thanks and congratulations to all the officers 
and soldiers of this command, for their energy, patience, and persever- 
ance, and the undaunted courage displayed by those who fought with such 
unflinching resolution, 

" Neither the history of this war, nor probably th^ annals of any battle, 
furnish a loftier example of obstinate bravery and enduring resistance to 
superior numbers — when troops, having exhausted their ammunition, re- 
sorted to the bayonet, many times, to hold their positions, against such 
odds — as did our left and centre, comprising troops from all the corps, on 
the afternoon of the •20th of September, at the battle of Chickamauga. 
(Signed) W. S. ROSECIIANS, 

Major-General Commanding." 

After the battle of Chickamauga, the Union army fell back to Chatta- 
nooira, and assumed a strong position in front of that place, abandoning, 
however, the passes of Lookout Mountain, which were immediately 
occupied by tlie rebels. The Army of the Cumberland at this time 
received its supplies, by way of Stevenson, and Bridgeport, from depots 
at Louisville and Nashville. To cut rnilroad communication with those 
points, and thus to paralyze the Union forces, was now the aim of the Con- 
federate commander ; and to this labor he addressed his efforts, with 
promptitude and with courage. But the line of railroad was well de- 
fended. On the 23d of September, General Hooker was sent to Tennea- 
see, in command of the Eleventh and Twelfth corps of the Army of 


the Potomac, and was assigned to the protection of the line of comiiiimi- 
cation between Bridgeport and Nashville. The rebels, in their vain 
endeavors to intercept the Union comnuiuications, brought about several 
small engagements, in which the Unionists were invariably victorious. 
Thus, on the 2d of October a rebel force, four thousand strong, under 
Wheeler, was defeated, at Anderson's Cross Koads, by the First Mis- 
souri and Second Indiana cavalry, under Colonel Edward !McCo(>k. Tlio 
enemy lost one hundred and twenty men. killed and wounded, eighty- 
seven prisoners, and upwards of eight hundred mules ; and was com- 
pletely routed, and driven back for miles. Thus, also, on the Gth oi 
October, General Mitchell attacked the enemy, in strong force, at Shelby- 
ville, and put them to flight, with heavy los^. They were, likewise, de- 
feated at Farrington, on the 8tli of October, by the National troops under 
General Crook, who captured on this occasion two hundred and forty 
prisoners, four pieces of artillery, and one hundred stand of arms. 

Bnt other and more important movements were in contem[)lation at this 
time. The Government at Washington, hearing that Bragj; was to 
receive reinforcements, and feeling that the crisis demanded an infallible 
commander, determined to relieve General Rosecrans, and entirely to re- 
organize the conduct of the war in the west. With this view General 
Grant was directed to advance with his forces from Vicksburg, and to 
a-^sume command of the Departments of Tennessee, Cumberland, and 
Ohio. On the 18th of October, General Grant arrived at Loaisville, and 
e itered upon his new duties. The immediate direction of affairs in the 
De Kirtmentof the Cumberland was committed to Major-Gancral G. H. 
Thomas. The Department of Tennessee was assigned to Major-Gencral 
W. T. Sherman. The corps of Generals McCook and Crittenden were 
consolidated, and stationed at Cincinnati. General Burnside, command- 
ing the Department of Ohio, was, at this time, with a considerable Unior 
force, in the vicinity of Knoxville, in the eastern part of the State. 

Such was the position of affairs, when General Grant took command of 
these important operations. His first movement was to open a shorter 
land communication between the Army of the Cumberland and its base oi 
supplies. This was necessary, because the rebels were, substantially, in- 
vesting Chattanooga ; and to lose communication with its base of sup- 
plies, would be to lose the army there intrenched. The movement was 
effected in a very skillful manner, and at considerable peril, by throwing 
a pontoon bridge across the river Tennessee, at a place called Brown's 
Ferry, about one mile and a half by land, and eight miles by water, 
below the bridire at Chattanooga. The boats for this bridge were floated 
down from Chattanooga, under cover of the night, and filled with soldiers. 
More soldiers were then brought across the river at Brown's Ferry, the 
enemy was driven back on the hills ou the shore, and the bridge was con- 



Btructed. It was nine hundred feet long, and the work of building it 
occupied five hours. As soon as this step had been successfully taken, 
General Hooker nioved over from Bridgeport, crossed the river at Brown's 
Ferrv, and so effected a junction with the forces at Chattanooga. This 
opened the direct road to Kelly's Ferry and so to Bridgeport, and effect- 
ually baffled the enemy's hopes of cutting off the Union line of communi- 
cation. General Grant now pursued, with comparative frei>doiii his 
campaign for clearing East Tennessee of the armed forces of the Rebel- 

The rebel line at this time extended from Lookout Mountain, on the 
left, to FortBuckner, the extreme point of Missionary Ridge, on the right. 
The position was, of course, on the south side of the Tennessee river. The 
base of supplies was Atlanta. As soon as General Sherman arrived, 
with his command, from Memphis, General Grant proceeded to carry out 
bis plan of the campaign. The rebel General Longstreet, with a con- 
siderable force was now absent from Bragg's army, having been detached 
to proceed against the Union troops under General Buriiside, at Knox- 
ville. Bragg's army was, therefore, materially weakened. General 
Giant was not slow to avail himself of this advantage. The plan upon 
which he proceeded involved the following detail. A division of General 
Sherman's troops was to be sent to 1 renton, threatening the enemy's left 
flank. Under cover of this movement. General Sherman's main body was 
to cross the Brown's Ferry bridge at night and pass thence into a con- 
cealed camp on the north side of the river, opposite South Chickamauga 
creek. One division was to encamp on the North Chickamauga; about 
one hundred and twenty pontoons were to be taken under cover of hills 
and woods, and launched into the North Chickamauga ; these were to be 
filled v^'ith men, to be floated out into the Tennessee and down it, until 
opposite the South Chickamauga (about three miles below), to effect a 
landin"' on the bank, and throw up works ; the remainder of the command 
was to be taken across in the same boats, or a portion of them ; the Ten- 
nessee and South Chickamauga were to be bridged, and then the artil- 
lery crossed and moved at once to seize a fuothold on the bridge, taking 
up a line facing the enemy's right flank, near the tunnel. General 
Howard's corps of General Hooker's command was to cross into the 
town by the two bridges, and fill the gap between General Sherman's 
proposed position and the main body of General Thomas's army. Gen- 
eral Hooker, with the remainder of his force and a division sent to 
Trenton, which should return, w^ere to carry the point of Lookout, and 
then threaten the enemy's left, which would thus be thrown back, being 
forced to evacuate the mountain and take position on the ridge ; and 
then the Federal troops, being on both fl^inks, and upon one flank 
threatening the enemy's communications, were to advance the whole line 


or turn the other flank, as the chances might dictate. Then a part of the 
force was to follow as far as possible, while General Sherman destroyed 
the railroad from Clevelimd to Dalton, and then pushed on to relieve 
Knoxville, and capture, disperse, or drive off General Longstreet from 
before it. 


NOVEMBKU 21, 18G3. 

General Grant's forward movement against the rebel position on Look- 
out Mountain commenced on the 24th. The preliminary uKn'ements 
had been successfully carried out, the Tennessee having been bridged on 
the 23d, and General Sherman's troops pushed across the river. The 
ascent to Lookout Mountain is very difficult, and was, of course, 
rendered all the more arduous and perilous, by the enemy's fortifications. 
But difficulty was no bar, either to the gallant Army of the Cumberland 
or to its brave leaders. Early on the morning of the 2ith, General 
Hooker's forces commenced to move along the valley, greatly to the 
astonishment of the rebels, who were watching the movement, from their 
vantage ground upon the mountain, and who made no immediate opposi 
tion to the attempted ascent of Lookout. 

About twenty-five feet from the summit of the mountain is a line of 
perpendicular rocks, known as "Palisades." General Hooker's division, 
having reached these palisades, formed into line of battle, so as to face 
the north, the right wing resting against the palisades and stretching 
down the slope of the mountain. General Hooker's array advanced iu 
three distinct lines. The front consisted of General Geary's division, 
with a brigade of New York troops, under Colonel Ireland, on the right : 
the Sixtieth New York held the extreme right of the line, while the 
extreme left and front were held by the One hundred and second, the 
One hundred and thirty-seventh, and the One hundred and forty -ninth New 
York. The second line was formed of the two brigades of Grove and 
Whittaker. The third was formed by General Osterhaus' division, which 
held itself in readiness to aid either of the other lines. These disposi- 
tions having been made, the entire corps, with a strong line of skirmishers 
thrown out, was ordered forward. After a short march they came upon 
a detachment of the enemy, which totally unsuspicious of the movements 
of the Union forces, was taken by surprise. The enemy, outnumbered 
and outmancevred, attempted to escape by running up the hill; but they 
were instantly assaulted by the Union soldiers from above, and finding 
themselves thus between two fires, were compelled to make a stand and 
to fight. The rebel batteries on Lookout Mountain, and the Union 


batteries on ri^cusjiin Point, now opened a heavy fire upon cacli other, 
The rebels, attacked on both rear and flank, were not capable of making 
a steady rcsislance, although their skirmishers, sheltering themselves 
behind trees and rocks, poured in a heavy fire upon the Union line, but 
w re at length driven back by General Geary's skirmishers. The 
e 10 my on the point of the mountain being severely pressed, graduull/ 
gave way, and fell back, in disorder, till thc-y reached the line of brens;- 
works on the eastern slope of the mountain. General Geary here drew 
liis line parallel with that of the enemy, and l)oldly advanced ; but fiiid- 
in'i- himself met by strongly organized troops, he was obliged, f'U- tho. 
time, to retire. In the mean while very large numbers of the enemy had 
been captured — for. whenever the Union troops succeeded in bringing 
in the rebels, ihey secured them by hundreds ; and in this manner, over 
a thousand prisoners were taken, in a short space of time. 

A pause in the battle occurred after the repulse of Geary's second 
attack on the rebel line ; and, as the enemy was found to be in a 
very strong position behind his breastworks. General Hooker — after 
a careful reconnoissance, in which he incurred great personal danger — 
decided on a change in the disposition of his forces, for an attack on the 
enemy's works. The rebels had every natural advantage on their side, 
and were also expecting reinforcements ; but the latter failed to arrive, 
and Hooker's next attack caused the enemy to contract his line, and 
expose his left flank. This attack began at two o'clock in the afternoon 
and resulted in the severest fighting of the day, which lasted, in 
undiminished fury, for the next twu hours. Hooker's dispositions were 
made as follows. The Eighty-fourth Illinois, Colonel Waters, and the 
Seventy fifth Illinois, Colonel Burnett, were sent to hold the road which 
crosses the mountain on the east. The line of battle, moving against 
the rebel works in part, consisted of the command of Geary on the right, 
that of Oftterhaus on the lef;, and that of Whittaker and Grove in the 
centre. Colonel Ireland's force clung close to the palisades. From all 
quarters, a destructive fire was poured in upon the enemy. Those who, 
from Chattanoofra and Orchard Knob — the latter point, captured on the 
23d, was still held by the troops of the gallant General Wood — watched 
the battle, saw only clouds of smoke mingling with the mist that 
enveloped the mountain. But the troops engaged could see each other, 
and beneath the pall of mist they fought, on both sides, with desperate 
valor. At four o'clock. General Hooker ordered a general charge of his 
whole line. It was made, with the utmost gallantry — the Union forces 
dashlnf onward, through a terribly heavy and continuous fire — and carry- 
in f all before them. In five minutes the left flank of the rebels had been 
turned, and, falling back upon the Summerton road, they abandoned their 


po-iition, artillery, works, and all, ■nlilch were imiiicdlatc;ly seized by tlie 
victorious (roops of Houker. 

Uut, tliougli flanked and driven back tlie rebels nianife-:ted no disposi- 
tion to yield their redoubts without a final struggle. Ripidly reforming, 
they soon advanced to the assault of Geary, in their own former position. 
The fight that ensued was bitter and furious. The Union soldiers were 
nearly out of ammunition, and were already, for this reason, evincing a 
disposition to straggle out of line. The enemy perceived their advantage 
and tiiod to make use of it. General Hooker had twice sent to Chatta- 
nooga for ammunition. The moment was exceedingly critical. But, at 
the very moment when further delay must have proved fatal to the suc- 
cess of the Union arms, the ammunition train of General Thomas's 
soldiers deployed across Chattanooga creek, and marched up the hill, 
bringing an ample supply to their comrades in the fight. These men 
cousisted of General Carlin's brigade of Johnston's division, Fourteenth 
corps, and upon them devolved the work of concluding the battle. Night 
was now coming on, yet the outline of the contending masses C'>uld be 
seen from Chattanooga, while the flashes of musketry were distinctly 
visible in the gathering darkness. The pageant, as witnessed from the 
town, was exceedingly gorgeous. The mnuutain ft-as all abhize with 
interuiittent fire, and all vocal with strange, unearthly sounds, as of a 
giant groaning in pain. The great guns on its summit answered the 
lesser ones on Moccasin point, and all was commotion, and bloody strife, 
and ghastly pageantry of terror. 

The result of this final charge was the complete defeat of the rebels. 
They fell back along the Sumraorton road, guarding a convenient point 
to check pursuit, and employed the long hours of the night in evacuating 
the mountain. There was some skirmishing during the night, but with 
no important results. General Hooker had gained a splendid victory. 


November 24, 1863. 

Vrhile the Union forces under Hooker were thus advancing against the 
enuuiy"s left, General Sherman's eomniand, which had crossed the Ten- 
nessee at Brown's Ferry, and advanced along the north bank of the river, 
to a point opposite Chickamauga creek, was threatening the enemy's 
right. The crossing, commenced at early morning, was not completed 
till noon, at vrhich time also a junction was effected, at Chickamiuia 
creek, between G:neral Sherman's command, and reinforcements under 
General Howard, sent forward from Chattanooga. At about one o'clock, 


and just as General Sherman gave orders for an advance against Missionary 
Kidge, a drizzly rain began to fall, which soon hid from view the object 
of assault. There are several small hills clustered at the end of Mission- 
ary Ridge, being separated from it by a valley, through which runs the 
Chattanooga and Cleveland railroad. To take these hills was Sherman's 
first design. His line of battle was formed thus : General Ewing's divi- 
sion occupied the right. General J. E. Smith's division the centre, and 
General Morgan L. Smith's division the lefc. General Jeff. C. Davis's 
division of the Fourteenth corps, artillery, had crossed the river and 
taken up position in the works. The order for the advance was given by 
General Sherman, as follows : " 1 see Davis is up. I guess you may as 
well go in, and take the hill." 

The advance was made in perfect silence. The men looked very seri- 
ous ; and, if they spoke to each other, spoke in undertones. The prospect 
before them was a very serious one, and it was evident that they realized 
it to the fullest extent. But, as the sequel made manifest, the enemy 
did not propose to contest these hilh, and, steadily continuing hia 
advance, General Sherman was in possession of them as early as four 
o'clock in the afternoon. A few shells, thrown by the rebels from Tunnel 
Hill, had passed over his forces, carrying consternation to the camp 
followers in the rear ; but there had been no serious lighting. On 
inspecting the ground thus captured. General Sherman determined to 
occupy the semi-circular ridge of the hills with his right and centre, and 
deploy his left toward Meyers's mill, on Chickamauga creek. General 
M. L. Smith, commanding the left, executed the latter movement, cap- 
turing about a hundred rebels, who were building raffs on the creek, 
with which to destroy General Sherman's pontoon bridges. At night on 
the •24th, therefore, General Sherman was strongly posted, and prepared 
for a grand assault of the enemy's works, on the following day. 

Several new dispositions had been made along the Union centre, on 
the 24th, in anticipation of a great battle on the following day. Wood's 
forces, strengthened by those of General Baird, had been appointed to 
storm the rebel heights at Blackford, which is a gap in the centre of 
Missionary Ridge. Sheridan's command, strengthened by General 
King's britrade — of regulars and volunteers — had been deputed to 
assault at Thurman's House, a point further toward the enemy's left. 
General Gordon Granger assumed command of the divisions of Wood and 
Baird, and General Palmer took command of those of Sheridan and King. 
The object of these movements was to cut the rebel army in two, in 
the centre, while Hooker on its left, and Sherman on its right, should 
flank it, and cut it to pieces. 



NOVK.MDEU 2.J, 1803. 

Such was the position of affairs on the morning of the 25th of Novem. 
ber. At ten o'clock General vSliernian commenced the battle of Mission- 
ary Ridi^e, by pushing forward Colonel Loomis's brigade of Ewing'a 
division, on the right, against the enemy posted at Glass Statioii, back of 
the railroad. This attack was promptly repulsed. General Corse then 
made a direct assault Ujion Tinncl Hill, mounting the hill without diffi- 
culty, and in gallant style. But it was only on reaching the crest of this 
eminence, and couung upun the plateau, that the Union troops came under 
lire of the guns of Fort Buckner, the strongest rebel fortification at this 
point They gained the plateau at precisely eleven o'clock, and, at once, 
were greeted with a tremendous fire from the guns of the fort, und^r 
which they retreated to the crest of the hill, leaving their dead and 
wounded in the enemy's rifle-pits. At this juncture, Colonel Loomis's 
brigade made a second charge from the right, driving the rebels from their 
fortifications along the railroad track, and forcing them up the hill to the 
right of Fort Buckuer. General Corse was reinforced, while his move- 
ment was going on, and, with fresh troops, he now proceeded to make a 
second charge against the fort. A bloody conflict ensued. The Union 
soldiers, swept by a continuous and merciless fire, advanced to within 
twelve yards of the rebel works — -then wavered, tben again fell back to 
their original position, once more leaving their dead and wounded in 
possession of the enemy. This repulse took place at a quarter past twelve, 
and from that time until half past one, no further movement was made in 
Sherman's front. At this hour, however, a third assault of the hill was 
made by the combined force of Colonel Loomis and Mathias, supported 
by two regiments of Colonel Raum's brigade, the Eightieth Ohio, and the 
Seventeenth Iowa. The charge of the Union forces on this occasion has 
been described by an eye-witness as the most magnificent act of gallantry 
that it is possible to imagine. It was made in the face of a destructive fire, 
from six pieces of artillery, and a long line of musketry, and — a soniev>'!iat 
navel expedient in modern warfare — a fire of rocks and stones, which the 
rebels hurled down from their fastness, in great abundance. Meanwhile, 
the hill flashed and flared with flame, and echoed with the terrible roar of 
artillery. For half an hour the strife continued. Then the column 
of Mathias broke and fled — but only to the line of Raum's reserves, 
where it was rallied as if by magic. At precisely a quarter past two 
o'tdock, a last grand charge was made, all along the line. Fifty yards in 
front lay the rebel works. The rebel cannon, double-shotted with can- 


istcr, bclelied out ilcatli up.)n the advancing patriots. The men drevv 
their blucclotli caps over their eyes, aud pressed stubbornly onward. It 
was a very critical moment for the rebels — and they knew it, for their 
commander suddenly called up reserves from his centre, and so, under 
the combined .sweep of a front, flank, and cross fire, the gallant troops of 
Sherman were finally obliged to fall back from Tunnel Hill. Such 
advantages as he had gained, however, General Sherman held, — ordering 
bis line into position, and intrenching himself to secure the ground for 
new operations. 

But that is not always failure which seems so at the moment. The 
disaster to Sherman proved, in fact, the main-spring of victory to Gen- 
eral Grant. That commander, posted at Orchard Knob, and narrowly 
watching the contest on his left, was not slow to observe that General 
Bragg had been obliged to weaken the rebel centre in order to save 
Tunnel Hill ; and, with General Grant, to see an advantage was to im- 
prove it. The moment Bragg's reserves had been drawn away, General 
Grant ordered a charge upon the rebel centre. At the same moment an 
artillery fire was opened on the enemy from Orchard Knob and Fort 
Wood. The men went forward in fine style, charging at the point of the 
bayonet, across Citico Creek and up the hillside. For a little while, as 
it toiled upward, the line looked broken and ragged ; but the moment it 
reached the crest of Missionary Ridge, it formed in perfect order, and 
rushed on like the wind. Astonished and dismayed, the rebels fled be- 
fore the determined valor of the patriots. Through Fort Hindnian 
danced the rebel flag, borne along by the frightened hordes of Confed- 
erates, and afrer it, streaming grandly in the stormy air, floated onward 
the flag of the Union. At four o clock the ridge was won. General 
Grant himself, following in the wake of the advancing columns, appeared 
among his troops, and, by his presence, inspired them with new courage 
and intrepid resolution. 

In the mean while General Hooker, following up his victor}/ of the 
24th, had completely possessed himself of Lookout Mountain, had de- 
scended into the valley, crossed the Chattanooga creek, passed through 
Bossville, and advanced northward along Missionary Bidge, to coopi'r- 
ate with General Grant. His advance drove the rebels out of Fort 
Breckinridge, and captured many prisoners. He came up late in (he 
afternoon of the 25th. A final effort, made by Bragg, to re-take Fort 
Hindman, was successfally re-.ulsed, and then the rout of the Confeder- 
ates was complete. They fled in gi-eat disorder towards Iliuggold, 
leavino- hundreds of killed and wounded in their track. A few voliiea 
of grape and canister converted their retreat into a wild rout. 

Though utterly defeated and disorganized, the rebel army was still 
powerful in numbers and material, and the Federal commander, fullj 

i;attl;!; o;^ Rir>GK. 


BArrr.E of ktnggold. 309 

sensible of the imporiance of fjllowin;^ up his advantage, orJcrjd a vi-r- 
oruus pursuit. By daylight the next morning the Union forces wore 
pressing close upon the dispirited and fleeing enemy. So dishcartenod 
were the rebels that hundreds threw away their arms and surrendered, 
.'^oon as the victorious Union columns came within range. All day the 
jiursuit continued, and, when night came on, the country for miles 
around was lighted with huge fires, where the rebels were com])elled to 
destroy their stores, to prevent them from falling into patriot hands. 
The road was strewed with commissary stores, and brokon-down caissons 
ana wagons. The line of retreat was mostly along the railroad by the 
valley of Ringgold. 

The entire Federal loss in these combined battles did not exceei four 
thous.ind in killed and wounded; while that of the enemy, in killed, 
wounded, prisoners, and deserters, has been estimated at fifteen thousand. 
Between sixty and seventy cannon, and seven thousand stand of small 
arms were among the trophies of the victors. 

By this brilliant success, the Federal power was firmly established in 
East Tennessee, and no serious attempts were afterwards made by the 
rebels to invade that portion of the State. 


November 28, 18G;3. 

The dingy little town of Ptinggokl — the county town of Catoosa County, 
Georgia — is situated at the base of the White Oak mountain range, only 
a few miles from the State line between Georgia and Tennessee. It was 
here that the routed forces of General Bragg first made a stand, after the 
battle of .Missionary Ridge, to oppose the pursuit of the victorious soldiers 
of Hooker. A brief, but desperate and bloody battle, ensue !, on the 28th 
of November. Generals Osterhaus and Geary led the Unionists, while 
the opposing rebels were Hardee's command. The fight lasted about five 
hours, and was attended with heavy loss upon both sides. Three hun- 
dred rebel prisoners were captured, and the enemy was driven back, be- 
yond the town, to Tunnel Hill. Colonel Creighton and Lieutenant-Col- 
onel Crane were killed in this engagement, and the Seventh Ohio regi- 
ment lost all of its ofiicers excepting one — Captain Creighton. This reg. 
iment was treacherously led into an ambuscade by a portion of Haniee's 
corps, who displayed Federal flags. The Union soldiers behaved with 
the utmost gallantry. Frjm Hinggold the rebels fell back upou Daltou. 



General N. P. Bunks arrived in Now Orlo;ins on December 14, 1S62, 
having been appointed to supersede General Uutler in command of the 
Department of the Gulf. The news of tliis change created much sur- 
prise among all classes of citizens ; and not a few of those who were op- 
posed to the restoration of the national supremacy were sorry to part 
with an oflioer who, though obnoxious for his zoal in the discharge of hia 
duties, had succeeded in establishing unexampled order and security in 
the oily. General Butler tendered a cordial welcome to his successor, 
assuring him that the army would render a cheerful obedience to his or- 
ders. On the 15th General Butler took leave of the troops under his 
command, and paid a well-merited tribute to their patriotism, valor, and 
soldierly bearing ; and on the following day he issued a lengthy addross 
to the citizens, in which he recapitulated the leading measures of his 
administration, demonstrated the many great advantages which had re- 
sulted from the reestablishment of the Federal authority, and exhorted 
them all to return fully to their allegiance as the only means of obtaining 
peace and lasting prosperity to their city. 

On the same day a proclamation was ihsued by General Banks of a pa- 
triotic and conciliatory tone. The commencement of General Banks's 
administration was marked by a leniency which sjemed to indicate that 
the severity which General Butler had thought it necessary to exercise 
was either distasteful to the new commander, or contrary to the policy of 
the Government. Many political prisoners were released, and other len- 
ient measures adopted towards obstinate rebels, which only resulted in 
the abuse of his clemency, and the manifestation of a turbulent spiiit 
and disloyal conduct on the part of rebellious citizens. It soon became 
evident that General Banks did not possess the ability to govern a con- 
quered city with that ease and tact which had been evinced by his pre- 
decessor ; and during his whole administration he was subjected to op- 
position and constant annoyance from a class of civilians upon whom tlie 
more bold and energetic measures of his predecessor had always been 
sufficiently potent to restrain them from direct conflict with him. 

Previous to the arrival of General Banks at New Orleans, he had 
been for two months engaged in organizing a military and naval force to 
accompany him, which was designed, in the first place, to cooperate with 
the forces of General Grant and Admiral Porter in the reduction of Port 
Hudson and Yicksburg, in order to open the Mississippi river to the 
free passage of the Federal gunboats. This accomplished, a movement 
on Texas was contemplated, which Slate was now contribuiiug largely 


bj her trade on the Moxicau border, and lur contributions of anny sub. 
siatence, to sustain the rebellion. 

No military events of importance occurred in Louisiana until the mid- 
dle of March, 18(33, excepting a small expedition up the Tcche river by 
the gunboats, in which Commander Buchanan of the Calhoun was killed. 
During the first weeks in March General Banks had concentrated his 
army at Baton llouge, amounting to nearly twenty-five thousand men. 
The naval forces on the lower Mississippi were under the command of 
Admiral Farragut. 

Fort Hudson, or Hickey's Landing, as it was called some years ago, 
is situated on a bend in the Mississippi river, about twenty-two miles 
above Baton llouge, and one hundred and forty-seven above New Or- 
leans. Approaching Port Huddon by water from below, the first batter- 
ies were situated on a bluff about forty feet above high water mark. 

On the night of 14— 15th March, Admiral Farragut passed the rebel 
batteries at Port Hudson with his flagship, the Hartford, and the Alba- 
tross. He attacked the forts with his entire fleet, but all but the two 
vessels above named were repulsed, and the Mississippi, having ground- 
ed, was set on fire and abandoned. A graphic description of this event 
is given by a correspondent of the New York Herald, on board the Rich- 
mond, from which we subjoin the following coadeused account, written 
at the time : 

" The rebel batteries extend about four miles in length, with a gap 
here and there between. Below, just before the high bluff" begins, a 
very large number of field batteries were placed in pos'tion. These 
batteries are by no means to be despised ; fur in such a narrow part of 
the river they are just as effective as siege guns, especially as they can 
be handled with far greater facility than ordnance of larger size. Pro- 
ceeding upward, the regular fortifications commence. They seem to 
consist of three distinct ranges of batteries, numbering several in each 
range. It does not seem, however, that either of them mounts <'uns of 
very large calibre. The river now begins to trend to the west, forming 
a faint representation of a horseshoe, in the hollow of which the tow.i of 
Port Hudson is situated. It is right in that hollow, and just below the 
town, that the most formidable battery — the central one — is situated, on 
the highest bluff. Four heavy guns appear to be mounted there in case- 
mates. I say appear, because the flashes from these guns revealed noth- 
ing ; but the flame from the muzzles showed that all beyond was in ob- 
scurity — precisely as would be the case with guns in casemate. The 
other guns, en barbette, or peering through open embrasures, revealed, 
when fired, something of the lay of the land behind and around, thouf^h 
but for a moment. Above the town are other batteries, only less formi- 
dable than those just below. Beyond these the high bluffs gradually 


subside into the general level of the surrounding country. Right oppo- 
site the principal batteries, on the right bunk of the river, is ilie point 
of land un which the Mississippi grounded, in consequence of which she 
had to be set on fire and destroyed." 

After describing the first shots from the Hartford, which were prompt- 
ly returned by the rebel batteries, the correspoudeut thus describes the 
mortars opening fire : 

" And now was heard a thundering roar, equal in volume to a whole 
park uf artillery. This was followed by a rushing sound, accompanied 
by a howling noise that beggars description. Again and again was the 
sound repeated, till the vast expanse of heaven rang with the awful min- 
strelsy. It was apparent that the mortar-boats had opened fire. Of this 
1 was soon convinced on casting my eyes aloft. Never shall I forget 
the sight that then met my astonished viiion. Shooting upward at au 
angle of forty -five degrees, with the rapidity of lightning, small globes 
of golden flame were seen sailing through the pure ether — not a steady, 
unfading flame, but corruscating, like the fitful gleam of a fire-fly, now 
visible, and anon invisible. Like a flying star of the sixth magnitude, 
the terrible missile — a 13-inch shell — nears its zenith, up and still uji — 
higher and still higher. Its flight now becomes much slower, till, on 
reaching its utmost altitude, its centrifugal force becomes counteracted 
by the earth's attraction ; it describes a parabolic curve, and down, down 
it comes, bursting, it may be, ere it reaches terra Jirma, but probably 
alighting in the rebel works ere it explodes, where it scatters death and 
destruction around. 

" The Richmond had by this time got within range of the rebel field 
batteries, which opened fire on her. I had all along thought that we 
Would open fire from our bow guns, on the topgallant forecastle, and 
that, after discharging a few broadsides from the starboard side, the ac- 
tion would be wound up by a parting compliment from our stern chasers. 
To my surprise, however, we opened at once from our broadside guns. 
The elTect was startling, as the sound was unexpected ; but beyond this 
I really experienced no inconvenience from the concussion. There was 
nothing unpleasant to the ear, and the jar to the ship was really quite 
unappreciable. It may interest the uninitiated to be informed hov/ a 
broadside is fired from a vessel-of-war. I was told on board the Piich- 
mond that all the guns were sometimes fired off simultaneously, though 
it is not a very usual course, as it strains the ship. Last night the 
broadsides were fired by commencing at the forward gun, and firing all 
the rest off" in rapid succession, as fast almost as the ticking of a watch. 
The efi'ect was grand and terrific ; and, if the guns were rightly pointed 
— a difficult thing in the dark, by-the-way — they could not fail in carry- 
ing death and destruction among the enemy. 


" Of course wc did not have everything our own way ; for the onora)' 
poured in his shot and shell as thick as hail. Over, ahead, astern, all 
around us, flow the death-dealini,' missiles, the hissing, screaming, whist- 
ling, shrieking, and howling of which rivaled Pandemonium. It must not 
he supposed, however, that because our broadside guns were the tools 
we principally worked with, our bow and s^ern chasers were idle. Wo 
soon opened v/ith our bow eighty-pounder Dahlgren, which was followed up 
not long after by the guns astern, giving evidence to the fact that we had 
pa'^sed some of the batteries. 

" Soon after firing was heard astern of us, and it was soon ascertained 
that the Monongahela, with her consort, the Kirieo, and the Mississippi 
were in action. The Monongahela carries a couple of two-hundred- 
pounder rifled Parrot guns. The roar of cannon was incessant, and the 
flashes from the guns, together with the flight of the shells from the mor- 
tar boats, made up a combination of sound and sight impossible to de- 
scribe. To add to the horrors of the night, while it contributed toward 
tlie enhnncemcnt of a certain terrible beauty, dense clouds of smoke 
Logan to envelop the river, shutting out from view the several vessels and 
confounding them with the batteries. It was very difficult to know how 
to steer to prevent running ashore, perhaps right under a rebel battery 
or into a consort. Upward and upward rolled the smoke, shutting out of 
view the beautiful stars and obscuring the vision on every side. Then it 
was that the order was passed, * Boys, don't fire till you see the flash from 
the enemy's guns' That was our only guide through the ' palpable 
obscurity.' Intermingled with the boom of the cannonade arose the cries 
of the wounded and the shouts of their friends, suggesting that they should 
be taken below for treatment. So thick was the smoke that we had to 
cease firing several times, and to add to the horrors of the night, it was 
nest to impossible to tell whether we were running into the Hartford or 
going ashore, and, if the latter, on which bank, or whether some of the 
other vessels were about to run into us or into each other. All this time 
the fire was was kept up on both sides incessantly. 

" ' Muzzle to muzzle.' This phrase is familiar to most persons who 
have read accounts of sea-fights that took place about fifty years ac'O ; but 
it is difficult for the uninitiated to realize all the horrors conveyed in 
these three words. For the first time I had, last night, an opportunity 
of knowing what the phrase really meant. The central battery is situ- 
ted about the middle of the segment of a circle I have already compared 
to a horseshoe in shape, though it may be better understood by the tenn 
' crescent.' This battery stands on a bluff so high that a vessel in pass- 
ing immediately underneath cannot elevate her guns sufficiently to reach 
those on the battery ; neither can tie guns on the battery be sufficiently 
depressed to bear on the passing ship. In this position the rebel batte- 


rics on the two bonis of the crescent can enfilade the passing vessel, pour- 
ing in a terrible cross-fire, which the vessel can return, though at a great 
disadvantage, from her bow and stern chasers. We fully realized this 
la:5t night ; f .r, as we got within short range, the enemy poured into us a 
terrible fire of grape and canister, which we were not slow to return — 
our guns being double-shotted, each with a stand of both grape and can- 
ister. Every vessel in its turn was exposed to the same fiery ordeal on 
nearlng the centre battery, and right promptly did their gallant tars return 
the complimont. This was the hottest part of the engagement. We 
were literally muzzle to muzzle, the distance between us and the enemy's 
guns being not more than twenty yards, though to me it seemed to be 
only as many feet. 

" Matters had gone on in this way for nearly an hour and a half — the 
first gun having been fired at about half past eleven o'clock — when, to my 
astonishment, I heard some shells whistling over our port side. Did the 
rebels have batteries on the right bank of the river ? was the query 
that naturally suggested itself to me. To this the response was given 
that we had turned back. I soon discovered that it was too true. Our 
return was, of course, more rapid than our passage up. The rebels did 
not molest us much, and I do not believe one of their shots took effect 
while we were running down rapidly with the current. It was a melan- 
choly affair, for we did not know but what the whole expedition was a 
failure ; neither could we tell whether any of our vessels had been de- 
stroyed, nor how many. We had the satisfaction of learning soon after- 
ward, however, that the Hartford and Albatross had succeeded in round- 
ing the point above the batteries. All the rest were compelled to return. 
As I passed the machinery of the ves.sel, on my way forward, I was shown 
a large hole that had been made by an eighty-pounder solid conical .shell, 
which had passed through the hull of the ship, damaging the machinery 
SO as to compel us to return." 

During the naval combat. General Banks marched three divisions of 
his army from Baton Kouge, to a point within seven miles of Port Hud- 
son, where after engaging in a skirmish with the enemy, with trifling loss, 
they returned to their starting point. Being unprepared as yet to under- 
take the capture of Port Hudson, General Banks now turned his atten- 
tion to that portion of the State west of New Orleans, and bordering on 
the Teche river. This diversion, it was afterward discovered, would 
have been made unnecessary, had General Banks possessed the means of 
learning the exact force of the rebels at Purt Hudson, which was by no 
means so formidable as he had reason for believing. 

The Teche river is a tortuous stream rising in St. Landry parish, and 
flowing southwardly. On its bank are the towns of Franklin, Martinsville, 
and Opelousas. General Weitzel had previously made an unsuccessful ex- 


peJition up that river, and to guard against further invasion a considera- 
ble rebel force was now posted in that region, and heavy earthwurks were 
thrown up in the vicinity of P.itcrsonville. The district of country bor- 
dering on the Teclie, comprised the parishes of Terrebonno, Lafourche, 
A-suniption, St. Miry, and St. .Martin, rich in au'ricukuial wealth, and 
having a large slave population. This district iiad furuishad valuable 
supplies to the rebel army. 


ApitiL l;3-20, 1803. 

General Banks having concentrated his forces at Brashcar, General 
Weitzel's brigade was crossed over to Ber^vick on the 10th of April, with- 
out opposition, followed on the succecLling day by General Emory's divi- 
sion, and both commands advanced upon the fortified position a few miles 
a!)ove Pattcrsonville. On the loth, there was considerable artillery 
filing, in which the gunboat Diana, a late Federal capture, took active 
]iart. On the 12th, the division of General Grover left Erashear on 
t!ie gunboats Clifton, Estrclla, Arizona, and Calhoun, and transports, 
and proceeded up the Atchafalaya river, which joins the Teche at 
Berwick City, into Lake Clietiiaacha. The object was to get into the rear 
of the enemy, and if possible cut off his retreat if he evacuated his posi- 
tion, or to assail him in rear at the time of the attack in front. The 
expedition effected a landing early the next morning, about three miles 
west uf Franklin, near a spot called Irish Bend. At this time, the gun- 
boat Queen of the West, which had been captured previously by the 
enemy, was blown up and destroyed on the lake. Skirmishing imme- 
diately ensued with a small force of the enemy, that fell back as General 
Grover advanced. His position was about eleven miles distant from 
General Banks. 


Ai'iui. l:J, 1833. 

A corrt^spondent in the army thus describes this battle : 
" About seven o'clock a. m., the advance reached the cd^'O of a den?e- 
line of woods near what is known as Irisli Bend (a sharp bend of the 
Teche), about eleven miles distint from the rebel earthworks, where 
General Banks was engaging the enemy. Here our f)rce was met by a 
strong one of the rebels, in position, from the banJL* of the Teche, across 


the front and right flank uf General Grrover's division. Tlio enemy was 
strongly posted at this point, tluir right flank supported by artillery, and 
their left extending round into another woud, iu such a manner as to 
completely encircle any force which should simply attack their position 
in the wood first spoken of. 

" Colonel Birgc, of the Third Brigade, of General Grover's division, at 
this time in command of the advance, and supported by two sections of 
Rogers's battery, now skirmished with the rebels in front for about an 
hour, our skirmishers and their supports engaging the infantry and dis- 
mounted cavalry of the encraj'. Colonel Birge then ordered the Twenty- 
fifth Connecticut and One Hundred and Fifty-ninth New York in front 
of the first skirt of woods. He had no sooner done this than the enemy 
commenced a flank attack, endeavoring to take the section of Rogers's 
battery which was on the right. These two regiments, assailed by a fire 
on their front and right from an enemy very perfectly concealed, replied 
inefi"ectually to the tire, became shaken, and finally commenced to fall 
back, when General Grover rode up to the front and rallied them, at the 
same time ordering General Dwight to hasten up with his brigade. Tlic 
section of Rogers's battery was compelled to limber up and go to the rear, 
the fire of the enemy being so lively as to pick off nine cannon iers at 
their guns. 

" At this time General Dwight moved on the field with his brigade, and 
placed the Sixth New York on his right, in such a manner as to outflank 
the enemy's left, in a similar way that the enemy had outflanked our right. 
The Ninety-first New York was ordered in front to advance against the 
woods, with the First Louisiana supporting the Sixth New York, 
and the Twenty-second Maine and One Hundred and Thirty-first New 
York in support of the Ninety-first New York. 

" The order to advance was given, and like veterans they moved 
forward across the field, through the woods, and over another field, the 
enemy slowly but surely falling back before them ; sweeping on, taking 
from him all his positions, and finally compelling him to so hasty 
a retreat that he left over one hundred prisoners in our hands. Then 
the position which Colonel Birge's brigade failed to take, with a loss of 
something over three hundred men, was taken by General Dwight, with a 
loss of only seven killed and twenty-one wounded. 

" General Dwight was now ordered to halt, take a favorable position, 
and hold it. This was done, the enemy continuing to manoeuvre in front 
of General Dwight's and Colonel Birge's commands, for two or threa 

" Our troops in the mean time, had been ordered by General Grover 
to rest in their places until further orders, which they did until about 


tlirGc P. M,, \7h0n an or.lcr was given to foci the enemy on the front and 
fiank, with a view to our attacking their position in force. 

" IJefore any considerable advance further was made the enemy evac- 
uated, retreating to the woods and canes, having previously set lire to 
t!ie g;inboat Diana, and transports Gossamer, Newsboy, and Era No. 2. 
Tlicy were signally repulsed, with a loss of from three to four hundred. 
On the field of battle, one hundred and fifty prisoners were taken, and 
thirty wounded. 

" Among the killed is General Uiley, and amung the wounded. Colonel 

This success of General Grovcr was followed by the evacuation of the 
works before General Banks. Early on Tuesday, the 15^1i, the cavalry 
and artillery, followed by General Weitzel's brigade, with Colonel 
Ingram's force of General Emory's division, as a support, followed the 
enemy. So rapid was the pursuit that the enemy was unable to remove 
their transjjurts at New Iboria, and five, with all the commissary stores 
and ammnuition with which they were loaded, were destroyed at 
that place, together with an incumplete iron clad gunboat. On Thursday 
the army reached New Iberia. A foundry for the manufacture of cannou 
and other munitions of war was immediately taken possession of, ani a 
similar one had been seized two days before at Franklin. Two r !gi- 
nieuts were also sent to destroy the to^ls and machinery at the celebrated 
salt mine of the town. Thus far about fifteen hundred prisoners had been 
captured, and more than five hundred horses, mules, and beoi:' cattle 
taken from the plantations. The Federal loss was small. The entire 
force of the en my was about ten thousand men. 

On the next day, the 17th, the army moved forwaid, but General 
Grover, who had marched from New Iberia by a shorter road, and thus 
gained the advance, met the enemy at Bayou Vermilion. Their force 
consisted of a considerable number of cavalry, one thousand infantry 
and six pieces of artillery, massed in a strong position on the opposite 
bank. They were immediately attacked and driven from their position 
but not until they had succeeded in destroying by fire the bridge across 
the river. The night of the 17th and the next day was passed in 
rebuilding the bridge. On the 19th, the march was resumed, and con- 
tinued to the vicinity of Grand Coteau ; and on the next day the main 
force of General Banks occupied Opelousas. At the same time, the cav- 
alry, supported by a regiment of infantry and a section of artillery, were 
thrown forward six miles to Washington, on the Courtableau. On the 
21sr, no movement was made, but on the next day, Brigadier-Geneial 
Dvvight, of General Grover's division, with detachments of artillery and 
cavalry, was pushed forward through Washington toward Alexandria. 
lie iouuJ the bridges over ihe Cucodrie and Boeuf destroyed, and daring 

318 THIO WAR FOR TH !•: FN >V. 

the evening and night replaced flicm by a single bridge at the junction 
of the bayous. Orders were also found there from General Moore 
to General Taylor, in command of the Confederate force, directing 
liim to retreat slowly to Alexandria, and, if pressed, to retire to Texas. 

]}iite a la-Rose, with its garrison of sixty men, two heavy guns, and a 
large quantity of ammunition, was captured by General Banks. The 
result of the expedition thus far is thus stated by General Banks : " "We 
Lave destroyed the enemy's army and navy, and made their reorganiza- 
tion impossible by destroying or removing the material. We hold the key 
of the position Among the evidences of our victory are two thous^md 
prisoners, two transports, and twenty guns taken, and three gunboats 
and eight transports destroyed." The Federal loss in the land battle was 
six or seven hundred. 

Admiral Porter took poss'''ssion of Alexandria on the 6tii of May, with- 
out opposition, and General Banks established his headquarters at that 
place on the day roHowiMg. This town is situated on the Red river, one 
hundrt'd and fifty miles from its mouth. Admiral Porter thus describes 
his operations at this time in a dispatch to Secretary Welles, dated 
May 13 : 

•* SiK. : T had the honor to inform you from Alexandria of the capture of 
that place, and tlie forts defending the approaches to the city, by tlio 
naval forces under my command. Twenty-four hours after we ariived 
the advance guard of United States troops came into the city. Geneml 
Bunks arriving ?oon after, I turned the place over to his keeping. The 
water beginning to fa' 1, I deemed it prudent to return with the largest; 
vessels to the mouth of the Red river. 1 dropped down to Fort de Russe 
in the Benton, and undertook to destroy these works. I only succeeded 
however, in destroying the three heavy casemates commanding the 
chaniiel and a small water battery for two guns. About six hundred 
yards behjw it I destroyed by bursting one heavy thirty-two pounder and 
some gun carriage.; left in their hurry by the enemy. 

•• The main fort, on a hill some nine hundred yards from the water, I was 
unable to attend to. It is quite an extensive work, new and incomplete, 
but built with much labor and pains. It will take two or three vessels to 
pull it to pieces. I have not the powder to spare to blow it up. The 
vessels will be ordered to work on it occasionally, and it will be soon 
destroyed. In this last-mentioned fort was mounted the 11-inch gun, 
■which I am led to believe lies in the middle of the river, near the fort, the 
rebels throwing it overboard in their panic at the approach of our gun- 
boats. The raft which closed the entrance I have blown up, sawed in 
two, and presented to the poor of the neighborhood. I sent Commander 
"Woodworth in the Price, with the Switzerland, Pittsburg, and Arizona, 


up Elact river to make a reconnoissance, aud he destroyed a large amount 
oi stores, valued at three hundred thousand dollars, cousi&taig of salt, 
Eugar, rum, molasses, tobacco, and bacon. 

(Signed) DAVID D. PORTER, 

Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

General Banks now concentrated his troops at Simmesport, preparatory 
to an advance on Port Hudson. 

Minor expeditions were meanwhile taking place in other districts of 
the department. A brigade under General Nickerson advanced to the 
neighborhood of Lake Pontchartrain, destroying some valuable property, 
and capturing a few prisoners. A portion of General Auger's division 
penetrated to a point on the railroad between Clinton and Port Hudson, 
where they encountered and routed a Confederate force, killing five and 
capturing twenty-five. Colonel Grierson was also successful in au 
expedition near Port Hudson, capturing three hundred head of cattle. 

Admiral Farragut now in command of the fleet, was preparing to assist 
in the attack on Port Hudson. General Banks's artny advanced about 
the middle of May from Baton Rouge to Port Hudson, portions of his 
army on either bank of the Mississippi, and a part being forwarded on 

On the 21st of May General Banks lauded, and on the next day a 
junction was effected with the advance of Majur-General Au<^ur and 
Brigadier-General Sherman. His line occupied the Bayou Sara road. 
On this nmd General Augur had an encounter with a force of the ene- 
my, which resulted in their repulse with heavy loss. On tlie 25th the 
enemy was compelled to abandon his first line of works. On the next 
day General Weitzel's brigade, which had covered the rear in the 
march from Alexandria, arrived, and on the morning of the 27th a gen- 
eral assault was made on the fortifications. 

Three scries of batteries extended along the river above Port Hudson 
to a point on Thompson's creek, making a continuous line about three 
and a half miles in extent. Above Thompson's creek is an impassable 
marsh, forming a natural defence. From the lower battery began a line 
of land fortifications, of semi-circular form, about ten miles in extent, 
with Thompson's Creek for its natural terminus above. 

May 27, 18)3. 

It having been understood that a grand and simultaneous attnck from 
every part of the lines encircling Port Hudson was to be made on Wed- 
nesday, the 27th, General Augur, as early as 6 a. m. of that day, com- 


menced a heavy cannonade upon the works, which continued incessantly 
until 2 o'clock, p. m. 

At 10 o'clock, General Weitzel's brigade, with the division of General 
Grover — reduced to about two briiiades — and the division of General 
Emory, temporarily reduced by detachments to about a brigade, under 
command of Colonel Paine, with two regiments of colored troops, made 
an assault upon the right of the enemy's works, crossing Sandy creek, 
and driving them through the woods into their fortifications. The fight 
lasted on this line until 4 o'clock, and was very severely contested. 
Brigadier-General Sherman, who intended to commence his assault 
at the same time on the leff, had his troops in readiness. 

General Augur's assaulting forces consisted only of Colonel E. P. 
Chapin's brigade, viz., the Forty-eighth Massachusetts, led by Lieuten- 
ant-colonel O'Brien ; the Forty-ninth Massachusetts, by Colonel F. W. 
Bartlett; the One Hundred and Sixteenth New York, led by Major 
Love ; and the Twenty-first Maine, by Colonel Johnson ; also two regi- 
ments of Colonel Dudley's brigade, called up from the right, viz, the 
Second Louisiana, under Colonel Paine ; and parts of the Fiftieth Mas- 
sachusetts, under Colonel Messer. 

Before commencing the assault Captain ITolcomb's VermoTit battery 
played upon the works to draw their fire, which he did very effectively ; 
and then the order for the assault was given. A number of brave fel- 
lows from each regiment had volunteered to go in advance with the fas- 
cines, for the purpose of making a roadway through the moat ; these 
were immediately followed by others who had volunteered to form the 
assaulting party ; and after them the various regiments with their col- 
onels, all under the immediate direction of Major General Augur. 

The scene that presented itself to the view as the devoted men 
emerged from the wood was really appalling. Between them and the 
fortifications to be assaulted lay an immense open space, at least a mile 
in length, from right to left, and at least half a mile in depth from the 
edge of the wood. This space was originally a dense forest, but the reb- 
els had ingeniously felled the trees, leaving the huije branches to inter- 
lace each other, and forming, with the thick brushwood underneath, a 
barrier all but impassable. 

It was enough to daunt the stoutest hearts ; but the order had been 
given that Port Hudson must be taken that day, and the brave men 

In so horrible a place, where men could scarcely keep their footinf', 
and were sinking at every step up to their arm-pits, and tumbling along 
as best they could wit,h their muskets and fascines through the i:ii[iene- 
irable rubbish — the enemy all the while blazing away at them with 


grape, shell, and canister — the result may easily be imagined. It was 
wholesale slaughter. 

But it was cheering to see the heroism and endurance of the men. 
Onward they went — the old flag slrcaiiiing proudly above them (the fas- 
cine-bearers falling in every direction) — until they actually, many of 
them, fought their way through the half mile of tangled rubbish 
to the narrow open space between it and the breastworks, where, as a 
matter of course, the gallant fellows perished. The unequal contest 
lasted from 3 p. m. to 5 p. M , when General Augur, finding it utterly 
impossible to carrj out the instructions he had received, withdrew liis 
men in perfect order — returning shot for shot as they got back to the 

A vigorous bombardment of the position had been made by Admiral 
Farragut for a week previous to this assault; and reconnoissances had 
discovered pretty accurately the nature of these formiJublc defences. 

June 14, 18G3. 

After a bombardment of several days, another assault on Port Hud- 
son was made on the above date. General Banks deemed it necessary 
on this occasion to change the position of his troops, and they now formed 
a right and left wing, without the customary centre, and were joined in 
the form of a riirht angle. The division of General Grover, on the up- 
per side of Port Hudson, extended a distance of nearly four miles from 
the river, toward the interior, within supporting distance of General Au- 
gur's division, which was on the west side of the fortifications, and ex- 
tended a distance of three miles to the river, within hailing distance of 
the fleet. The defences of the enemy formed nearly a right angle, both 
lines of which extended to the river, and enclosed a sharp bend. The 
point of attack was the extreme north-eastern angle of the enemy's po- 

Several of their pieces had been dismounted at this point by the in- 
cessant bombardment of the previous days, while the Federal sharp- 
shooters were able to render dangerous any attempt to work the artillery 
in position. Two regiments of sharpshooters were detailed to creep up 
to and lie on the exterior slope of the enemy's breastworks, while another 
reiriment, each soldier having a hand-grenade besides his musket, fol- 
lowed. Another regiment followed with bags filled with cotton, which 
were to be used to fill up the ditch in front of the breastworks. The 
remaining regiments of General Weitzel's brigade succeeded, supported 


\v\n FOR THE [Txro.v. 

b\' tho briiiradcs of Colonel Kimball and Coloriel Morgan. These forces, 
all under General Woitzol, con.stituttid the right of attack. 

On the loft General Paine's division constituted a separate column. 
The whole comninnd was under General Grovor, who planned the atta'^lc. 

It was expected that General Weitzcl's cominand would make a lodg- 
ment within the enemy's works, and thus prepare the way for General 
Paine's division. 

The advance was made about daylight, through a covered way, to with- 
in three hundred yards of the enemy's position ; then their progress was 
retarded by deep gulleys, covered with bush and creeping vines. Undor 
an incessant fire from the enemy, a part of the skirmishers reached tho 
ditch, where they were met with an enfilading fire, and hurled back, while 
their hand-grenades were caught up by the enemy and thrown back again 
into the Union ranks. The assaulting column moved on as rapidly as 
possible, and made several gallant and desperate attempts on the enemy's 
works, but found them fully prepared at all points, and every part of 
their fortifications lined with dense masses of infantry. At length the 
assaulting columns wore compelled to fall back under the deadly fire of 
the enemy, and the fighting finally ceased at eleven o'clock in the morn- 
ing. General Banks's loss was nearly seven hundred in killed and 

Meantime the first parallel encircling the outer line of the rebel de- 
fences was pushed forward, and the skirmishers were posted in rifle-pits 
so near that skirmishes were of constant occurrence at niijht. 

The withdrawal of General Banks's force from the west side of th6 
Mississippi was followed by great activity on the part of tho enemy, for 
the purpose of recovering the places held by small bodies of Federal 
troops, and to cause a diversion from Port Hudson. Opelousas was ro- 
occupied by a considerable Confederate force ; and the west bank of the 
Mississippi was lined with squads of the rebels, who fired on every boat 
which passed. On the 17tli of June, an attack was made on the Federal 
pickets at La Fourche, which was repulsed. On the 23d, Brashear City 
was captured by a Confederate force under Generals Green and Morton. 
A camp of contrabands, was attacked by the enemy, and large numbers 
killed. Immense quantities of ammunition, several pieces of artillery, 
three hundred thousand dollars' worth of sutler's goods, sugar, flour, 
pork, beef, and medical stores, of vast amount, were also captured. On 
the 28th, an attack was made on Donaldsonville, and the stoi-ming party 
gucceeded in getting into the fort. But the gunboats opened a flanking 
fire above and below the fort, and drove back the supporting party, so 
that the enemy broke and fled. Of those who had entered the fort, one 
hundred and twenty were captured and nearly one hundred killed. 


Other raovoments on the part of the enemy were made at this time, 
which indicated groat activity, and enabled them to destroy much Federal 
property. No embarrassment liowcver was caused to the position of 
General Banks. The enemy, in short, recovered the La Fourche, Toehe, 
Attakapas, and Opolousas country, and captured Brashcar, with fifteen 
liandred prisoners, a large number of slaves, and nearly all the confiscated 

After the two attempts to reduce Port Hudson by a land assault, on 
the 27th of jMa_y and the 14th of June, the purpose to make another was 
given up General Banks, until he had fully invested the place by a series 
of irresistible approaches. He was thus engaged in pushing forward liis 
wuks when Vicksburg was surrendered. Information of this surrender 
was sent to General Banks, and it was the occasion for firing salutes and 
a general excitement in his camp, which attracted the attention of the 
enomy, to whom the surrender was communicated. General Gardner, 
u;iou receiving the information, sent by flig of truce, about midnight of 
the 7th, the following note to General Banks : 

" Headquarters, Port Hudson, La., July 7th, 1863. 

" To Major-General Banks, commanding United States forces near Port 
Hudson : 

" General: Having received information from your troops that Vicks- 
burg has been surrendered, I make this communication to request you 
to give me the official assurance whether this is true or not, and if true, 
I a^k for a cessation of hostilities, with a view to the consideration of 
terms for surrendering this position. 

" I am. General, very respectfully, Your obedient servant, 

FRANK GARDNER, Major-General." 

To which General Banks thus replie I 

" Headquarters, Department of the Gulf, ) 
BEFORE Port Hudson, July 8th, 1803. \ 
" To jMajor-General Frank Gardner, commanding C. S. forces. Port 
Hudson : 

" General: In reply to your communication, dated the 7th instant, by 
fiag of trace, received a few moments since, I have the honor to inform 
you that I received, yesterday morning, July 7th, at 10 45, by the gun- 
boat General Price, an official despatch from Major-General Ulysses S. 
Grant, United States Army, whereof the following is a true extract : 
" ' Headquarters, Department of the Tennessee, ) 
near Yicksburg^, July 4tli, 18*33. j 
"'Major-General N. P. Banks, commanding Department of the Gulf: 
" * General : The garrison of Vicksburg surrendered this morning. 
The number of prisoners, as given by the officer, is twenty-seven thou- 

324 Tin-: war for the union. 

saud, field artillery one hundrtiJ and twent3'-oight pieces, and a large 
number of siege gan>, probably not less than eighty. 

" ' Your obedient servant, U. S. Grant Mnjor-Gcneral.' 

"T regret to say, that under present circumstances, I cannot, consistently 
with my duty, consent to a cessation of hostilities for the purpose you 
indicate. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

N. P. BANKS." 

The following further correspondence then took place : 

" Port Hudson July 8th, 1863. 

" General : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your ccm- 
nmnication of this date, giving a copy of an official communication from 
Major-General U. S. Grant, United States Army, announcing the sur- 
render of Vicksburg. 

" Having defended this position as long as I deem my duty requires, I 
am willing to surrender to you, and will appoint a commission of three 
officers to meet a similar commission appointed by yourself, at nine o'clock 
this morning, for the purpose of agreeing up')n and drawing up the terms 
of the surrender, and for that purpose I ask for a cessation of hostilities. 

■' Will you please to designate a point outside of my breastworks, where 
the meeting shall be held for this purpose ? 

" I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

FRANK GARDNER, Commanding C. S. Forces." 

" Headquarters. U. S. Forces, before ) 
Port Hudson, July 8th, 1863. ] 

" To i\Iajor General Frank Gardner, commanding Confederate States 
forces. Port Hudson : 

" General : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your com- 
munication of this date, stating that you are willing to surrender the gar- 
rison under your command to the forces under my command, and that you 
will appoint a commission of three officers to meet a similar commission 
appointed by me, at nine o'clock this morning, for the purpose of agreeing 
upon and drawing up the terms of the surrender. 

" In reply, I have the honor to state that I have designated Brigadier 
General ("harlos P. Stone, Colonel Henry W Birge, and Lieutenant-Col- 
onel Richard B. Irwin, as the officers to meet the commission appointed 
by you. 

" They will meet your officers at the hour designated, at a point where 
the flag of truce was received this morning. I will direct that active 
hostilities shall entirely cease on my part until further notice, for the 
purpose stated. 

" Very respectfully, your most obedient servant, 

"N. P. BANKS, M:ijur General Commanding." 




THE NEW y""" 



The following are the iirtiolcs of capitulation mutually agreed upou and 
adopted : 

Art. 1 Major-Gcnei al Frank Gardner surrenders to the United States 
forces under Major-General Banks, the place of Port Hudson and its de- 
jiendencies, with its garrison, armaments, munitions, public funds, and 
materials of war, in the condition, as nearly as may be, in which they 
were at tlie hour of ccs.-iation of hostilities, namely, 6 o'clock a. m., July 
8, 1803. 

Art. 2. The surrender stipulated in article one is qualified by no 
condition, save that the officers and enlisted men comprising the garrison 
shall rectnve the treatment due to prisoners of war, according to the 
usages of civilized warfare. 

Art. o. All private property of officers and enlisted men shall be 
respected, and left to their respective owners. 

Art. 4. The position of Port Hudson shall be occupied to-morrow, at 
7 o'clock A. M., by the forces of the United States, and its garrison receiv- 
ed as prisoners of war by such general officers of the United States ser- 
vice as may be designated by Major-General Banks, with the ordinary 
formalities of rendition. The Confederate troops will be drawn up in line, 
officers in their positions, the right of the line resting on the edge of the 
prairie south of the railroad depot ; the left extending in the direction of 
the village of Port Hudson. The arms and colors will be piled conve- 
niently, and will be received by the officers of the United States. 

Art. 5. The sick and wounded of the garrison will be cared for by the 
authorities of the United States, assisted if desireil by either party, by 
the medical officers of the garrison. 

The formal surrender was made on the 9th of July. General Andrews, 
Chicf-of-Staff of General Banks, with Colonel Birge leading his column, 
followed by two picked regiments from each division, with Holcombe's and 
Howie's batteries of light artillery, and the gunners of the naval battery, 
entered the fortifications. The enemy were drawn up in line, with their 
officers in front of them, on one side of the road, with their backs to the 
river. The Federal troops were drawn up in two lines on the opposite 
side of the road, with their officers in front of them. General Gardner 
then advanced, and offi^red to surrender his sword with Port Hudson. 
In appreciation of his bravery, he was desired to retain it. He then said : 
" General, I will now formally surrender my command to you, and for 
that purpose will give the order to ground arms." The order was given, 
and the arms grounded. The surrender comprised, besides the position, 
more than six thousand two hundred and thirty-three prisoners, fifty-one 
pieces of artillery, two steamers, four thousand four* hundred pounds oi: 
cannon powder, five thousand small arms, and one hundred and fifty 
thousand rounds of ammuuitiun. The loss of General Banks from the 


twenty-tliird to the thirtieth of May was about one thousand. The vil- 
lage of Port Hudson consisted of a few houses and a small church, which 
had been nearly destroyed by the cannonade. The wounded and sick of 
the garrison sufi'ered most from want of medical stores. The provis- 
ions of the garrison were nearly exhausted. 

A short period of inactivity succeeded the heavy campaign of General 
Banks's army, which culminated in the capture of Port Hudson, on the 9th 
of July, I8G0. But the plans of the commanding otiicers were maturing 
for new expeditions, in more remote regions, where the flag of rebellion 
was still floating defiantly, and where the machinations of European 
powers w^ere striving covertly to give aid to the Confederate cause, and 
to establish an unfriendly Government on the Federal confines, if not on 
American soil. 

B,ear-Adnii!:il David D. Porter arrived at New Orleans on the 1st of 
August, 1803, and resumed command of the gunboats on the Mis.-^issippi. 
About the same time Major-Gcneral Franklin, formerly a corps command- 
er iu the Army of the Potomac, arrived at the same place, and reported 
for duty. 

A naval expedition to the m Mith of the Subine river, in Texas, was un- 
dertaken by General Banks, who dispatched General Franklin with four 
thousand men in four army transports, to capture the forts at Sabine 
Pass, at the mouth of the river, which forms the boundary line between 
Texas and Louisiana. The armed steamers employed were the Clifton, 
Sachem, Arizonn, and Granite City, and the naval forces were commanded 
by Lieutenant Crocker. 

Early on the morning of September 8th, the Clifton stood in the bay and 
opened on the fort, to which no reply was made. At 9 a. m. the Sachem, 
Arizona, and Granite City, followed by the transports, stood over the bar, 
and, with much difficulty, owing to the low waier, reached an anchorage 
about two miles from the fort at 11 a. m. Ai out the middle of the after- 
noon the Sachem, followed by the Arizona, advanced up the eastern 
channel to draw the fire of the forts, while the Clifton advanced up the 
western channel. The Granite City remained to cover the landing of a 
division of troops under General Weitzel. No reply was made to the fire 
of the gunboats until they were abreast of the torts, when eight guna 
opened fire upon them. Three of these were rifled. Aim ist a-, the same 
moment the Clifton and Sachem were struck in their boilers and both 
vessels enveloped in steam. The Arizona, not having room to pass the 
Sachem, then backed down the channel until she grounded by the stern, 
when the ebb-tide caught her bows and swung her across the channel. 
White flags were raised on the Clifton and Sachem, and within twenty 
minutes they were taken in tow by the enemy. The naval force of the 


expedition being thus disabled, the transports moved out of the bay. 
Tlic Arizona was got afloat during the night, and followed. The expedi- 
tion then returned to Brashear City. The officers and crews of the Clif- 
ton and Sachem, and about ninety sharpshooters who were on board were 
captured, and the loss in killed and wounded was about thirty. After 
remaining at Brashear City some time, the military force moved to 
Franklin and Vermillionviile. 

On the 27th of October an expodition under General Banks put to sea 
from New Orleans. It consisted of about twenty vessels, accompanied 
by tha gunboats Owasco, Virginia, and Monungahela, which sailed (o the 
mouth of the llio Grande river, the boundary between Texas and Mexico. 
Brownsville was occupied by Federal troops, which did much to check 
the designs of the French Emperor. An American ar:ny was now placed 
on the frontier, prepared to check any open demonstration of sympathy 
between the armies of Davis and Napoleon. 

Western Louisiana wa& again the scene of military operations in the 
Teche district, where General Washburn's command was attacked on the 
5th of November, and after a severe struggle, he succeeded in be,itin<» off 
the enemy with a loss of one hundred killed and two hundred prisoners. 
The Federal loss was forty killed. 


The most important operations of the navy during the year were those 
on the Mississippi river, and before Charleston, which have been already 
described in connection with army movements. 

The work of building vessels for naval purposes was carried on vigor- 
ously during the year, and, inclusive of vessels purchased, and those 
captured from the enemy, fifty-eight vessels, mounting four hundred and 
fifty-two guns, with a tonnage of fifty thousand tous, were added ; while 
the loss for the same period was thirty-four vessels of about sixteen 
thousand tons, including the ironclads Monitor and Weehawken, which 
foundered in stormy weather. The number of seamen on the register 
was about thirty-four thousand. 

At daylight on January 29, an iron propeller named Princess Royal 
attempted to enter Charleston harbor, but was captured by the gunboat 
Unadilla. This was one of the most valuable prizes taken during the 
war. The cargo would have been of great service to th© enemy, who im- 
mediately set on foot a daring scheme to recover her. Accordingly, be- 
fore daylight on the 81st, two rebel rams, the Palmetto State and the 
Chicorn, under Commodore Ingraham, came down the channel, and sur- 
prised the smaller vessels of the blockading squadron, which lay close in 


shone. The Merccdita was the first vessel attacked, which was rendered 
helpless by the explosion of a Tiiich shell from the Palmetto State in her 
port boiler, and surrendered. The Keystone State was then attacked by 
both rams, and made a most gallant defence, but being disabled, she \v;i3 
compelled to pull down her flag, but re-hoisted it when she found the en- 
emy did not discontinue his fire. Other vessels making their appear- 
ance, the rams soon after discontinued the attack, and both the disabled 
Federal vessels were taken in tow by their consorts. 

It was claimed by General Beauregard and Flag-officer Ingraham that 
the blockade had been raised in accordance with the laws of war, as there 
were no Federal vessels in sight from Charleston at daylight on the 1st of 
February ; and the foreign consular agents in Charleston were induced to 
indorse this claim, but the assumption remained unnoticed by foreign 

On January 30, the Federal gunboat Isaac Smith, Lieutenant Conovcr, 
was captured on Stono river, S. C, by masked shore batteries, after losing 
twenty-four men in killed and wounded. 

On the 27th of February, the Montauk monitor destroyed the rebel 
steamer Nashville, under the guns of Fort 3IcAllister. 

On December 17th, the steamer Chesapeake, plying between New 
York and Portland, was seized on her passage to the latter place, when 
about twenty miles north-east of Cape Cod, by sixteen of her passen- 
gers, who represented themselves as belonging to the Confederate 
States. The captain was put in irons, one of the engineers killed and 
thrown overboard, and the first mate wounded. The crew and passen- 
gers, with the exception of the first engineer, retained to manage the 
steamer, were subsequently put ashore in a boat, and the Chesapeake 
sailed to the eastward. Upon the reception of the news in the United 
States, a fleet of cruisers started in pursuit, and on the 17th the Chesa- 
peake was captured by the Ella and Anna, in Sambro harbor, Nova Sco- 
tia, and, with a portion of her crew, was carried to Halifax and delivered 
to the authorities. The prisoners were released by a mob, but the 
Chesapeake was subsequently restored to her American owners by an or- 
der of the chief colonial tribunal. 

The number of vassels captured by the several squadrons, from the 
commencement of the war to November 1, 1863, was one thousand and 
forty-five, valued at thirteen millions of dollars. During the same pe- 
riod the rebe's had destroyed or captured one hundred and eighty-four 
Federal veaacis, valued at fifteen millions of dollars. 



At the bcginninn; of the year 1864, tlie authority of the United States 
CiuverniDout — established by the dauntless courage and determined valor 
of the armies of the Union — extended over a very large portion of the 
territory which had been controlled by the rebellion. The capture of 
Vicksburg and Port Hudson had opened the navigation of the Mississippi 
river. The State of Missouri had been redeemed, and the rebel power 
had been broken in Arkansas. From Kentucky and Tennessee 
the rebel flag had been driven out, by the victorious banner of the 
llepublic. In Florida, in the Carolinas. and in Southern Virginia, the 
arms of the Union had effected a permanent lodgment. The mouth of 
the Rio Grande had been closed, thus cutting off an important channel of 
rebel communication with foreign markets, and with disloyal traders at 
the North. In Louisiana the power of the Government was growing 
stronger, day by day. Victory, moreover, had strengthened the hands 
and hearts of the patriots at the North, soldiers as well as civilians. The 
army and the navy were in excellent condition, and the War Department 
felt justified in making a reduction of upwards of two millions of dollars, 
in its estimate of military and naval expenditure for the next year. 
Thus, in every particular, the condition of the country seemed much im- 
proved, while the prospects for the future were full of comfort and 
jiromisc. Important work yet remained to be done : sacrifices were yet 
to be made. But the work was enjoined by a sacred sense of duty, and 
the loyal people of the United States were ready to make any and every 
sacrifice that might be required for its suitable and thorough perform- 

The positions of the various armies, at the beginning of 1864, should 
here be noted. General Meade, commanding the Army of the Potomac, 
was posted near Culpepper Court House, in Virginia, whither he had 
airived, after a variety of manoeuvres, in the latter part of 1863. General 
Lee confronted him with the finest army of tlie rebellion. The Union 
forces occupied Winchester, Martinsburg, and^Harper's Ferry, and held 
the line of the Baliimore and Ohio railroad, thus blocking all possible 
advance of the rebels up the Shenandoah valley. A rebel force, however, 
was in the valley, led on by General .Tubal Early, whose headquarters were 
at Staunton, General Bragg's rebel forces were massed in the vicinity of 
Daltun, Georgia, opposed by the Union armies under General Grant, in 
front of Chattanooga, Tennessee. General Burnside — whose resignation 
had not yet been given in— was at Knoxville, and not far to the eastward 
uf that point was General Loagstreet's division of the rebel army. Gon- 

383 TIIK WAR FOil TIIR iTxro:)^. 

cral Banks hold command in Now Orleans, and had detachments of troops 
in Texas. General Koscorans was at the head of a small force in 3Iis- 
sonri. General Steele commanded the Union troops at Little Rock, in 
Arkansas. Military fortifications were established, all along the Missis- 
sippi river. The United States about six hundred th')usand men iu 
the field : tliC Confederates about four hundred thousand. General Lee's 
forces, in Virginia and North Carolina, numbered at least one hundred 
«nd ten thousand. The other great army of the Confederacy was com- 
manded by General J. C. Johnston, whose department included Georgia, 
Alabama, and Mississippi. Tlie rebel troops at Mobile were commanded 
by Generals Maury and Clairborne. 

The great operations of the year 1864 were, Sherman's march from At- 
lanta to Savannah — including, of course, the preliminary manoeuvres and 
battles, which prepared his way — and General Grant's advance on llich- 
mond, by way of the Wilderness. Before describing these, however, a 
considerable space must be devoted to miscellaneous operations in various 
parts of the country. 


Febuuauy 3, 1804. 

After participating in the battles around Chattanooga, and raising the 
siege of Knoxville to relieve Genera! Burnside, General Sherman with- 
drew to Vicksburg, to take command of an expedition which left that city 
on the 3rd of February, 1864, and proceeded in the direction of Mer- 
idian, in Alabama. The force under General Sherman numbered about 
thirty thousand men, and consisted of the two corps under General 
McPherson and General Hurlbut, with sixty pieces of light artillery. 
After much skirmishing by the way, in which the enemy was constantly 
overcome. General Sherman reached Meridian on the 7th of February. 
The objbct of this expedition was the destruction of several railroads 
which are specified in the following order, issued after the Union force 
had been one week in Meridian. 

Headquarters, Department of the Tennessee, ) 
Mehiuian, Miss., February, 15, 1864. \ 

1. The destruction of the railroads intersecting at Meridian is of <:reafc 
importance, and should be done most effectually. Every tie and rail fur 
many miles in each direction should be absolutely destroyed or injured, 
and every bridge and culvert should be completely destroyed. To insure 
this end, to General Hurlbut is entrusted the de.-truction east and north 
iiiid to General McPherson the roads west and south. The troops should be 


impressed with the importance of this work, and also that time is material, 
and therefore it should be began at once, and prosecuted with all the 
energy possible. Working parties should be composed of about one-half 
the cummand, and they should move by regiments, provided with their 
arms and haversacks, ready to repel attacks of cavalry. The other half ia 
reserve will be able to watch the enemy retreating eastward. 

2. Colonel E. F. Winslow, commanding cavalry, will keep his cavalry 
in advance of the party working eastward, and will act as though this 
army were slowly pursuing the enemy. 

3. Special instructions will be given as to the general .supply train ; 
and the troops now in Meridian will, under proper brigade parties, collect 
meal, meat and supplies. The destruction of buildings must be deferred 
till the last moment, when a special detail will be made for that ymrpose. 

By order of W. T. SHERMAN, 

Major-General commanding. 

These directions being faithfully carried out, General Sherman with 
justice deelnred that, he had made the most complete destruction of rail- 
roads ever beheld. 

Supplies now beginning to fall short, the Union forces fell back toward 
Vicksburg, returning by the way of Canton, and reached their ori.'inal 
position on the 26th of February. 

In this expedition the National loss in killed and wouu'Jed amounted to 
one hundred and seventy men. 

Febuuaky 11, ISGl. 

General M. L. Smith, who had been ordered to rftport to General 
Sherman at Meridian, had in the mean time, left Memphis on the 11th of 
February. On the 13th the National forces reached the Tallaha'tchie, 
and on the same day crossed the river at New Albany, without encoun- 
tering any opposition from the enemy. Pushing forward with all possible 
speed, (icneral Smith encountered the eneniy, in force, near Houston. 
The Unionists, not being strong enough to en^^'age the rebels, then moved 
eastward, and surprised and entered Okalona. Advancing alone the 
railroad, and tearing up the track as he went, General Smith next 
reached West Point, having destroyed on the way two thousand bales of 
cotton, and one million bushels of corn. Two miles north of West Point 
Station, the enemy was encountered, and a short skirmish ensued, in 
which the rebels were driven back. The enemy were next discovered to 
be in strong force in front, holding all the crossings over a swamn to the 


right of the town, and also on the line of the Octibbieha in front, and that 
of theTonihigbce river on the left. An attack was necessary ; and General 
Smith, eucumbercd with jiack trains and captured cattle, determined to 
make his demonstration for battle in front, in order to give his main body 
and trains an opportunity to fall back on Okalona. This movement was 
successfully accomplished, notwithstanding that the enemy, under the 
command of Generals Lee, Forrest and Chalmers, pressed very hard upon 
the retreating Union line. Subsequently, on the •22iid, General Smith 
was attacked at Okalona, and defeated with severe loss. That night he 
retreated, with all possible secresy and speed. A correspondent thus 
describes his retreat : 

" Picture to yourself, if you can, a living, moving mass of men, negroes, 
mules, and horses, of four thousand or five thousand, all en masse, liter- 
ally jammed, huddled, and crowded into the smallest possible space ; 
night setting in ; artillery and small arms booming behind us ; cavalry 
all around and ahead, moving on, on, on, over fences, through fields and 
brush, over hills and across mud-holes, streams, and bridges, and still 
on, on into the night, until the moon rises on the scene and shows us 
some of the outlines of this living panorama. I forgot to say that in 
this crowd were a lot of prisoners, too, once or twice attempting to 
escape, followed by the swift report of the revolver, once with bitter 
consequences to the escaping prisoners." 

On the night of the 23d General Smith succeed.^d in crossing the 
Tallahatchie at New Albany, and on the 25th, at about noon, his forces 
reached Memphis, with all their trains and spoils of war. The loss was 
less than two hundred killed and captured. Thus it happened that !he 
expedition failed to make a junction with General Sherman, at McnJian. 

March 10— May 1G, 18G4. 

An extensive trade had been carried on for two years between the 
Confederate States, and the Mexican border. The occupation of Browns- 
■ville had checked in a measure this intercourse, and it was determined 
by the Federal authorities to attempt the capture of Shreveport, an im- 
portant trading town in the extreme northwestern border of Louisiana, 
near the boundaries of Arkansas and Texas. This place is at the head 
of steamboat navigation on the Red river, in the midst of the largest and 
richest cotton district in the trans-Mississippi department. It was the 
rebel capital of Louisiana, the head-quarters of Gen. Kirby Smith, and 
the general depot for rebel supplies in that section. The Government de- 


sired Shrevcport, ainl the undistuibed possession of the Misr-issippi, and 
General Bunks was charged with the duty of taking it. His army con- 
sisted of a part of the Nineteenth army corps, which lie firmerly com- 
manded in person ; a portion of the Thirteenth army corps, uuder Gen- 
eral Ransom ; and a portion of the Sixteenth army corps, under the com- 
mand of General Smith. A laige naval force under Admiral Porter, 
constituted an important part of the expedition. 

Tlie lied river cannot be navigated with safety for any distance above 
Alexandria by large vessels, except during the months of March and 
April ; and arrangements were accordingly made for the grand naval and 
army expedition to start as eai ly in tlie month of March as practicable. 

On the second of the month, Admiral Porter concentrated his fleet off 
the mouth of Red river, awaiting army movements, while some of his 
gunboats were engaged in destroying bridges on the Atchafalaya and 
Bhvck rivers, and rebel property collected at Sicily Island. Admiral 
Porter's fleet comprised the following vessels : 

The Essex, Commander Robert Townsend ; Benton, Lieutenant-Com- 
mander James A. Greer ; La Fayette, Lieutenant-Commander J. P. Fos- 
ter ; Choctaw, Lieutenant-Commander F. M. Ramsey ; Cliilicothe, Acting 
Volunteer Lieutenant S. P. Couthouy ; Ozark, Acting Volunteer Lieu- 
tenant George W. Browne ; Louisville, Lieutenant-Commander E. K. 
Owen; Carondolct, Lieutenant-Commander J. G-. Mitchell; Eastport, 
Lieutenant-Commander S. L. Phelps; Pittsburgh, Acting Volunteer 
Lieutenant W. R. Hoel ; Mound City, Acting Volunteer Lieutenant A. 
R. Langtiiorne ; Osage, Lieutenant-Commander T. 0. Selfridge ; Neosho, 
Acting Volunteer Lieutenant Samuel Howard; Ouachitn, Lieutenant- 
Commander Byron Wilson ; Fort Hindman, Acting A'olunteer Lieutenant 
John Pearce. And the lighter boats : Lexington, Lieutenant George M. 
Bache ; Cricket, Acting Master H. H. Gorringe ; Gazelle, Acting Master 
Charles Thatcher ; Black Hawk, Lieutenant-Commander K. R. lireese. 

General A. J. Smith embarked from Vicksburg with his command, of 
about ten thousand troops, on twenty transports, on the 10th of March. 
His corps consisted of two divisions from the Sixteenth and two of 
the Seventeenth army corps. He arrived at the mouth of the Red 
river on the 12th. On the same day the transports moved up to the 
Atchafalaya, and the troops were landed at Semmesport, where they dis- 
embarked and marched overland, a distance of thirty miles, to Fort De 
Russy, on the Red river, skirmishing throughout the route with the ene- 
my's cavalry. On the afternoon of the 14th they were in sight of the 

It consisted of two distinct and formidable earthworks, connected by a 
covered way ; the upper work, facing the road, mounted four guns, two 
field and two siege ; the lower work, commanding the river, was a case- 


mated battery of three guns. Only two guns were in position in it, one 
an eleveu-inch coluinliiad, and an eight-inch smuoth bore. On each side 
were batteries of two guns each, making in all eight siege and two fields 
pieces. As the line moved up to the edge of the timber, the upper wnrk 
opened with shell and shrapnel, a-;iinst which two batteries were brought 
to bear. The cannonading continued for two hours. A charge was then 
ordered, and as the men reached the ditch, the garrison surrendered. 
The Federal loss was four killed and thirty wounded ; that of tho 
enemy, five killed and four wounded. The prisoners taken were twenty- 
four officers and two hundred men. Considerable ammunition and stores 
were found, besides a thousand muskets. 

The fleet met with many obstructions on its passage up the river, 
which were removed without serious damage to the vessels ; and after 
constant skirmishing with the river batteries, arrived in front of the fort 
ju->t before the close of the action, and rendered effective service. 

General Smith ordered the works to be destroyed. A portion of his 
troops then embarked on the transports, and reached Alexandria, one hun- 
dred and forty miles from the Mississippi river, on the evening of the 
16th. They were followed by the remainder of the forces and the fleet 
The enemy retired before the advance, destroying two steamboats and 
considerable cotton. During the first week, the gunboats rescued upwards 
of four thousand bales of cotton, and large quantities were brought in by 
the negroes. The fleet was detained by the low water on the fails above 
Al xuidria, its depth being only six feet, whereas nine feet were required 
to float the largest gunboats. 

On the 20th, the cavalry force under General Lee, attached to the 
command of General Banks, reached Alexandria, after marching from 
Franklin across the Teche country. Meantime detachments from Gen- 
eral Smith's command had been sent forward, and captured several small 
bodies of the enemy. 

On the 21st, Natchitoches was taken, with two hundred prisoners and 
f)ur pieces of artillery. It is about eighty miles from Alexandria. 

About four miles from Natchitoches, is a small settlement of dingy 
houses, called Grand Ecore. General Banks arrived at this place on fne 
4lh of April, and it was then made the headquarters of both the army and 
navy commanders, and the entire force of the expedition was located in 
that vicinity. 

The army numbered about twenty thousand men. The cavalry wns 
under General Lee, formerly of Grant's army ; the ar'.illery was com- 
manded by Brigudier-General Richard Arnold. General Franklin was 
second in command. He had one division of his corps with him, under 
General Emory. That of General Green remained at Alexandria, to 
garrison the post. General Ransom's force consisted of two divisions. 


General Smith's command remained at Natcliitocheg. "With the rest of 
the army General Bank's moved from Natchitoches for Slireveport on the 
6th of April. The country is a dense, interminable forest, with a few 
narrow roads, with no signs of life or civilization, but a few log houses 
and half-cleared plantations. Into this country General Banks was 
compelled to march. He found, in the beginning, that two arms of hia 
service would be almost worthless. So long as he marclied, hia cavalry 
might picket the woods and skirmish along the advance ; but in action 
they would be as helpless as so many wagon-trains. His artillery would 
be of no use unless he could manage to get the enemy into an open clear* 
ing. The region was little more than a great masked battery. It was an 
unproductive, barren country, and it became necessary for permanent 
military operations to carry along everything that an army couM use. 

On the evening of the seventh, they reached Pleasant Hill, a small 
village, thirty-five miles from Natchitoches, the cavalry advance skir- 
mishing nearly all the way through the woods. They had a severe fight, 
on that morning, two miles beyond Pleasant Hill, in which the Eighty- 
seventh Illinois (mounted in antry) lost quite heavily. 

On the morning of the eighth they resumed their march, A severe 
skirmish occurred at an old sawmill, ten miles beyond Pleasant Hill, in 
which Lieutenant-Colonel Webb, of the Seventy-seventh Illinois, was 
killed ; but the enemy kept falling back, and were pursued by the cav- 
alry and infantry about eight miles further, to Sabine Cross-Roids, 
three miles from Mansfield. Here the enemy was met in fuice, and a 
check made to further progress. 

April 8, 1864. 

The position of the Union army at 3 o'clock was as follows : In front, 
and on the ground where a most terrible battle was soon to be fouo-ht, was 
General Lee with Colonels Dudley and Lucas's cavalry brigades with 
Nim's battery of six gu:is and one section (two guns) of Battery G, Fifth 
United States regulars. United to this force there was now the Fourth divi- 
sion, Thirteenth army corps, with the Chicago Mercantile battery, (six 
guns.) Next, in the rear and completely blocking up the road, was General 
Lee's train of some two hundred and fifty wagons, to the presence of which 
the subsequent disaster of the day is largely attributable. Back of theso 
was the Third division, Thirteenth army corps, under General Cameron, 
moving up to the front as rapidly as possible. Next to the Third divi- 
sion was General Emory with the First division, Nineteenth army corps, 


seven miles fiom the extreme front, while General Smith was back of 
Pleasant Hill, one day's n^arch in the rear. The battle-ground was a 
large, open, incgular-shapcd field, through about one half of which on 
the right of the road a narrow belt of timber ran, encircling inward as it 
extended to the right until its base rested around upon the woods in the 
rear. The road passed through the centre of the field in a northwesterly 
direction toward Mansfield. 

Meandering diago.ially through the field and across the road was a 
small creek or bayuu, from the banks of which the ground rose gradually 
along the line of the road, terminating in a considerable rid^e on each 
Bide. The ridge at the entrance to the field on the side of the advance 
was close up to the woods, and commanded the whole battle-'.icld, while 
the ridge on the opposite side ran through the open field on the left to the 
belt of timber dividing the field on the right, along which it sloped grad- 
ually until it reached the level of the hollow on the bayou. The outer 
line of the field beyond the belt of timber on the right was au irregular 
semi-circle, the extremities drawing inward, so as to correspond some- 
what to the outline of the dividing wood. The outer line of the field 
on the left was very nearly at a right angle with the road. The rebel 
forces, occnpying a front of about one mile, were stationed under cover 
of the woods along the further line of these fields. Their front, therefore, 
extended from their right flank in a straight line to the road, and ihon, 
following the shape of the field, circled inward until their left flank 
reached a point that would be intersected by a line drawn across the road 
at a right angle near the middle of the first field on the right. The main 
body of the rebels was evidently on the right of the roads. A battery 
was seen in position near the road, but it was not brought into action. 

On the right, and in the belt of timber which separated the first from 
the second field, was Lucas's cavalry brigade, mostly dismounted and de- 
ployed as skirmishei's, while beyond and supporting this brigade was the 
Fourth division, Thirteenth army corps. About four o'clock, the Fourth 
division was moved forward through the belt of timber, and took position 
in line of battle behind the fence that inclosed the field beyond. 

At haif-past four, General Ransom and staff" passed on foot along the 
outer infantry line, who were firing very briskly across the field into the 
woods where the enemy was posted, but as the fire was of little eS"ect 
the general directed it to be withheld until the rebels came out into tho 
field. For half or three-quarters of an hour, everything remiined qiiet 
along the lines, when all at once a heavy and continuous discharge of 
musketry was heard on the right, from rebel forces marching steadily in 
close ranks across the open field to the attack ; while at the same moment 
a heavy column was moving across the road upon the left, where 
the cavalry brigade under Colonel Dudley was posted, aided by Nim's 


battery, the two howitzers, and one small regiment of infantry (the 
Twenty-thirJ Wisconsin.) 

Every regiment now coolly but rapidly poured its destructive fire upon 
the advancing foe, opening at every discharge great gaps in the rebel 
ranks, and strewing the field with a continuous line of killed and wounded. 
Under this terrific and well-directed fire, the rebel line was checked, 
broken, and driven back, the only considerable body remaining together 
being a mass of some three hundred or four hundred directly opposite 
the Thirteenth Illinois, which was badly cut up, but held its position 
without breaking. 

Four guns of Nim's battery were captured, not having horses to drag 
them from the field. 

This movement on the left, however, was simply a ruse on the part of 
the enemy to induce General Banks to weaken his right wing, and it was 
successful. At the commencement of the action General Franklin's divis- 
ions were in camp nine miles in the rear, but he hastened forward in 
advance of his command, and, in conjunction with the commanderin-cliief, 
jjiissed through the midst of the engagement, encouraging by his presence, 
an<i leading on the men. 

Tlie right now became fiercely engaged, and the centre being pressed, 
fell back, when the right also gave way. The loss of the Chicago bat- 
tery and the First Indiana soon followed General Cameron then 
advanced to the front with a brigade of Indiana troops of the Thirteenth 
corps, but was unable to check the superior force of the enemy. 

The line contiTiued to fall back slowly until the bagsage trains blocked 
up the roads in the rear so that the troops could not easily pass, when a 
panic ensued. The enemv now pursued for three and a half miles, when 
their advance was checked and driven back by General Emory's division. 
Here the conflict ended for the day. Six guns of the Chicago battery, 
two of Battery G, four of the First Indiana, and six of Niin's battery were 
left on the field, with two howitzers of the Sixth Missouri. The loss of 
General Banks was estimated at two thousand killed, wounded, and miss- 
ing. His force on the field was about eight thousand. The force of the 
enemy was much larger. General Mouton was among the badly wounded 
of the enemy. 

As it was now known that General Smith with his force had marched 
to Pleasant Hill and halted, General Banks determined to withdraw to 
tha^ place for the sake of concentrating his forces, and of the advanta- 
geous position which he could there occupy. The movement commenced 
at ten o'clock at night, and before daylight the rear of the army was well 
on the road. The enemy during the night had pressed his pickets down 
on General Banks' front, but was not aware of the retreat of the troops 
until the morning, when a pursuit commenced, the cavalry of the enemy 


in advance, but General Emory had succeeded in bringing up the rear 
to Pleasant Hill at seven o'clock on the morning of the 9th, where the new 
line of battle was formed, the entire Federal force having reached that 

AnuL 9, 18G4. 

The battle-ground was an open field on the outside of the town of Plea- 
sant Hill on the Shreveport road. It was open and rolling, and ascenJed 
both from the side of the town and from the side on which the enemy 
were apfiroaching. A belt of timber extended almost entirely around it. 
The division of General Emory was drawn up in line of battle on the 
sloping side, with the right resting across the Shreveport road. General 
M'Milleu's brigade formed the extreme right of the line, with his right 
renting near the woods, which extended along the whole base of the 
slope and through which the enemy would advance. General Dwight's 
brigade was formed next, with his left resting on the road, Colonel Bene- 
dict's brigade formed next, with his right resting on the road and a little 
in the rear of General Dwight's left. Two pieces of Taylor's battery 
were placed in the rear of General Dwight's left, on the road, and four 
pieces were in position on an eminence on the left of the road and in rear 
of Colonel Benedict. Hibbard's Vermont battery was in the rear of the 
division. General Smith's division, under command of General Mower, 
was massed in two lines of battle fifty yards apart with artillery in rear 
of General Emory's division. The right of the first line rested on the 
road, and was composed of two brigades, the First brigade on the right, 
commanded by Colonel Lynch, the Second brigade on the left, commanded 
by Colonel Shaw. The Third Indiana battery (Crawford's) was posted 
in the first line of battle, on the right of the Eighty-ninth Indiana. The 
Ninth Indiana battery (Bruwn'.s) was in position ou the right of the First 
brigade. The Missouri battery occupied ground on the right of the 
Eighty-ninth Indiana. 

General Suuth's second line of battle was fifty yards in rear of the first, 
and was composed of two brigades, one on the right of the line, and that 
on the left commanded by Colonel Hill. 

General Mower commanded the Second brigade, and was temporarily 
in command of the whole force. 

The skirmishing, which had continued all day, became lively towards 
its close ; and at ten minutes past five, General Emory sent word to Gen 
eral Franklin that the skirmishers were driven in and the enemy marching 
down upon him in three lines of battle. 


At twenty minutes past five, the enemy appeared on the plain at the 
edge of the woods, and the battle conunenccd, the Union batteries open- 
ing with case shell as the rebels marched at a double-quick across the 
field to the attack. 

Oa the left, Colonel Benedict's brigade came into action first, and 
soon after the right and centre were engaged. The battle now raged 
fiercely, the air was full of lead and iron, and the roar of artillery inces- 
sant. The carnage on both sides was fearful, the men fighting almost 
hand to hand, and with great desperation. Nothing could exceed the 
determined bravery of the troups. 

The contest now became fierce on both sides, when General Emory's 
division, pressed by overwhelming numbers, fell back up the hill to the 
Sixteenth corps, which was just behind the crest. The enemy rushed 
forward and were met by General Smith with a discharge from all his 
guns, which was followed by an immediate charge of the infantry, by 
which the enemy were driven rapidly back to the woods, where they 
broke in confusion. Night put an end to the pursuit. The Taylor bat- 
tery, lost on the advance of the enemy, was recovered, and also two guns 
of Nim's battery. Five hundred prisoners were also taken. Early on 
the next morning, leaving the dead unburied and the muskets thrown on 
the field, the army commenced its march back to Grand Ecore, thirty -five 
miles from Pleasant Hill, to obtain rest and rations. 

The entire losses of the campaign thus far were stated to be twenty 
pieces of artillery, three thousand men, one hundred and thirty wagons, 
twelve hundred horses and mules, including many that died of disease. 
The gains were the capture of Fort De Russy, Alexandria, Grand Ecore, 
and Natchitoches, the opening of Red river, the capture of three thou- 
sand bales of cotton, twenty-three hundred prisoners, twenty-five pieces 
of artillery, chiefly captured by the fleet, and small arms and considerable 
stores. A large number of citizens enlisted in the service in Alexandria, 
and the material for two colored regiments was gathered ; and five thou- 
sand negroes, male and female, abandoned their homes and followed the 

Meanwhile Rear Admiral Porter passed the falls with twelve gun- 
boats and thirty transports, and reached Grand Ecore when the army was 
at Natchitoches preparing for an immediate march. As the river was 
rising slowly the advance was continued with six smaller gunboats and 
twenty transports, having army stores and a part of General Smith's 
division on board. Starting on the 7th of April, Springfield landing was 
reached on the third day. Here a large steamer sunk in the river 
obstructed further progress; and information was received that the army 
had met with a reverse. Orders also came to General Smith's troops to 


return to Grand Ecore with the transports. The fleet, therefore, turned 
back, but was constantly annoyed by the enemy on the bank of the river. 
Two of the fleet at Grand pjcore were fecund above the bar, and not likely 
to get away until there was a rise of water in the river. 

Tbe continued low water in the Red river, and the difiiculty of keeping 
up a line of supplies, caused the army to fall back to Alexandria. The 
march commenced in the afternoon of April, by starting the baggage 
train with a suitable guard. At 2 o'clock the next morning the army 
began silently to evacuate its position, General Smith's force funning the 
rear guard. Soon after daylight, the enemy observing the movement, begau 
his pursuit, but with so small a force that only slight skirmishing took 
place. The army reached Alexandria without serious lighting, on the 
27th of April. 

The difficulties and dangers which the naval commander was called 
upon to meet and overcome are worthy of more than a passing notice. 
During the return of the vessels through the narrow and snaggy river, 
they were assailed continually by rebel batteries on the shore, and were 
followed and attacked at all favorable points by thousands of infantry 
and horse artillery. 

On the 12th of April a severe engagement occurred, owing to an at- 
tempt, by a rebel force of two thousand men, to capture the ironclad 
Osage and the transport Black Hawk, which had grounded. Flushed with 
their recent victory over Banks's army, the rebels displayed unwonted 
courage, and soon drove all the men from the transport to the safe case- 
mates of the monitor ; but a destructive cross-fire from the Osage and 
Lexington quickly put them to flight. with severe loss. 

Every day difficulties of this character occurred, as the vessels were 
constantly grounding, until they arrived at Grand Ecore, when greater 
and more serious obstacles presented themselves, which threatened the 
loss of the most valuable vessels of the fleet. 

The rebels were industriou.sly employed in cutting off the supply of 
water from various channels up the river, in the hope of preventing the 
pas.sage of the vessels over the bar at Grand Ecore, and the result ap- 
peared to promise success to their plans. The heavy vessels were con- 
stantly grounding, and, on the 26th of April, the commander of the East- 
port, after laboring night and day for a week to carry his vessel over 
the sand-bars and logs by which she was clogged, wis compelled to blow 
her up, after removing all her stores and available equipments. 

On the 4th of May the steamers Covington, Warner, and Signal were 
captured by about two thousand rebels, who attacked them from the 
banks of the river, killing or capturing forty of their crew. 


The crowning act of heroism and of engineering skill in this unfortii. 
nate canipiaign, is described in the report of Admiral Porter, iu detailing 
tho passage of the Falls of Alexandria by the fleet : 

" i^Iissis.sii'Pi Squadron, Flagship 13lack Hawk, ) 
" Mouth Ked river, May iGth, lbO-1. ) 

" Sir : 1 have the honor (o iiiloriu you that the vessels lately caught 
by low water above the Falls uf Alexandria, have been released from 
their unpleasant position. The water had fallen so low that I had no 
hope or expectation of getting the vessels out this season, and, as the 
army had made arrangements to evacuate the country, I saw nothing be- 
fore me but the destruction of the best part of the Mississippi sqiiadron. 

"There seems to have been an especial Providence in providing a man 
equal to the emergency. Lieutenant-Colonel Bailey, Acting Engineer 
of the Nineteenth army corps, proposed a plan of building a series of 
dams across the rocks at the falls, and raising the water high enough to 
let the vessels' pass over. This proposition looked like madness, and the 
best engineers ridiculed it ; but Colonel Bailey was so sanguine of sue 
cess that I requested to have it done, and he entered heartily into the 
work. Provisions were short and fi^rage was almost out, and the dam 
was promised to be finished in ten days or the army would have to leave 
us. I was doubtful about the time, but I had no doubt about the ul;i- 
mate success, if time would only permit. General Banks placed at the 
disposal of Colonel Bailey all the forces he requireJ, consisting of some 
three thousand men and two or three hundred w»gons. All the neigh- 
boring steam-miils were torn dq^wn for material ; two or three regiments 
of Maine men were set at work felling trees, and on the second day after 
my arrival in Alexandria, from Grand Ecore, the work had fairly begun. 

" Trees were falling with great rapidity ; teams were moving in all di- 
rections, bringing iu brick and stone ; quarries were opened ; flatboats 
were built to bring stone down from above, and every man seemed to be 
working with a vigor I have seldom seen equalled, while perhaps 
not one in fifty believed iu the undertaking. These fulls are ai out a 
mile in length, filled with rugged rocks, over which, at the present stage 
of water, it seemed to be impossible to make a channel. 

" The work was commenced by running out from the left bank of the 
river a tree dam, made of the bodies of very large trees, brush, brick, 
and stone, cross-tied with heavy timber, and strengthened in every way 
which ingenuity could devise. This was run out about three hundred 
feet into the river ; four large coal barges were then filled with brick 
and sunk at the end of it. From the right bank of the river, cribs filled 
with stone were built out to meet the barges, all of which was success- 
fully accomj)lishcd, notwithstanding there was a current rur.ning of nine 
miles an hour, which thrcuieucd to sweep every thing before it. 



" It will take too inuch time to enter into the details of this truly 
wonderful work ; suffice it to say that the dam had nearly reached com- 
pletion in eight days' working time, and the water had risen sufficiently 
on the upper falls to allow the Furt Ilinilman, Osage, and Neosho, to get 
down and be ready tu pass the dam. In another day it would have been 
liigh cmnigh to enable all the other vessels to pass the upper falls. Un- 
fortunately, on the morning of the 9th instant, the pressure of water be- 
came so great that it swept away two of the stone-barges, which swung 
in below the dam on one side. Seeing this unfortunate accident, I 
jumped on a horse and rode up to where the upper vessels were an- 
chored, and ordered the Lexington to pass the upper falls, if possible, 
and immediately attempt to go through the dam. I thought I might be 
able to save the four vessels below, not knowing whether the persons 
employed on the work would ever have the heart to renew the enter- 

" The Lexington succeeded in getting over the upper falls just in time, 
the water rapidly falling as she was passing over. She then steered di- 
rectly for the opening in the dam, through which the wnter was rushing 
so furiously that it seemed as if nothing but destruction awaited her. 
Thousands of beating hearts looked on, anxious for the result. 

" The silence was so great as the Lexington approached the dam tliat 
a pin might almost have been heard to fall. She entered the gap with a 
full head c»f steam on, pitched down the roaring torrent, made two or 
three .spasmodic rolls, hung for a moment on the rocks below, was tlu n 
swept into deep water by the current, and rounded to safely into the bank. 

" Thcmsands of voices rose in one deafening cheer, and universal joy 
seemed to pervade the face of every man present. The Neoslio followed 
next — all her hatches battened down, and every precaution taken against 
accident. She did not fare as well as the Lexington, her pi'ot having 
"become frightened as he approached the abyss, and stopped her engine 
when I particularly ordered a full head of steam to be carried. The re- 
sult was that for a moment her hull disappeared from sight, under the 
water. Every one thought she was lost. She rose, however, swept 
along over the rocks with the current, and fortunately escaped with only 
one hole in her bottom, which was stopped in the course of an hour 
The Ilindman and Osago both came through beautifully without touching 
u thing, and I thought if I was only fortunate enough to get my large 
vessels as well over the falls, my fleet once more would do good scrvjce 
on the Mississippi. 

" The accident to the dam, instead of disheartening Colonel Bailey, only 
induced him to renew his exertions, after he had seen the success of 
getting four vessels through. The noble-hearted soldiers, seeing their 
.labor of the last eight days swept away in a moment, cheerfully went to 



work to repair damages, being confident now that all the gunboats would 
be finally brought over. The men had been working for eight d.iys and 
nights, up to their necks in water, in the broiling sun, cutting trees and 
wheeling bricks, and nothing but good humor prevailed among them. 
On the whole, it was very fortunate the dam was carried away, as the 
two barges that were swept away from the centre swung around against 
some rocks on the left and made a fine cushion for the vessels, and pre- 
vented them, as it afterward appeared, from running on certain destruc- 

" The force of the water and the current being too great to construct a 
continuous dam of six hundred feet across the river in so short a time, 
Colonel Bailey determined to leave a gap of fifty-five feet in the dam, 
and build a series of wing dams on the upper falls. This was accom- 
plished in three days' time, and on the 11th instant the Mound City, tho 
Carondolet, and Pittsburgh came over the upper falls, a good deal of la- 
bor having been expended in hauling them through, the channel being 
very crooked, scarcely wide enough for them. Next day the Ozark, 
Louisville, Chillicothe, and two tugs also succeeded in crossing the up- 
per falls. 

" Immediately afterward, the Mound City, Carondolet, and Pittsburgh 
started in succession to pass the dam, all their hatches battened down and 
every precaution being taken to prevent accident. 

" The passage of these vessels was a most beautiful sight, only to 
be realized when seen. They passed over without an accident except 
the unshipping of one or two rudders. This was witnessed by all the 
troops, and the vessels were heartily cheered when they passed over. 
Next morning at ten o'clock, the Louisville, Chillicothe, Ozark, and two 
tugs passed over without an accident, except the loss of a man, who was 
swept off the deck of one of the tugs. By three o'clock that afternoon, 
the vessels were all coaled, ammunition replaced, and all steamed down 
the river with the convoy of transports in company. A good deal of dif- 
ficulty was anticipated in getting over the bars in lower Rod river the 

depth of water reported only five feet ; gunboats were drawing six. Provi- 

dentially, we had a rise from the back-water of the Mississippi that 

river being very high at that time — the back-water extending to Alex- 
andria, one hundred and fifty miles distant, enabling us to pass all the 
bars and obstructions with safety. 

" Words are inadequate to express the admiration I feel for the abilities 
of Lieutenant-Colonel Bailey. This is, without doubt, the best entri- 
neering feat ever performed. Under the best circumstances, a private 
company would not have completed this work under one year, and to an 
ordinary mind the whole thing would have appeared an impossibility. 
Leaving out his abilities as an engineer, and the credit he has conferred 


upon the country, he has saved to the Union a valuable fleet, worth 
nearly two million of dollars. More, he has deprived the enemy of a 
triumph which would have emboldened them to carry on the war a year 
or two longer ; for the intended departure of the army was a fixed fact, 
and there was nothing left for me to do, in case that event occurred, but 
to destroy every part of the vessels, so that the rebels could make 
nothing of them. The highest honors the Government can bestow on 
Colonel Bailey can never repay him for the service he hus rendered the 

" To General Banks, personally, I am much indebted for the happy 
manner in which he has forwarded this enterprise, giving it his whole 
attention, night and day, scarcely sleeping while the work was going on ; 
tending personally to see that all the requirements of Colonel liailey 
were complied with on the instant. 

" I do not believe there ever was a case where such difficulties were 
overcome in such a short space of time, and without any preparation. 


"DAVID D. PORTER. Rear-Admiral. 
"Hon. Gideon Welles, Sec'y of the Navy, Washington, D. C." 

The last of the gunboats passed the falls on the 12th of May, and on the 
next day Alexandria was evacuated. The town was tired in several 
places by some evil-disposed persons connected with the army, and most 
of the inhabitants thus reduced to suffering' and want. 


February 22, 1804. 
While Sherman's expedition was marching on Meridian, a force of 
rebels detached from the army of Johnston — who had superseded Bra 
— near Dalton, was sent out to reinforce Polk, in Alabama. This caused 
General Grant to direct a forward movement upon Daltoii, which com- 
menced February 22d, and led to severe fighting. On the day specified, 
a strong column of infantry, preceded by Colonel Harrison's cavalry, 
set out from Chattanooga on the road to Tunnel Hill and Dalton. The 
expedition was under the direction of General Palmer, whose able coadju- 
tors were Generals Johnson, Davis, Baird and Carlin. No opposition 
was encountered east of the Chickaraauga. Colonel Harrison, however, 
caught sight of some rebel cavalry and chased them through Ringgold's 
Gap and Taylor's Ridge. The enemy's mounted force, consisting of 


Tennessee cavalry, had at first fled in confusion, but finally took lioart 
and .skirmished with considerable spirit. 

About four o'clock, p. m., the Union troops came in sight of Tunnel Hi! I, 
and here the enemy made a determined stand. Colonel Harrison, who, a.s 
■was his wont, had kept close upon the heels of the foe, now found himself 
confronted by vastl)' superior nuuibers ; but no sooner did he perceive 
the infantry advancing to his support, than he dashed at the rebels and 
drove them in wild di.smay out of the town of Tunnel Hill. The rebel 
General Wheeler, with an entire brigade of cavalry and four pieces of 
artillery, now checked the career of the daring patriot Colonel. Their 
cannon opened furiously and effectively upon the assailants, to which the 
Union artillery replied with resonant thunder, compelling Colonel 
Browns rebel cavalry, who were assailing Colouel Harrison's right, to 
shrink from the contest. The fight continued, however, till night 
descended upon the field of battle, and parted the combatants. 

The Union forces, for the purpose of procuring supplier, had retired 
about four miles in the direction of Dalton. General Stanley's com- 
mand, with the Fourth Ohio cavalry under Colonel Lonir, had, in the 
mean time, approached from tho neighborhood of Cleveland ; and, on the 
following morning, the advance of the whole expedition was resumed at 
ten o'clock. It arrived at half-past eleven in immediate proximity to 
the town of Tunnel Hill. The skirmishing became very brisk, and the 
cavalry were comjielled to await the support of the infantry, which they 
no sooner received than they advanced in column upon the enemy's po- 
sition. The rebels, who had hitherto remained concealed, now disclosed 
a battery, planted on a hill to the right of the tunnel, from which shell 
were thrown with fatal accuracy into the midst of the Union ranks. This 
occasioned a precipitate but orderly withdrawal. Captain Hotchkis.^ 
now trained two ten-pound Parrotts of the Second Minnesota battery; 
upon this noisy rebel eyrie, but his shells failed to explode, and Captain 
Harris, of the Nineteenth Indiana battery, was obliged to send his com- 
pliments to the rebels from two pieces on the left of the road, before 
they would vacate their commanding position. 

General Morgan, with equal wisdom and daring, now marched his 
troops along the crest of Tunnel Hill, caught the enemy on the right 
flank, and turned his works without opposition. General Wainwrighl 
was, at the same time, advancing with the view of performing the same 
feat on the enemy's left. The rebels fled without firing a gun, and Tu i- 
nol Hill was captured. 



February 25, 1864, 

The enemy was pursued along the road to Dalton to a gorge about 
three miles from the town. The railroad runs through this gorge, formed 
in Rocky Face Ridge or Buzzard's Roost, and the position occupied here 
by the rebels appeared to be almost impregnable. An advance on the 
24th had driven the enemy from all the ridge north of the creek, but on 
the retirement of the Union troops at night, it was reoecupied by ihe 
rebels, who, being now thoroughly aroused to their danger, recalled 
Claiborne's, Stevenson's, and other divisions to aid in repelling their as- 

At about eleven o'clock, a. m., on the 25th, soon after all the forces 
comprising the expedition had arrived, the Union troops, in long t)!ue 
lines, moved in splendid order upon the enemy's works. The skirmish- 
ers became at once closely engaged in the woodland. The advance was 
steady and rapid, clearing the enemy from the ridge as it proceeded. 
The object of the reconnoissance was accomplished ; the enemy, in over- 
whelming force, was found to be strongly posted in the gorge, and, ac- 
cordingly, after much heavy skirmishing, the Union forces were ordered 
to retire. Some rebel cavalry attempted to pursue them, but were soon 
driven out of sight. The capture of Tunnel Hill, and the other import- 
ant operations of the expedition, had been accompiishod with a less of 
about seventy-five killed and two hundred and fifty wounded. The rebels 
sulTcred much more severely. 

MAKcn 25, 1804. 
The Federal posts in "We-t Tennessee and Kentucky, were, in conse- 
quence of the withdrawal of the forces under Generals Sherman and 
A. J. Smith from Vicksburg, left much exposed, and General Forrest did 
not hesitate to avail himself of the opportunity thus presented of success- 
fully attacking them. He accordingly concentrated and reinforced his 
command, and, on the 23d of March, started, with about five thousand 
men, from Jackson, Tenn., and reached Union City on the twenty fourth. 
Here he found Colonel Hawkins with the Eleventh Tennessee Union 
cavalry, consisting of about four hundred and fifty men. At first Colonel 
Hawkins refused to surrender. His subordinate officers were confident 
of their ability to hold out till succor arrived, which chey believed would 


soon reach them. Colonel Hawkins was, hcwjvcr, less sanguine, and 
linally surrendered to the enemy after a slight assault, who t^apturcd 
beside the garrison, two hundred horses and five hundred small arms. 
Hardly had the place been surrendered, when General Brayman, from 
Cairo, advanced to its relief. When within six miles from the post, he 
learned that its surrender had just taken place, and marched back with 
the shameful tidings to Cairo. 

March 26, 1864. 

General Forrest, after taking possession of Hickman, moved north with 
Buford's division, marching direct from Jackson to Paducah, in fifty 
hours. The veteran Colonel Hicks, who commanded at Paducah, was, 
however, apprised of his approach in time to notify the inhabitants by 
special ordev, and to provide for their safety by removing them to the 
other side of the river. The pell-mell rush to the wharf of men, women, 
and children, was, in itself, tumultuous, but fortunately means were 
at hand to transfer them, so that few were remaining when the attack 
was made on the city. Colonel Hicks, conscious of the great numerical 
superiority of the enemy, estimated at from ten to fifteen thousand, 
ordered his entire command into Fort Anderson, consisting of five com- 
panies of the Sixteenth Kentucky, three companies of the One Hundred 
and Forty-second Illinois, and a detachment of the First Kentucky 
artillery, (colored ) in all six hundred and eighty-live, exclusive of the 
Union citizens of Paducah for whom arms could be found. 

The fort mounted six guns, and contained ammunition and rations 
barely sufiieient for one day. It was a good earthwork defence, with 
a ditch around it, standing about five hundred yards down the river from 
the centre of the town. The enemy's advance came in sight at one 
o'clock, and shortly after the main body appeared, forming a line which 
was little less than two miles long. Forrest pushed his line rapidly and 
steadily forward. A detachment of several hundred rebels dashed into 
and through the deserted city till they camft within rifle-range of the fort, 
where they took possession of the neighboring houses, from which they 
could look into it and pick off the garrison. The rebel and Union artil- 
lery had already exchanged shots, and the two gunboats in the river, the 
Paw-Paw and the Piosta, began to play upon the rebel sharpshooters 
ranging through the city. The enemy now prepared to make a charge 
upon the fort. The assaulting force was greeted on its first appearance 


with a heavy and well-directed Cre, which caused a portion of it to veer 
to the rii^ht and seek the cover of the uneven ground and ihe suburbaa 
buildin"'s, but still the advance was continued. When within a good 
rifle-rano-e, it was received with a fire that caused the men to fall to the 
cround by scores. The gunboat Piosta at the same time poured a steady 
stream of shells upon the attacking party. A number of them gave way, 
and though some of them charged up to the ditch, disorder prevailed, 
and presently the whole force broke and fled in confusion, leaving two 
hundred killed and wounded upon the field. 

The railroad depot, and the city, in several places, were on fire. The 
fiirht, between the rebel sharpshooters and the giiuboa's was still spirit- 
edly sustained. So fatal was the Confederate fire, that the upper guns 
of the boats could not be worked, and even those behind the casemates 
were loaded in peril. The ill-starred city was exposed to destruction 
from friend and foe. The rebels allowed the buildings they occupied to 
begin to crumble and full before they slackened their fire. 

Forrest's aid, under a flag of truce, now presented a note from the 
rebel leader to Colonel Hicks, demanding the immediate and uncondi- 
tional surrender of the fort and garrison, and threatening, in case of re- 
fusal, to take it by storm, and grant no quarter. The war-worn Colonel 
Hicks promptly replied th;it he would not fail to do his duty in defend- 
ing the post to the last. This refusal to surrender was quickly followed 
by another impetuous assault upon the fort. The daring Brigadier-Gen- 
eral A. P. Thompson, formerly a citizen of Paducah, led the Kentucky 
rebels against the Union fort. A fire, more galling than ever, was 
opened by the rebel sharpshooters upon the garrison as the main column 
rushed upon the fort. Murderous discharges from the small arms and 
cannon of the fort, and the raining shell uf the gunboats, made fearful 
havoc in the rebel ranks as they advanced. Still the rebel general per- 
severed, setting his men an example which would have insured the cap- 
ture of the position, had he not, when but forty feet from the fort, been 
instantly killed by the explosion of a shell from the Piosta. His fa.l 
struck dismay into the hearts of his followers, and they 
sufi"ered a disastrous repulse, 

A shout of victory now rose from the fort, which was echoed back 
from the gunboats and the opposite shore. The city was thoroughly 
sacked by the rebels, who carried away more than half a million dollars' 
worth of plunder. The i^unboats and the fort continued to fire upon the 
town till nearly every building in it was riddled by schrapnel and solid 
shot. All the government buildings, the gas works, and the elegant res- 
idences about the fort were destroyed, and the sun rose the next morning 
upon the smouldering ruins of the once beautiful city of Paducah. 


To the great relief of the garrison, who were out of ammunition, and 
who hud been told that they must uuw rely on their bayonets, the rebels 
left the town about midnight, but hung about it for several days The 
rebel killed numbered three hundred, and his wonniei at least a thou- 
sauJ. The Unionists haJ fourtcea killed and forty-four wounded. 

April 13, 1«04. 

Fort Pillow was an earthwork, crescent shaped, eight feet in height, sur^ 
rounded by a ditch six feet deep and twelve feet in width. If was situated 
on a high bluff which descended precipitately to the river's edge and on 
the other sides sloped to a deep ravine. 

On the twelfth of April, just before sunrise, General Forrest's com- 
mand, con.-isting of McCuUoch's brigade of Chalmers' division and Bell's 
brigade of Buford's division, under the command of Bngadier-Generul 
Chalmers, appeared in the neighborhood of Fort Pillow. The garrison 
of this fort comprised nineteen officers and five hundred and thirty-eight 
enlisted men, of whom two hundred and sixty-two were colorod troops, 
including one battalion of the Sixth United States heavy artillery, com- 
manded by Major L. F. Booth, and one section of the Second United 
States light artillery, together with one battalion of the Thirteenth Ten 
nessee cavalry (white), under the command of Major W. F. ]*radford. 
The pickets of the garrison were driven in and the fighting became gen- 
eral, about nine o'clock, a. m. Major Bra 'ford, who commanded, with- 
drew all the forces, a portion of which had previously occupied exterlDf 
entrenchments, within the fort, and, as both the black and the wtiite 
troops fought gallantly, he was sanguine of making a successful defence. 

(ieueral Forrest having assumed the command, he ordered General 
Chalmers to advance his line so as to gain a position on the slope against 
wnich the cannon in the fort could not be directed, and where the gar- 
rison with small arms could not reach them without exposing themselves 
to ihe sharpshooters, who, under cover of stumps and logs, forced 
then to keep inside the works. This position, within one hundred 
yards of the fort, was, after much hard fighting and a severe loss to the 
rebels, gained by the assailants. The gunboat New Era shelled the 
lalttr continually but with little effect, although constantly instructed by 
signals from the fort of the whereabouts of the enemy. Her guns finally 


became ovorlie.itod, her ammunition almost exhausted, and she was com- 
pelled to cease firing. 

Forrest now demanded the uucoiiditional surrender of the fort. Major 
Bradford asked to be allowed an hour to consult with his officers and 
those of the gunboat. Forrest, perceiving two Union gunboats approach- 
ing, the foremost apparently crowded with troops, refused to grant more 
tlian twenty minutes for the deliberation. There was some equivocal 
parleying in the interim, and the rebels are accused of vmfairly gaining 
some approaches to the fort during the brief truce. The twenty minutes 
expired, and it was understood that Major Bradford refused to surrender. 

Forrest, after exciting the rivalry and emulation of the rebel Missuuri- 
ans, Mississippians andTennesseeans who surrounded the fort, ordered the 
buglo to sound the charge, which was made with a fierce yell, and the 
works were carried without a halt in the Confederate line. The rebels 
declare that the colored troops retreated toward the river, with their 
arms in their hands, firing b:iek, and their colors flying. This assertion 
is stoutly denied by the few survivors of the massacre which followed. 
The latter affirm that the Federal troops, black and white, threw down 
their arms and .sought to escape by running down the steep bank to the 
river. Some hid themselves behind trees and bushes, and others leaped 
into the river leaving only their heads above water, and were fired upon 
and slain by the victors as soon as discovered. 

The Committee of Congress who made this slaughter the subject of 
special investigation, report many acts of barbarity on the part of the 
rebels, including the shooting in cold blood of M;ijor Bradford, of entire 
gn)ups and lines of prisoners, of the sick and wounded in the hospital, and 
even of women and children ; the burning of the sick and the wounded in 
huts and tents from which escape had been rendered impossible — in a 
■word, that "no cruelty which the most fiendish malignity could devise 
was omitted by them." General Forrest himself, Lieutenant^Gieneral 
S. D. Lee, and other rebel officers who were implicated, denied these 
horrible charges. 

General Forrest admits a loss in the engagement of twenty killed and 
sixty wounded. He captured two ten-pound Parrott guns, two howitzers, 
two brass cannon, three hundred and fifty stand of small arms, one hun- 
dred and sixty white and seventy-three negro troops and forty negro 
women and children. The rest of the garrison was slaughtered, and how 
many refugee citizens and negroes besides will perhaps never be known. 



On the fifth of February, in accordance with general instructions from 
the War Department, and in pursuance of a plan previously submit! cd 
by him, General Gilmore, commander of the Department of the South, set 
on foot an expedition designed to penetrate to the interior of Florida, for 
the purpose of procuring an outlet for large quantities of cotton, lumber 
and timber, which were stored in that region, and to cut off one of the 
most fertile sources of the enemy's supplies. A further object which 
the Federal commander had in view was to obtain recruits for his colored 
regiments from the increased negro population then congregated in that 
part of the State. 

The Confederate force in the State of Florida at that time was mueli 
larger in proportion to the population, than in other Southern States, us in 
addition to eight or ten thousand regular troops, the Governor had enrolled 
most of the arms-bearing population in a home organization for self-de- 
fence, and thus evaded the sweeping conscription of the Davis adminis- 
tration which had been so unsparing in other quarters. 

On the eighth of February, Brigadier-General Truman Seymour, un- 
der instructions of General Gilmore, landed at Jacksonville, and occu- 
pied the tovirn. His force consisted of seven thousand men, and was 
conveyed from the Department headquarters in twenty steamers and 
eight schooners. 

On the afternoon of the eighth he commenced his march for the interior 
of the State, his army moving in tliree columns, which were commanded 
by Colonels Barton, Hawley, and Henry. Colonel Barton moved on the 
main road, while the commands of Colonels Hawley and Henry marched 
on parallel roads to the right of Colom-l Barton, which united, at a dis- 
tance of only three miles, where the infantry camps were spreid for the 
night ; while a battalion of cavalry. Elder's horse Bat'ery B, First artil- 
lery, and the Fourth Massachusetts infantry, under Colonel Guy V. 
Henry, pushed forward on a reconnoissance toward Lake City, through a 
dense pine forest, and over a low, mar.shy soil. After riding a distance 
of eight miles, they surprised and captured an artillery camp of the 
rebels, containing four guns, with the camp equipage and officers' bag- 
gage. Only three prisoners were taken, the rest of the force effecting 
their escape. Tlie advance of the army reached Baldwin the next morn- 
ing, capturing some army stores, and Generals Gilmore and Seymoui 
arrived at that j)lace in the evening. 

Colonel Henry's command still continued in advance, and on the tenth 
captured one thousand barrels of turpentine and a quantity of bacon. A 


icconnoitering party was then advanced to ascertain whether the enemy 
jiurpDsod to di'fund the south fork of the St. Mary's river, while the main 
body followed with due caution. A skirmish ensued at the fork, in which 
four of the Federals were killed and thirteen wounded, when the enemy 
retired, losing live of their men. Colonel Henry reached Sanderson, 
forty miles from Jacksonville, at six p. m. The place had been abandoned 
by the enemy, and a large amount of stores committed to the flames. 
On the eleventh the command encamped five miles from Like City, which 
was held by the enemy but evacuated during th« night. This was un- 
kii'wn to Colonel Henry, and, as he was without infantry, he retraced his 
steps to Sanderson. The most important property captured was as fol- 
lows : Two twelve-pounder rifled guns, two six-pounder guns, one three- 
inch gun, two other guns, five caissons, a large quantity of ammunition, aa 
immense supply of camp and garrison equipage, four railroad cars, one 
hundred and thirteen bales of cotton, four army wagons, one hundred 
and five and mules, a large stock of saddlery, tanning machinery, 
three thousand and eighty-three barrels turpentine, and six thousand 
bushels corn. Three large warehouses were destroyed. 

On the eleventh telegraphic communication was established between 
Jacksonville and Baldwin, and on that day General Gilmore sent instruc- 
tions to General Seymour not to risk a repulse in advancing upon Lake 
Citv, and ahso in case his advance met with serious opposition to concen- 
trate at Sanderson and the south fork of the St. Mary's. On the thirteenth 
General Seymour was further instructed to concentrate at Baldwin with- 
out delay. This was done at once. Meantime, Colonel Henry was sent 
toward the left to capture some railroad trains on the Fernandina and Ce- 
dar Keys railroad, which resulted in a skirmish with a battalion of cavalry 
from East Floiida, who were repulsed. A reconnoissance was made at 
that time by Colonel Scammon along the Georgia State lino, and several 
small works of the enemy were destroyed. 

General Gilmore now departed for Hilton Head, after admonishing 
G-^neial Seymour to avoid a general engagement with the enemy until ho 
should receive further instructions, and until the defences at Jacksonville, 
Baldwin, and the south fork of the St. Mary's should be further advanced. 

On the eighteenth of February, however. General Seymour again took 
the field, and marched from Jacksonville with a force of five thousand 
men, with ten days' rations, and advanced sixteen miles on the line of the 
railroad the first day. On the second day he moved seventeen miles, 
and reached Barber's Station, his men much exhausted by marching over 
bad roads. The twentieth proved to be a beautiful day, and the array 
started at an early hour, with the cavalry in advance. 'I"he line of march 
was now across the south fork of the St. Mary's and towards Sandorsnn, 
niue miles distant, which place they reached without halting. Tue sky 


was clear, and the savannuljs, f-tretcliitig on citlicr side of the sandy road 
winding through the pine woods were warm with the sunshine. The in- 
fantry now made a short halt, but the cavalry ki'pt its position al)Out two 
mill's in advance. The march was resumed at midday toward Lake City, 
General Seymour's force niovod in three columns, Colonel Ilawley's brig- 
ade on the left, Colonel Barton's in the centre, and Colonel Scaiiunou's 
rt'giment on the extreme right. The cavalry in advance were 1(m1 hy 
Colonel Henry with Elder's b ittcry. In the rear was the colored brig- 
ade led by Colonel Montgomery. 


February 20, 18tj4. 

About six miles from Sanderson the enemy's mounted pic1<ets, thirty 
or forty in number, were met and driven in after exchanging shots. The 
main body hurried forward a distance of two miles, when three or four 
cannon shot of the enemy fell among the head of the column. Skir- 
mishing commenced immediately. The artillery dashed into position on 
the gallop, the infantry on the double-quick step, and in a brief period of 
time a severe battle was progressing. Elder's battery unlimbereil at 
t'.ie head of the road, Hamilton's to the left, and Langdon's on the ex- 
treme left, opening at short range with canister shot. The artillery of 
the enemy consisted of four or five guns, and was badly served at lir.^t, 
being fired too high to do injury. General Seymour's line of infunfij 
was well formed for the position. With the exception of a small field of 
a few acres, it was in the woods, amid a heavy growth of pine timbei-, 
and with swampy ground intervening between it and the enemy, of whose 
position nothing was known. The battle lasted for three hours. Two of 
the Federal batteries were disabled early in the action. The Seventh 
New Hampshire broke, but was rallied again. The Eighth United States 
colored fought well until the loss of their leader, when they fled. The 
contest closed at dusk, when General Seymour, finding his force repulsed 
with some loss, and the colored reserve unequal to the emergency, re- 
tired from the field, leaving his dead and wounded The retreat, for a 
short distance, was conducted in successive lines of battle, but finding 
the enemy were not disposed to follow, the line was changed, and the 
force retired in column, Barton's brigade bringing up the rear, covered 
by the cavalry and Elder's battery. A halt was made at Sanderson, 
where coffee was cooked, and some attention given to the woundi'J. 
F;om Sanderson to Barber's Station, says a writer, " ten miles, we 
wended or crawled along, the wounded filling the night air with lanieii- 
tutious, the crippled horses neighing in pain, and a full moon kissing the 


cold, clammy lips of the dying." On the next morning the retreat was 
continued to Baldwin, wlicrc the cavalry of the enemy made their ap- 
pearance. Many of the wounded were here sent on cars drawn by 
mules to Jacksonville, and General Seymour, knowing that the enemy 
wa.s following in force, ordered the commissary stores, worth about sixty- 
thousand dollars, to be destroyed, and resumed his march to Jackson, 
ville. His loss in killed, wounded and missing, in this disastrous and 
ill-advised expedition, was about twelve hundred. 

1 he following di.spatch from the Governor of Florida presents tho 
enemy's account of the battle : 

"Tallahasser, Fla., February 21. 

•' To President Davis : I have just received the following dispatch 
from General Finegan, dated yesterday : 

" ' I met the enemy in full force to-day, under General Seymour, and 
defeated him with great loss. I captured five pieces of artillery, hold 
possession of the battle-field, and the killed and wounded of the enemy. 
My cavalry are in pursuit. I don't know precisely the number of pris- 
oners, as they are being brought in constantly. My whole loss, I think, 
will not exceed two hundred and' fifty killed and wounded. Among 
them T mourn the loss of many brave officers and men.' 

" I understand that General Finegan also captured many small arms. 
(Signed) JOHN MILTON, Governor." 

General Seymour was allowed to occupy Jacksonville unmolested, and 
that place remained in undisputed possession of the Federals for the re- 
mainder of the year, while the rebel commander went into winter quar- 
ters at Camp Finegan, eight miles distant towards Baldwin. 

General Seymour was relieved from command of the Federal forces in 
the State, and shortly after, Major-General Foster was assigned to com- 
mand the Department of the South, in place of General Gilraore, who 
was appointed to the command of the Tenth army corps, in Virginia. 

On llie 20th of July General Birney was dispatched from Jacksonville 
with a small force to the mouth of the Trent creek, whore he destroyed 
two bridjres, and then advancing to Callohan station on the Fernandina 
railroad, he destroyed a telegraph office, some cars, and other property, 
lleturning to Jacksonville, a few days thereafter, he embarked on trans- 
ports to Whitesville, on the north fork of the Black Creek, where a 
sli"-ht skirmish ensued. Baldwin and Camp Milton were afterwards oc- 
cupied by Federal troops, but no military movements of importance 
occurred in Florida during the remainder of the year. 


Februauy 1, 18(J4. 

Before daylight on the 1st of February, a Federal outpost at Tiacholor'a 
Creek, eight miles from Newbcrn, was attacked by a Confederate force 
under General Picket, consisting of a portion of Hoke's, Corse's and 
Clingnian's brigades. The Federal force was surprised by a Mincrior 
force, and after a gallant resistance were defeated, with a loss of about 
one hundred in killed, wounded and missing, and three hundred taken 
prisoners. The Confederate loss was about forty in killed and wounded. 
AVhile it was yet dark, the same force of rebels descended the creek in 
barges, and captured and burned the United States gunboat Underwriter, 
which was aground between Forts Anderson and Stephen, within a mile 
and a half of Nuwbern. 

April 19, 186i 

A serious misfortune befell the Federal anus on the above date in the 
c ipture of Plymouth, an important town on the Roanoke river, eighc miles 
from its mouth. This town had been in possession of the Union forces 
for about two years, by whom it had been almust destroyed at the time 
of its capture. It had since been sirongly fortified, and placed in charge 
of a brave and competent officer, who added new lustre to his well earned 
reputation, by a skillful and soldierly defence. The town was on the 
south bank of the river. A breastwork, with several strong forts along 
its line, had been constructed, while about a mile up the river, another 
defence, called Fort Gray, had been built, which was protected on the 
water front by a triple row of piles, with a number of torpedoes at- 

The rebels had constructed a powerful iron -clad ram, called the Albe- 
marle, in the river above, which had been equipped for some time, and 
was now only waiting the cooperation of land forces to join in assailing the 
Federal defences. 

Two Union gunboats, the Southfield and Miami, were anchored in the 
river opposite the town. General Wessels' garrison consisted of two 
thousand five hundred men, and was composed of the One Hundred and 
First, and the One Hundred and Third Pennsylvania infantry, the ICiglity- 
fifth New York, the Sixteenth Connecticut, two companies of Massachu- 


setts heavy artillery, two companies of North Carolina volunteers, and 
the Twelfth New York cavalry. 

About liiree p. m. on the 17th, the enemy made known his presence by 
a fierce artillery fire upon lun-t (tray, which continued till midnight, and 
was commenced with increa.<ed force at daylight the next morning. 
Before noon two charges were made on the works, which were repulsed. 
The -'unboats took position on either side of the town, and did cfFoctive 
service in driving back the enemy. But now a formidable opponent was 
approaching to attack them on their own element. A picket boat sta- 
tioned up the river gave warning that the ram was coming down, and 
preparation-! were made to meet the dreaded enemy. The two boats 
were lashed together, and thus awaited the onset. When within one hun- 
dred yards the gunboats opened fire, but made no impression on the iron- 
clad. The ram now bore down on the Miami, upon whom she inflicted a 
slight blow, and gliding oif. struck the Southtield on her left side, crush- 
ing in her timl;ers for a space of six or eight feet square. A shell thrown 
from the Miami now struck the ram on her invulnerable sides, and re- 
bounding to the deck of the gunboat, killed her captain, Flusser, and 
wounded eight persons. The boats were torn asunder by their concus- 
sion with the ram, and as the Southfield was rapidly sinking, her crew 
escaped in the boats ; while the Miami, swinging round with the current, 
was glad to make her escape from the unequal contest. 

The Albemarle now came down to the mouth of the river, and in that 
position held complete command of the town and its approaches, and 
effectually shut off all hope of reinforcements or supplies to the 
beleaguered garrison, who surrendered to BrigadierGleneral Hoke, com- 
mander of the Confederate forces, on the ensuing day. General Peek, 
the commander of the department, thus eloquently conveyed the intelli- 
gence to his companions in-arms. 

" Headquarters of the Army and District of ) 

North Carolina, Newbern, N. C, April 21, 18G4. \ 

"With feelings of the deepest sorrow the cummanding general 
announces the fall of Plymouth, N. C , and the capture of its gallant 
commander, Brigadier-General H. W. Wessels, and his command. This 
result, however, did not obtain until after the most gallant and determined 
resistance had been made. Five times the enemy stormed the lines of 
the general, and as many times were they repulsed with great slaughter ; 
and but for the powerful assistance of the rebel iron-clad ram, and the 
floating sharp-shooter battery, the Cotton Plant, Plymouth would still 
have been in our hands. For their noble defence the gallant General 
Wessels and his brave band have, and deserve the warmest thanks of the 
whole countrv, while all will sympathize with them in their misfortune. 

" To the officers and men of the navy the commanding general tenders 


his tlianks for tlicir liearty cooperation with the array, and the bravery, 
determination, and courage that marked their part of the unequal con- 
test. With sorrow he records the death of the nohle sailor and gallant 
{•afcriot, Liuuteniint-Coiiimander C. W. Flusser, U. S. Navy, who in the 
heat of battle fell dead on the deck of his ship, with the lanyard of his 
gun in his hand. 

" The coMiuKinding general believes that these misfortunes will tend, 
not to discourage, but to nerve tlie army of North Carolina to equal 
deeds of bravery and jrallaniry hereafter." 

Sixteen hundred men, and twcnty-iivc pioces of artillery were captured. 
The rebel loss in the attack nearly equalled the number of prisoners taken 

The town of Washington, on the Tar river, was burned in the montb 
of April, at the time it was evacuated by the Federal forces, by unknown 
persons. This act of vandalism, uncalled for and iuhuraan, was con- 
demned in unmeasured terms by General Palaier, the Federal commander. 
The maj »rity of the inhabitants were loyal in their sentiments, and 
many had enlisted in the Federal army. 

Captain Melancthon Smith, who was shortly afterwards appointed to 
command the navy in the waters of the Sound, adopted vigorous measures 
of preparation to meet and subdue the Albemarle, which for the space of 
one month had held undisputed possession of the inner waters. On the 5th 
of May, with the Sassacus, the Wyalusing, and four other vessels, he 
appeared at the mouth of the Roanoke river, when the Albemarle, fol- 
lowed by a small tender, named the Bombshell, came out to attack the 
Union gunboats. It was the design of Captain Smith that the larger 
gunboats should get alongside their antagonist, and fire upon her ports or 
roof, which were her most vulnerable parts ; but the eagerness of the 
smaller vessels to engage rendered a near approach dangerous for some 
time, despite the signals of the commander ; and for half an hour the con- 
test was without result. The gunboats eluded the eflbrts of the Albe- 
marle to ram them, while their fire in turn was harmless to the enemy. 
But the Sassacus, watching a favorable opportunity, struck the ram 
squarely across her starboard beam, which caused her to careen until the 
water was^^hed over her deck and casemates, while from the close prox- 
imity of the vessels, the crew of the Sassacus were enabled to throw 
hand-grenades down the deck-hatch of the ram, while they also made 
fruitless efforts to get powder into her smoke-stack. But the Albemarle 
soon swung clear of her opponent, and in parting sent a hundred-pounder 
rifle shot through her starboard boiler, enveloping the Federal vessel in 
clouds of steam, and compelling her to withdraw from the contest. Tho 
Bombshell was captured by the Federal vessels, and the engagement 
closed without further result, and with ho serious injury. 



On the iiiiiht of the ■27th of Oct/jbcr, Lioutonant W. B. Gushing, a 
voiinir naval officer who had already evinced great coolness and daring 
in hazardous enterprises, was selected to take char^'e of a small launch 
to which was attached a torpedo, and sent on the dangerous mission of 
attempting the destruction of the Alhoniarle. kSelecling a crew of thir- 
teen officers and men who volunteered for the service, he passed several 
mi'es of the enemy's pickets unobserved, and arrived within twenty 
yards of the Albemarle before being hailed by her lookouts. The tor- 
pedo boat was then steered under a full head of steam direct for the 
ram, which lay at hor wharf at Plymouth, protected by a raft of logs ex- 
tending outwards about thirty feet. Upon the alarm being given by the 
lookouts, a confused fire of musketry was opened by the rebels, which 
liad liitlc eflfect. " Passing her closely," says Lieutenant Gushing, " we 
made a complete circle, so as to strike her fairly, and went into her bows 
on. Ey tliis time tlic enemy's fire was very severe, but a dose of canis- 
ter at short range served to moderate their zeal, and di-turb their aim. 
In a moment we had struck the logs, just abreast of the quiirter-porl, 
breasting them in some feet, and our bows resting on them. The torpedo 
b'lom was then lowered, and by a vigorous pull I succeeded in driving 
the torpedo under the overhang, and exploded it at the same time the 
Albemarle's gun was fir(Ml. A shot seemed to go cia-hiug through my 
bnat, and a dense mass of water rushed in from the torpedo, filling the 
la mch, and completely disablingher. The enemy then Continued to fire 
at Qftcen feet range and demanded our surrender, which I twice refused, 
ordering the men to save themselves, and removing my own coat and 
shoes. Springing into the river, I swam with others into the middle of 
the stream, the rebels failing to hit us." Lieutenant Cusliing succeeded 
in reaching the opposite .>^hore, and during the next day made his way by 
stealth through the surrounding swamps to a creek some distance below 
Plymouth, where he found a ^kiiF belonging to a rebel picket, in which ho 
effected his escape to the fleet. Only one other of his party succeeded 
in escaping, the rest b ing cither captured, killed, or drowned. The 
Albemarle was completely submerged by the explosion of the torpedo, 
and so remained long subsequent to the evacuation of Plymouth by the 
rebels. This daring feat excited the admiration of the rebel no less than 
of the Federal authorities, and obtained for Lieutenant Gushing the 
thanks of Congress, and promotion to the next highest grade in the ser- 

Capture of Plymoitii — The main rebel defence of Plymouth being 
thus removed, Commander Macomb, the senior naval officer in tho 


Sounds, with the vessels under his coniinand immediately pushed up 
the river to Pl}'mouth, drove the rebels from their rifle-pits and batteries, 
and on October 3Ist retook the town, capturing a few prisjuers, besides 
cauuuu, small arms, and ammunition 

DiccEMHEU 24, 1S64— Januakt 22, 18G.3. 

During the earlier years of the rebellion, an extensive trade was car- 
ried on through the })ort of Wilmington, N. C, and her merchants were 
growing rich ihruugh a traffic with foreign nations, which the most vigi- 
lant efforts of the numerous vessels employed on the blockade were in- 
3 ithcient to prevent. The many shoals and inlets which traversed and 
intersected her coast, the foggy ami dark nights, and the experienced 
eyes of the native pilots, combined to enable the fleet steamers of light 
draught, which were employed in the trade, to make many successful 
voyages, with but little risk; whUe the State government was in receipt 
of handsome revenues, her perquisites in a commerce of vast profit and 

Wilmington was the most inipq^tant sea-coast port left to the enemy, 
and besides was a point of great strategic value for army movements, 
wliich had been long coveted by the Federal Government. The navy 
had been making strenuous exertions to seal the harbor of Wilmington, 
but with only partial effect. The nature of the outlet of Cape Fear river 
was such that it required watching for so great a distance, that, without 
po:^session of the land n'irth of New Tnlet, or Fort I-'isher, it was impos- 
sible for the navy to entirely close the harbor against the entrance of 

The Federal Government had long sought an opportunity to break up 
this trade, but it was not until September, 1S04, that the exigoueies of 
the war permitted the equipment of an expedition adapted to the cap- 
ture and occupation of Fort Fisher and Wilmington. A large fleet was 
collected in Hampton Roads, in the earlier part of that month, under the 
command of Admiral D. D. Porter, but it was late in December before 
all the vessels and transports connected with the enterprise were pre- 
pared to sail for their destination. 

General Grant, in his report of this campaign, gives the following do- 
tails of the preliminary operation : 

" To secure the possession of these places required the cooperation 
of a land force, which I agreed to furnish. Immediately commenced the 
assemblage in Hampton lloads, under Admiral D. D. Porter, of the most 


funuidablo armada ever cullcctod for concentration upon one given point. 
This necessarily attracted the attention of the enemy, as well as that of 
the loyal North ; and through the imprudence of the public press, and 
very likely of officers of both branches of service, the exact object of 
the expedition became a common subject of discussion in the newspapers; 
both north and south. The enemy, thus warned, prepared to meet it. 
This caused a post[ioncinent of the expedition until the latter part of 
November, when being again called upon by Honorable G. V. Fox, As- 
sistant-Secretary of the Navy, I agreed to furnish the men required at 
once, and went myself, in company with Major-Gencral ]>utler, to Hamp- 
ton lloads, where we had a conference with Admiral Porter as to the 
force required and the time of starting. A force of six thousand five 
hundred men was regarded as sufficient. The time of starting was not 
definitely arranged, but it was thought all would be ready by the 6th 
December, if not before. Learning on the 80th November that ]>ragg 
had gone to Georgia, taking with him most of the forces about Wilming- 
ton, I deemed it of the utmost importance that the expedition should 
reach its destination before the return of Erag',', and directed General 
Butler to make all arrangements for the departure of M ijor-Gcncral 
Wcitzel, who had been designated to command the land forces, so that 
the navy mii:ht not be detained one moment. 

" On tiie 6th of December the folli^ving instructions were given : 

" ' City Point, Va., December 6, 1864. 
" ' General : The first object of the expedition under General Weitzel 
is to close to the euoray the port of Wilmington. If successful in this, 
the second will be to capture Wilmington itself. There are reasonable 
grounds to hope for success, if advantage can be taken of the absence 
of the greater part of the enemy's forces now looking after Sherman in 
Georgia. The directions you have given for the numbers and equipment 
of the expedition are all right, except in the unimportant matter of where 
they embark and the amount of intrenehment tools to be taken. The 
object of the expedition will be gained by etfecting a landing on the main 
land between Cape Fear river and the Atlantic, north of the north 
entrance to the river. Should such landing be effected while the enemy 
.«<fill holds Fort Fisher, and the batteries guarding the entrance to the 
river, then the troops should entrench themselves, and, by cooperating 
with the navy, eficct the redaction and capture of those places. These in 
our hands, the navy could enter the harbor, and the port of Wilmington 
would be scaled. Should Fort Fisher and the point of land on which it 
is built fall into the hands of our troops immediately on landing, then it 
^rill he worth the attempt to capture Wilmington by a forced march and 
surprise. If time is consumed in gaininir the first object of the expedi- 
tion, the second wilt become a matter of after consideration. 


"'The details for execution are intrusted to you and tlic officer imme- 
diately in command of the troops. 

" ' Should the troops under General Wcitzol fail to effect a landing at 
or near Furt Fisher, they will be returned to the armies uiterating 
against llichmond without delay. 

" ' U. S. GP.AXT, Lieutenant-aencral. 

" ' Major-Gcneral 15. F. Butler.' " 

" General Butler commanding the army from which the troops were 
taken for this enterprise, and the territory within which they were to 
operate, military courtesy required that all orders and instructions should 
go through him. Thoy were so sent; but General Weitzcl has since offi- 
cially informed nie that he never received the foregoing instructions, nor 
was he aware of their existence until he road General Butler's published 
official report of the Fort Fisher failure, with my endorsement and pupers 
accom|ianying it. I had no idea of General Butler's accompanying 
the expedition until the evening before it got off from Bermada [Innlreds, 
and then did not dream but that General Weitzel had received all the 
instructions, and would be in command. I raiher formed the idea that 
General Butler was actuated by a desire to witness the effect of the 
explo.sion of the powder-boat. The expedition was detained several days 
at lliimpton Roads, awaiting the loading of the powder-boat. 

" The importance of getting the Wilmington expedition oft" without any 
delay, with or without the powder-boat, had been urged upon General 
Butler, and he advised to so notify Admiral Porter. 

"The expedition finally got off on the 13th of December, and arrived 
at the place of rendezvous, off New Inlet, near Fort Fisher, on the even- 
ing of the 15;h. Admiral Porter arrived on the evening of the 13th, 
having put in at Beaufort to get ammunition for the monitors. The sea 
becoming rough, making it difficult to land troops, and the supply of 
water and coil being about exhausted, the transport fleet pu*". back 
to Beaufort to replenish ; this, with the state of the weather, delayed the 
return to the place of rendezvous until the 24th. 

On the 25th a landing was effected without opposition, and a recoo- 
nois.'^aiice, under Brevet Brigadier-General Curtis, pushed up toward the 

The army consisted of General Ames's division of the Twenty-fourth 
corps, and of General Paine's colored division of the Twenty-fifth corps, 
numbering together six thousand five hundred effective men. 

The attacking force of Admiral Porter consisted ot" thirty-seven vessels, 
five of which were ironclads, with a reserve of thirteen vessels, while 
the transports and smaller vessels were seventy in number. 

Colonel Comstock, chief military engineer of the expedition, thus 
describes the defcuces of the inlet aud Fort Fisher : 


" The land front consists of a half bastion on the left or Cnpe Fear 
river side, connected by a curtain with a bastion on the ocean side. The 
parapet is twoiity-flvc feet thick, averages twenty feet in height, with 
traverses rising ten feet above it and running back on their tops, which 
are from eiglit to twelve feet in thickness, to a distance of from thirty to 
forty feet from the interior crest. The traverses on the left half bastion 
are about twenty-five feet in length on top. The earth for this heavy 
parapet and the enormous traverses at their inner ends, more than thirty 
feet in height, was obtained partly from a shallow exterior ditch, 
but mainly from the interior of the work. Between each pair of 
traverses there was one or two guns. The traverses on the right of this 
front were only partially completed. A palisade, which is loopholed and 
has a banquette, runs in front of this face, at a distance of fifty feet in 
front of the exterior slope, from the Cape Fear river to the ocean, with a 
position for a gun between the loft of the front and the river, and another 
between the right of the front and the ocean. Through the middle traverse 
on the curtain is a bomb-proof postern whose exterior opening is covered 
by a small redan for two field-pieces, to give flank fire along the curtain. 
The traverses are generally bomb-proofed for men or magazines. The 
slupes of the work appear to have been revetted with marsh sod 
or covered with grass, and have an inclination of forty-five degrees or a 
little less. * * * There were originally on this front twenty-one 
guns and three mortars. • * * Tlie sea front consists of a scries 
of batteries, mounting in all twenty-four guns, the different batteries 
bcino' connected by a strong infantry parapet so as to form a continuous 
line. The same system of heavy traverses for the protection of the guns 
is used as on the land front, and these traverses are also generally bomb- 
proofed." There was also a rebel battery, comn.anding the channel, on 
Zeeko's island, two miles south-east of Fort Fisher, and several miles 
north of the latter were the Flag Pond Hill and Half Moon batteries, 
serving as outworks to it. 

The expedition was delayed two days waiting for the equipment of a 
powdcr-bnat, on which two hundred and fifteen tons of powder were 
stored, with the hope of destroying the face of Fort Fisher, by its explo- 
sion on the edge of the beach opposite the works. The gunboat Louisiana 
was selected for the purpose, and disguised as a blockade-runner, she 
approached the fort before daylight on the morning of December 24th, 
was anchored four hundred yards from tlie works without observation, 
and there exploded, producing no sensible effect on the works. The 
rebels were not aware of the object of this expedition, nntil informed 
tlirough the northern papers. 

At noon on the same day, the fleet got into position, and bombarded 


the fort until dark. They renewed fire on the next morning, and con- 
tinued it without intermission all day. More than twenty thousand shots 
were thrown from fifty vessels of war, while the rebel response numbered 
only about twelve hundred shots. Under cover of this tremendous fire, 
a body of troops was landed, on the afternoon of the 25th, with the inten- 
tion of storming the fort. The ground in front and rear of the fort was 
torn up with shells, and some of the guns dismounted ; but a careful 
roconnoissance, under the eyes of General Wcitzcl, revealed the fact 
that the foit was uninjured, and that an attempt to .•^torm the place with 
the force and matei ial then at the disposal of the commander-in-chief, 
could not be undertaken with any probability of success. This view was 
sustained by other engineer officers attached to the expedition, and was 
confirmed by the evidence of the rebel commander of the fort. The 
troops were accordingly reembarkcd on the transports, and returned to 
their former position in the army of the James. The Committee on the 
Conduct of the War, after a rigid examination of General Butler s conduct 
in this affair, acquitted him of all blame in the matter. 

Almost from the first inception of the enterprise, there was a want of 
harmony between General Butler and Admiral Porter, which destroyed 
all unity of action, and contributed in great measure, to the failure of 
the expedition. General Butler also incurred the severe dis^pleasure of 
General Grant, first in accompanying the expedition as its cummander, 
and finally by his conduct in withdrawing the troojis, which General 
Grant regarded as a breach of orders, for which General Butler was im- 
mediately relieved from command. 

The embarkation was accomplished on the morning of the 27th. General 
Grant thus details the preliminaries of a subsequent expedition in which 
Major-Gene ral A. H. Terry was appointed to command the land forces : 

" Soon after the return of the expedition, I received a dispatch from 
the Secretary of the Navy, and a letter from Admiral Porter, informing 
me that the fleet was still off Fort Fisher, and expressing the conviction 
that, under a proper leader, the place could be taken. The natural 
supposition with me was that, when the troops abandoned the expedition, 
the navy would do so also. Finding it had not, however, I answered on 
the 30ih of December, advising Admiral Porter to hold on, and that I 
would send a force, and make another attempt to take the place. This 
time I selected Brevet Major-Gencral (now M;sjor-General) A. H.. Terry 
to command the expedition. The troops composing it consisted of the 
same that compo.-^ed the former, with the addition of a small brigade, 
numbering about fifteen hundred, and a small siege train The latter 
it was never found necessary to land. I communicated direct to the com- 
mander of the expedition, the following instructions ; 



"City Point, Va., January 3, 1S^5. 

" General : The expedition entrusted to your coinniand has been 
fitted out to renew the attempt to capture Fore Fisher, N. C, and Wil- 
mington u'timately, it" the fort falls. You will, then, proceed with as 
little delay as possible to the naval fleet lying off Cape Fear river, and 
report the arrival of yourself and command to Admiral D. D. Porter, 
commanding North Atlantic blockading Squadron. 

" It is exceedingly desirable that the most complete understanding 
should exist betvi'een yourself and the naval commander. I suggest, 
therefore, that you consult with Admiral Porter frei^Iy and get from him 
the part to be performed by each branch of the public service, so that 
there may be unity of action. It would be well to have the whole pro- 
gramme laid down in writing. I have served witli Ad:iiiral Porter, and 
know that you can rely on his judgment and his nerve to undertake what 
he proposes. I would, therefore, defer to him as much as is consistent 
■with your own responsibilities. The first object to be attained is to got 
a firm position on the spit of land on which Fort Fisher is built, from 
which you can operate against that fort. You want to look to the practi- 
cability of receiving your supplies, and to defending yourself against 
superior forces sent against you by any of the avenues left open to the 
enemy. If such a position can be obtained, the siege of Fort Fisher will 
not be abandoned until its reduction is accomplished, or another plan of 
campaign is ordered from those headquarters. 

" My own views are that, if you eff"ect a landing, the navy ought to r;in 
a portion of their fleet into Cape Fear river, while the balance of it 
operates on the outside. Land forces cannot invest Furt Fisher or cut it 
off from supplies or reinforcements, while the river is in possession uf 
the enemy. 

" A siege train will bo loaded on vessels and sent to Fort Monroe, in 
readiness to be sent to you if required. All other supplies can be 
drawn from Beaufort as you need them. 

" Keep the fleet of vessels with you until your position is assured. 
When you find they can be spared, order them back, or such of ihcm as 
you can spare, to Fort Monroe, to report for orders. 

" In case of failure to eflect a landing, bring your command back to 
Beaufort, and report to these headquarters for further instructions. You 
will not debark at Beaufort until s :; directed. 

" General Sheridan has been ordered to send a division of troops to 
Baltimore, and place them on sea-going vessels. These troops will be 
brought to Fort Monroe and kept there on the vessels until you aro 
heard from. Should you require them they will be sent to you. 

" U. S. GEANT, Lieutouaut General. 

" Brevet Major-General A. II. Teury." 


"Lieutenant-Colonel C. B. Comsfook, aiile-dc-catnp (now brevet briga- 
dior goncral), who accotnpanicd the former expedition, was assigned in 
orders as chief engineer to this. 

"It will be seen that these instructions did not differ materially from 
those given for the first expedition; and that in neither instance was 
there an order to assault Fort Fisher. This was a matter left entirely to 
the discretion of the commanding officer." 

The expedition sailed from Fort Monroe on the morning of the Gth, 
arriving on the rendezvous, off Beaufort, on the 8th, where, owing to the 
difficulties of the weather, it lay until the morning of the 12th, when it 
got under way and reached its destination that evening. 

The severity of the sturm had scattered the vessels of the fleet, as well 
as the transports, but on the 12th, the combined force was slowly wend- 
ing its way up the widely-expanded mouth of Cape Fear river. Admiral 
Porter, in his flagship, the Malvern, took his station at the head of the 
gunboat fleet, while the flag of General Terry was waving from the 
McClellan. The ships in the long line were lost to view beneath the 
roll of the waves, while the whole surface of the water, far as the eye 
could reach, was dotted at short intervals by the transports, in regular 
order, preceded and flanked by the guarJian gunboats. 

Signal lights were rajiidly intercha god between the squadron and the 
blockade vessels near the shore, while an immense bonfire in the rear d 
Fort Fisher, gave warning to the inhabitants of Wilmington of the 
approach of the fleet. 

On the morning of the ISth, the frigate Brooklyn, followed by other 
vessels, skirted the shore, at the distance of a mile, throwing enormous 
shells into the forest at intervals, and into every spot where it was possi- 
ble a rebel force or battery might be concealed. After this effectual re- 
cornoissance, preparations were m:ide to land the troops, and at three 
r. M. it was completed without loss. While this was in progress, the New 
Ironsides, accompanied by the monitors, took position within point- 
blank range of Fort Fisher, and opened a terrific fire. The landing was 
effected upon a strip of hard beach about two hundred feet in width, five 
miles above Fort Fisher. 

Early in the afternoon the rebel fleet came down to Fort Fisher from 
Wilmington, bringing reinforcements and supplies. At half past tour 
Admiral Porter signaled for the rest of the fleet to come forward and 
take part in the bombardment. The fire of the ships was so incessant 
that they soon became enveloped in their own smoke, and beneath tlie 
power of the immense missiles hurled into the fort and against its walls, 
the solid cmbaiikment began to crumble, and the garrison to forsake their 

The troops had, meantime, slowly advanced towards the works, hoping 


that a breach might soon be cffecteil, sufficient to warrant an assault. All 
night long a slow but constant fire was kept up by Uie monitors, affording 
the garrison no opportunity of repose. At daylight it was discovered 
that the flag-staff had been shot away, but at eight o'clock it was replaced 
by another, showing the determination of the garrison still to resist the 
tremendous force that waq arrayed against them. 

The troops had now thrown up two lines of breastworks across the 
peninsula, extending from the ocean to Cape Fear river, and had ad- 
vanced their line to within a mile of the fort. 

During the morning of Sunday, the 15'-h, the b.imbardinent still con- 
tin led, eliciting but feeble and occasional response from the enemy, 
while the immense shots from the fleet were striking the fort, for some 
time, at the rate of three or four a minute. 'By noon the sea fjce of the 
fort was so battered that it was thought a successful charge might be 
made. Under cover of the fire of the fleet, one thousand si.x hundred 
sailors, armed with cutlasses, revolvers, and carbines, and four hun Ired 
marines, the whole commanded by Fleet-Captain K. 11. Breese, were 
landed on the beach, and by digging rifle-pits worked their way up with- 
in two hundred yards of the fort. The troops selected for the assault 
were Ames's division, comprising the brigades of Curtis, Pennyp cker 
and Bell, while Paine's division of colored troops and Abbott's brigade 
held the intrtMichnients facing Wilmington, against which Hoke's troops, 
estimated at five thousand strong, hai begun to demonstrate. At 3.30 
p. M signal was made from the shore to the fleet to change the direction 
of the fire, in order that the troops might assault ; and soon afterwards 
the sailors rushed with reekiess energy towa d the parapet of the fort, 
which at once swarmed with rebel soldiers, who poured in upon them a 
murderous fire of musketry. The marines, who were to have covered 
the assaulting ] arty, for some unexplained reason failed to fire upon the 
rebels on the parapet, all of whom, in the opinion of Admiral Porter, 
might have been killed. " I saw," he said, " how recklessly the rebels 
exposed themselves, and what an advantage they gave our sharpshootcr.o, 
whose guns were scarcely fired, or fired with no preci-ion. Notwith- 
standing the hot, officers and sailors in the lead rushed on, and some 
even reached the parapet, a large number having entered the ditch. 
The advance was swept from the parapet like chaff, and, notwitlistanding 
all the efforts maile by the commanders of companies to stay them, the 
men in the rear, seeing the slaughter in front, and that they were not 
covered by the marines, commenced to retreat ; and, as there is no stop- 
ping a sailor, if he fails on such an occasion on the first rush, I saw the 
whole thing had to be i;iven up." The attack on this part of the fort, 
though a failure, diverted a part of the enemy's attention, and rendered 
the work laid out for the main storming column of troops much easier. 


At the word of command, the division of General Ames, which had 
been gradually drawn forward undor the shelter of hastily-formed 
breastworks, rushed toward the fort, the brigade of Curtis taking the 
lead. The palisades had been so much injured by the fire of the fleet 
tliat a few vigorous strokes from the axemen sufficed to clear gaps for 
the passage of the troops, and, in the face of a severe enfilading fire, a 
loJgmeut was soon effected on the west end of the land front. Penny- 
packer's and Bell's brigades followed in rapid succession, the latter 
moving between the work and the river. " Oq this side," says General 
Terry, " there was no regular parapet, but there was an abundance of 
cover afforded to the eneuiy by cavities, from which sand hud been taken 
for the parapet, the ruins of barracks and store-houses, the large maga- 
zine, and by traverses behind which they stubbornly resisted our ad- 
vance. Iland-to-hand fighting of the most desperate character ensued. 
The first brigade dashed forward with a run, and reaching the parapet 
near the western extremity of the north face, gained a foothold within 
tlie enclosed space of the fort, by entering within through the gaps of 
the palisades. They had now not only to maintain the position thoy had 
obtained, but to advance, in the face of a determined foe, to the succeed- 
ing traverses, over thirty feet in height, and were compelled to capture 
nine or ten in succession before the rebel forces yielded to the repeated 

Each traverse was in reality an independent fort, enclosing within its 
dense walls, a room entered by a passage so narrow that two men could 
easily defend it against a large force. During the assault. General Amea' 
men were exposed to a galling fire of artillery and musketry, while Fort 
Buchanan on the southwest also opened fire on the Federal columns. 
Abbott's brigade and a regiment of colored troops, dispatched by Gen- 
eral Terry, reinforced General Ames before dark, followed soon after by 
the general-in-chief and hia staff. Generals Curtis and Pennybacker 
were badly wounded in the assault, and Colonel Bell received mortal 

It was not until after ten o'clock at night that all resistance ceased, 
and the star-spangled banner floated out in the bright moonlight unchal- 
lenged over the crumbled ramparts. When General Terry telegraphed 
to Admiral Porter the final result, " we stopped fire," says the Admiral, 
'' and gave them three of the heartiest cheers I ever heard. It was the 

jst terrific struggle I ever saw. The troops have covered themselves 
tvith glory ; and General Terry is my beau-ideal of a general." The gar- 
rison consisted of two thousand three hundred men, of whom one thou- 
sand nine hundred and seventy-one, with one hundred and twelve officers, 
were captured. The rest were killed and wounded. Their commanders, 
General Whiting and Colonel Lamb, were both captured, badly wounded. 


Tlie loss of tlic Federal army was one hundred and ten killed, and five 
hundred and thirty-six wounded. That of the navy was between two 
and three hundred in killed and wounded, principally in the assaulting 
column of sailors, and by the explosion of two fifieen-inch guns on board 
the monitors. The ships sustained but triSing damage. 

The greater part of the guns of the fort were dismounted, or othorwise 
injured by the tire of the fleet, but the work itself received no damage 
wliich was not susceptible of immediate repair, its strength being about 
the same as before the bombardment. According to Admiral Porter, 
who had visited the Malakoif during the siege of Sebastopol, Fort Fisher 
was a much more formidable work than that celebrated stronghold. 
Its capture caused an almost unprecedented rejoicing throughout the 
United States. The capture of the fort sealed the fate of the rebel 
supremscy in Cape Fear river. 

On the 16th and 17th the enemy abandoned and blew up Fort Caswell 
and the works on Smith's island, which were immediately occupied by 
the Federal forces. 

Tlie advance up the river was a continuous battle. On the night of 
the 21st, the rebels commenced destroying their materials and stores in 
Wilmington. Fifteen thousand barrels of resin, and one thousand bales 
of cotton were destroyed, and extensive cotton sheds, steam-mills and 
turpentine works were consumed. At daylight on the morning of the 
22d, General Terry's troops entered the city, and the reign of the rebel- 
lion in that important city was at an end. 

Febuuary 28— ]MARcn 5, 1861. 

A very daring and succe^^sful expedition was undertaken by this intre- 
pid leader on the 2Sth of February, in which much damage was inflicted 
on the two principal railroads on which General Lee received supplies 
for his army, and a great deal of public property was destroyed. Tlie 
command left Stevensbtirgh, Virginia, on Sunday night, March 28, and 
crossing Ely's Ford, on the Rapidan, proceeded thence by rapid marches 
to Spottsylvania, Beaver Dam Station, on the Virginia Central railroad, 
to the furtiQcations of Richmond, crossing the Virginia Central railroad 
and the Chickahominy river near the Meadows, and the WIiite-House rail- 
road, a little eist of Tunstall's Station, thence to New-Kent Court-House 
and Williamsburgh Court-House. 

General Kilpatrick was not without hopes of entering Richmond by a 
surprise movement, and also of liberating njany Federal prisoners, who 
were confined in that city and its environs. 


In order to divert tlie attcution of the rebel commanders from tlic pro- 
posed raid, and also to attract the bulk of their cavalry in other direc- 
tions, fifteen hundred cavalry, led by General Custer, under cover of an 
advance by the Sixth and Third corps to Madison Court-llouse, left Cul- 
pepper Court-llouse siniukaucoasly with the departure of Kilpatrii^k 
from Steveasburgh. General Custer, after advancing to within a few 
miles of Charlottesville, found the Confederates in very heavy force, and 
hopeful of cutting off his command, which had now advanced twenty 
miles beyond infantry support. In order to avoid the enemy, he led his 
men through Luray Valley, by one of the gaps of the Blue llidge, thus 
avoiding a very formidable force tliat was waiting to intercept him at the 
road by which he went out. Several small bodies of the enemy were 
encountered, and sixty prisoners taken. Ten or twelve of the Federals 
were wounded in these encounters, but no lives were lost, and General 
Custer reached the infantry lines at Madison, in safety. 

General Kilj atrick's force consisted of his own division, a portion 
of Merritt's and Gregg's divisions, and a light battery of six guns, in all 
nearly eight thousand men. The troops reached Spottsylvania late nt 
night, and a detachment headed by Captain Estes, of Kilpatrick's staff, 
one of the bravest men in the army, moved rapidly forward to Bjaver 
Dam on the Virginia Central railroad, reaching that place at five p. M. oa 
Monday, when the work of destrucf.on commenced. Small parties were 
sent up and down the railroad to tear up the track, burn the bridges, 
and destroy the rails by heating and bending them ; this was compara- 
tively an easy task, for there were thousands of cords of pine wood piled 
along the track. A large new brick freight-house, the telegraph-office, 
passenger-depot, engine-house, water-tank, several cars, and a number of 
out-buildings, were all set on fire. While engaged in this work, a train 
loaded with troops appeared, and a portion of them disembarked. A 
charge was made by the cavalry, in which thirty -two of the rebels were 

At Frederickshall, a " court-martial " was captured, consisting of a 
colonel, five captains and two lieutenants. 

Detachments were now sent out in various directions, in order to 
destroy the railroad at other points, while the main body moved forward, 
and on Monday night cros.sed the South Anna river. The detached 
parties encountered small bodies of the enemy in all directions, and 
skirmished with varied success. 

Tuesday morning, at half-past ten, found the command passing the 
outer earthworks on the Brook turnpike, within three and a half miles 
of Richmond. Several citizen soldiers were here captured, and many of 
the inhabitants eiiotmntored, who were unsuspicious of the character of 
the Federal cavalry. When within the second line of defences, the 
skirmishers encountered the first shots from Battery No. 9, near the 


third line. Skirmislnng was here kept up until between four and five 
o'clock, General Kilpatrick anxiously awaiting some tidings from Colonel 
Dahlgren's command ; when relinquishing hopes of the success of that 
officer in his attempt to reach lliclimond by way of the James river canal, 
General Kilpatrick withdrew in the direction of Mechanicsville, burning 
the trestle-work of the railroad across the Chiekahominy on his route. 

Colonel Dahlgren, with five hundred men, was detached at Fred - 
erickshall, with instructions to move to the right of llichmond, and 
destroy as much of the James river canal as possible, and attempt the 
deliverance of the prisoners at Belle Isle. 

Colonol Dahlgren had taken a negro to pilot him to Kichmond. His 
detachment/ had rapidly moved across the country, destroying barns, 
forage and everything which could possibly be of service to the enemy. 
He soon discovered that his negro guide had betrayed him, and led him 
toward Goochland instead of to Richmond, and on Tuesday night he found 
himself miles in the opposite direction from that which he wished to take. 
Exasperated by this treachery, the men burned the barns and out* 
buildings of John A. Stiddons, the rebel Secretary-of-War. Retracing 
his steps, Colonel Dahlgren marched down the river road, destroying 
the Dover flour-mills, and several flouring establishments and saw-:iiills. 
His force also did considerable injury to the James river canal, burning 
canal boats and seriously damaging one or two locks. They did not 
reach the imnifdiate vicinity of Richmond till afternoon, when everybody 
was on the alert, Kilpatrick having already made his attack. 

Colonel Dahlgren's detachment was divided into several parties for 
the accomplishraant of diff"orent objects, keeping together, however. One 
party attempted to cross the river, but were repulsed. A very sharp 
fiwht ensued, and, finding the enemy in superior numbers and confronting 
them on every road, the force was compelled to fall back. 

In attempting to cut their way out. Colonel Dahlgren and Major 
Cook of the Secand Ne.v York, with about one hundred and fifty mea 
were separated from the rest, and Colonel Cook was taken prisoner. The 
other detachments succeeded in rejoining General Kilpatrick. 

A Confederate correspondent thus describes the tragic close of Colonel 
Dahlgren's expedition: 

"Lieutenant Pollard had been watching the movements of the enemy 
all day on Wednesday, in King William, and ascertained that night that 
Dahlgren, with about twi hundred of his followers, had crossed the Mat- 
tapony at Aylett's. With his own men be crossed over and followed the 
retreating raiders. On reaching the forks of the road, a few miles above 
Walkcrtown, Lieutenant Pollard learned that the enemy had taken the 
river road, leading to that place. Leaving a few men to follow on after 
them, he q'littjd tiic main road with the larger portion of the force at hia 


throwing himself in front of the enemy and awaited his approach. In 
the mean time he had been joined by the homo-.ruard.s of Kini and 
Queen County, and a few men of Kubuins's battalion. A little before 
eleven o'clock at night the enemy approached on the road in which tlicy 
were posted. A lire was at once opened upon them ; but their leader, 
Colonel Dalilgren, relying, perhaps, upon their numbers, or stung by 
chagrin at his failure to capture Richmond, determined to force his way 
t'lruugli, and at once formiiig his men, ordered a charge, which he led 
himself. It proved, iiowever, a fatal charge to him ; fo'*, in the onset, he 
was pierced with a ball and fell dead. Afier his fall, the command could 
not be rallied, but were soon thrown into confusion inextricable. Our 
boys, noticing this, availed themselves of the opportunity it afforded, and 
used it to the best advantage. Dashing in ammg the discomtitod foe, 
the\' succeeded in capturing ninety prisoners, thirty-five negroes, and one 
hundred and lifty horses. The body of Dahlgren also fell into their hands." 
A cavalry force from General Butior's command had been sent out 
froai Williamsburg, to render assistance, if needed, to General Kil- 
patrick. A junction was effected atTunstall's Station, and the whole 
body, accompanied by the balance of Colonel Dahlgren's cavalry, pro- 
ceeded to Williamsburg. The entire loss of the expedition was about 
one liuridred and fifty in killed and wounded, and one hundred and sixty 
in prisoners and missing. 


In January, 1SG4, a Convention of Delegates, representing the 
of Arkansas, met at Little Rock, and remodelled the State Constitution, so 
as forever to abolish slavery. The Convention also elected a Provisional 
Government, under which efforts were made to restore quiet throughout 
the State. But the Confederates were still powerful in Arkansas, and 
the current of affairs was frequently vexed by rebel demonstrations, 
throughout the year. Engagements between the Unionists and roving 
squads of rebels were numerous, and sometimes disastrous. The oi-- 
ganized forces of the Confederacy, stationed at various points in the State, 
numbered upwards of twenty-one thousand, and ihey were rarely idle. 

Among the many minor battles which were fought at this time may be 
mention 'd that of Cotton Plant, which happened on the twenty-second of 
April, and which may stand as a type of all the rest. It was incidental to 
the progress of an expedition, which had been sent out from Little Rock, 
to relieve the town of Batesville, on White river, from a threatened 
attack by the rebels under General McRae. The National force consisted 


of the Eighth Missouri cavalry, and was coiniuandad by Colonel, after- 
wards (Joueral Aiidiowa. The battle lasted four hours, and was hotly 
oontestod. Tlie Unionists lo.^t twentv-sevea men, killed and wuuude J, 
while the rebel loss was upwards of one hundred. Colonel AuJrews's 
horse was shot beneath him. The expedition resulted successfully. 

The most important military movement, however, which took place in 
Arkans-is, this year, was an expedition from Little Rock, that setfurthon 
tho twenty-third of March, moving in a suuth-westeriy direciion, and de- 
Bign<>d to cooperate with General Banks, in his advance on Shreveport, 
Louisiana. The National force consisted of the Seven:h Army Corps. 
The expedition was not successful in its ultimate design, but it led to one 
important battle, and it enabled the Unionists, in several encounters with 
the enemy, to display great courage and endurance and to win distinction. 
On the lifteenth of April, after frequent fights with detachments of the reb- 
el-', under Marmaduke, Shelby, Cabell, andDockery, General Steele took 
ji'jssession of Camden, an important point on the Washita river. Here 
ho rem.iined eleven days, when he received intelligence of disaster 
to Bank-i, such as would preclude the proposed attack on Shreveport, and 
learned, also, that Kirby Smith was advancing, with eight thousand 
troops, to reinforce Price. Under those circumstances General Steele 
resolved to abandon Camden and retire towards Little Rock, This move- 
ment was begun on the night of April twenty-eighth. On the thirtieth 
the enemy was encountered, near Jenkins's Ferry, on the river Sabine, 
where occurred the important fight which we have mentioned above. 
The enemy's force was found to be large, and consisted of all his troops 
ill southwestern Arkansas, and also some from Louisiana, and was com- 
manded by General Smitli, General Price, General Walker, and General 
Churchill. The forces under General Steele consisted of the commands 
of Generals Salomon, llice, Thayer, Ingleman, and Colonel Benton. 
It was found impossible to cross the Sabine on the night when the .roops 
reached it, in consequence of a heavy rainstorm and intense darkness, 
but the pontoon bridge was laid, and a small force of tho Unionists 
crossed over. 0:i the morning of the battle the rain poured in torrents, 
and in the midst of the storm the artillery trains and men were obliged 
to cross the river. Skirmishing had coinmeuced in the rear with the dawn of day, and a general and fierce engagement s^peedily suc- 
ceeded, which continued for seven hours. The enemy fought with the 
wild desperation which characterized all their jdlched battles, but were 
finally repul>cd with very heavy loss. General Steele lost seven hun- 
dred tncn in killed and wounded, but secured a safe retreat to Little 
Eock, which he reached on the second day of May ; and also redeemed, 
for the time, that portion of Arkansas and the State of Missouri from 
the hands of the rebels. The conduct of the troops under General Steele 


was of the most noble description throughout the whole campaign, as will 
be seen by the following address to his men : 

Headquarters Depaiitmknt of Arkansas, ) 
L.TTLE Rock, May 9. \ 

" To you, troops of the Seventh Army Corps, who participated in the re- 
cent campaign designed to cooperate with General Banks's niovenn'nl 
against Shreveport, the Majin--General commanding tenders his earnest 
and grafcfiil thanks. Although you were compelled to fall back without 
seeing the main object of ihe expedition accomplished, you will have the 
sitisfaction of knowing that you have beaten the enemy wlierever he has 
met you in force, and extricated yourselves from the peri!oas position in 
which you were placed by the reverses of the cooperating column. This 
let loose upon you a superior force of the enemy, under one of their best 
generals, causing the loss of your trains and the total interruption of 
your communicatiuns, rendering it impossible for you to obtain supplies. 
You have fallen back over rivers and swamps, while pressed by a supe- 
rior force of the enemy. This you have done successfully, punishing the 
enemy severely at -the same time. 

" The patience with which you have eudured hardships and privations, 
and your heroic conduct on the battle-held, have been brought to the 
notice of the Government, and will furnish a page in the history of this 
war of which you may well be proud. 

" F. STEELE, Major-General Commanding." 

The rebel force subsequently became still more formidable in the 
Siate of Arkansas, owing to the failure of Banks's Red river expedition. 
Large fotces of Confederates, relieved from the necessity of opposing 
Banks, were enabled to concentrate in Arkansas, and keep General 
Steele at bay, in Little Rock. So completely, indeed, did the rebels 
overrun the State, that, by the close of the year 1864, Little Rock, Fort 
Smith, Pine Bluff, Duval's Bluff, and a few other points, were all that the 
National arms preserved, Tlie State was, likewise, furnished with 
a rebel State government ; and, altogether its affairs seemed anything but 
promising to tlie hopes of rhc Unionists within its borders. 

Having ample troops in Arkansas, and desiring to work as much mis- 
chief as possible, the rebel General Price prujecled an 

September, 1864. 
This movement, as may well be imagined, created no small excitement. 
It led, moreover, to several lively encounters between the Unionists and 
the Coufederates. but it ended in utter discomfiture to the rebel arms. 


General Price's forces consisted of between fifteen and twenty thousand 
men. while, at the time his invasion couimonccd — September 21st, 186 i — 
the Union troops in Missouri, commanded by General lluseciaiis, numbered 
less than seven thousand. At the first note of danger, however, rein- 
forcements were hurried forward to the aid of that gallant commander. 
It appeared, at first, as if the rebels piopused moving on Springfield ; 
but, eventually, they turned in the direction of St. Louis. They were 
first encountered at Pilot Kuob, which was bravely and successfully 
dcroiided by the Union forces under General Ewing, consisting of 
the Fourteenth Iowa and the Forty-seventh Missouri, with detachments 
of the State militia. A severe fight took place at Pilot Kr.ob, on Septem- 
ber 27th, in which the rebels were discomfited. Meanwhile, St. TiOuis 
was rapidly put into condition to meet and repel any possible rebel 
attack, and a large force of State troops, under Generals Browo and Fisk, 
was concentrated at Jefferson City, the capital of Missouri. Toward this 
point the rebel chieftain finally led his army. His advance was success- 
fully withstood, however, by the Union Generals, who succeeded in saving 
the State capital, and destroying the hopes of the rebels. 

Upon the 8th of October, General Plea.santon assumed command at 
Jefferson City, and his first step was to send General Sanborn, with a 
mounted force of four thousand men in pursuit of the enemy, with the 
view of harassing and hindering them, until the remaining Union cavalry 
and infantry supports should arrive at the otsto capital. The enemy's 
rear-guard was by this movement forced back upon their main body at 
Bruenville, and so kept between the Missouri river and the National 
force, until the 19th of the month, when the Unionists were joined by 
Wilson's command, fifteen thousand strong, making the National force in 
all forty-five thousand men, exclusive of escort-guards. 

A small force attacked the rebels under General Fagan at Independence 
on the 22d, and routed them with loss, capturing two valuable guns. A 
contest with the enemy's main force took place on the following day, in 
which the rebels were driven beyond the Little Santa Fe ; and, on the 
24th, after marching sixty miles, the Unionists overtook a party of rebels, 
about midnight, at a place called Marais des Cygues. At four o'clock 
on the ensuing morning, sharp skirmishing began, and the enemy was 
driven from the field with a heavy loss of hor,>es, mules, ammunition, &g 
Still fighting, they retreated to Little Osage Crossing, where the pursuing 
Unionists, under Colonels Benteen and Phillips, made a charge upon 
them, capturing eight pieces of artillery, and more than one thousand 
prisoners, among whom were General Marmaduke and General Cabell. 
The National troops, under General Sanborn, kept up the pursuit, with 
many and always successful charges, until the enemy had been driven 
to Marinton ; where, under cover of the night, the rebels effected their 


escape towards Arkansas. But they had not yet got rid of their pur- 
suers. A force of Kansas troops, and Colonel Benteen's brigade, fol- 
lowed close upon them, and on the 28Lh, they were overtaken at Newtonia, 
where they made their last, stand. Again they were routed, and the final 
blow was struck at the unsuccessful invasion of the State. All General 
Price's schemes were signally defeated, and he inflicted no serious injury 
except upon the narrow belt of country over which his army inuvod. 
His loss was ten pieces of artillery ; a very large quantity of small arms ; 
the greater number of his trains and plunder ; one thousand nine Iiiiii- 
dred and fifty-eight prisoners, and a long list of killed, woini led, and 
deserters. The National loss amounted to three hundred and forty-six 
in ofi&cers and men. 


On the 14th of March, 1864, General Sherman, then at Memphis, 
Tenn., was officially informed that he had been appointed to succeed 
General Grant, as commander of the Department of the Mississippi. Upon 
the same day General Sherman set out for Nashville, there to hold a con- 
ference with General Grant. That conference took place on the 17th, 
and having discussed at length the steps to be taken, and the policy for 
the ensuing campaign. General Sherman accompanied General Grant as 
far eastward as Cincinnati, where they parted. The former then re- 
turned to Nashville, and undertook a tour of inspection, visiting, in Ala- 
bama, the cities of Athens, Decatur, and Huntsville, and Larkin's Ferry ; 
and in Tennessee, Chattanooga, Loudon, and Knoxville. General Sher- 
man had personal interviews with each of the following generals, in com- 
mand in that section of the country ; — Major-General Thomas, command- 
ing the Army of the Cumberland, at Chattanooga ; Major-General Mc- 
Pherson, commanding the Army of the Tennessee, at Huntsville ; and 
Major-General Schofield, commanding the Army of the Ohio, at Knox- 
ville. In these several interviews, the 1st of May was agreed upon as 
the time for a general movement. 

General Sherman next turned his attention to the question of supplies 
for the army, which at first necessitated a temporary stoppage of provis- 
ions for many of the people in Tennessee, who had been receiving their 
food from the supplies intended for the army. Fortunately no positive 
suffering resulted from (his step, which General Sherman was compelled 
to take in duty to the soldiers under his command ; and in a short time 
all hardships were done away with as the rich soil sent forth an early 

8S2 rnv. wak for the uniox, 

vegetation, find meat find grain were brouglit from Kontnclcv in large 
quantities by the ox-wagons constantly plying to and fro between that 
State anil Chattanooga. 

On the 27th of April, General Sherman put all the troops under his 
command in m-ition for Ciiatlanooga ; and on the next day he followed 
thcin there in person. It was his aim to aiake the Army of the Cumber- 
land number Cfty thousand men ; that of the Tennessee, thirty-five thou- 
sand ; and that of the Ohio, fifteen thousand ; but this he never was 
enabled to do, as the Array of the Tennessee failed to receive Genornl 
A. J. Smith's divisions from the Mississippi, which were unable to join 
the other forces at the time designated, in consequence of the failure of 
the Rod river expedition. The effective strength of the several armies 
wa.s, on the 21st of May, as follows : Army of the Cumberland, sixty 
thousand seven hundred and seventy-three men, and one hundred and 
thirty guns ; Army of the Tennessee, twenty-four thousand four hundred 
and sixty-five men, and ninety-six guns ; and the Army of the Ohio, thir- 
teen thousand five hundred and fifty nine men, and tweiity-oight guns. 
On the morning of May Gth, these armies were grouped thus : — The 
Cumberland, at and about Ringgold ; the Tennessee, at Gordon's Mills, 
on the Chickaniauga ; and Ohio, close by Red Clay, on the Georgiji 
line, north of Dalton. 

The enemy, under the rebel general, Joseph Johnston, was in and 
around Dalton ; the force numbering in all about sixty thousand men — 
the cavalry numbering ten thousand under General Wheeler; and the 
infantry and artillery — three corps — numbering fifty thousand, under 
command of Generals Hardee, Hood, and Polk. 

The city of Dalton was covered in front with an inaccessible ridge, 
known as the Rocky Face, which rendered it impracticable to strike at 
it from that direction ; and on the north front the enemy was further prn. 
iected by a strong line of works along iMill Creek. General Sherman 
finding these two points guarded, next turned his attention to the south, 
and found, through Siiaka Creek Gap, a good way to reach Resaca, iv\ 
important point on the rebel line of communication, about eighteen mih^s 
below Dalton. General McPherson was ordered to move directly on 
Resaca, through Snake Gap, while, to occupy the enemy's attention. 
General Thomas was ordered to make a strong feint in front, and Genei al 
SchoQeld on the north of the city. These movements were successfully 
carried out ; General McPherson reached the gap on the 8th, and took by 
surprise a whole cavalry brigade, while General Thomas pushed his 
demonstration against Buzzard's Roost and Rocky Face ridge till il 
almost amounted to a battle ; and General Schofield pressed down close 
npon Dftlton. 

General McPherson advanced within a mile of Resaca, without meet 


ing opposition, but on nearing the place he perceived that it was too 
strongly held by the rebels for him to carry it by assault, whereupon he 
was obliged to fall back, and take position at the west end of Snake 
Creek Cap. 

On the next day two corps from General Thomas's array were sent for- 
ward to the support of General McPherson, leaving the Fourth corp^, 
Tinder General Howard, to continue to threaten D ilton on the front. 
General Schofield was also ordered forward to Snake Creek Gap, and on 
the 11th of May, the entire army, with the exception of General Howard's 
corps, and a small force of cavalry left to watch Dalton, was in motion 
for Resaca, and, on the next day moved against it in full force. Two 
miles from Resaca the enemy's cavalry was driven by Kilpatrick's cavalry 
from a cross-road which they occupied, and in the engagement that brave 
officer was so severely wounded that he was compelled to give up his 
command for the time to Colonel Murray, who wheeled out of the road, 
and allowed General McPherson to pass. The enemy's infantry pickets 
were driven in and General McPherson took possession of a ridge of hills 
which placed the right of his army on the Oostanaula, — two miles below 
the railroad bridge — and his left directly west of the town. General 
Thomas came up on his left, and General Schofield followed on the It-fc of 
Thomas. It was now ascertained that the rebel General Johnston had left 
Dalton ; and General Howard entered the town and pressed close upon 
the enemy's rear, but owing to the rugged and hilly nature of the 
country, the rebel general succeeded in reaching Resaca in safety ; and 
on the 14th of May the Unionists found the rebel army occupying a 
s'rong position behind Camp Creek, and in possession of several forts at 
Resaca, with its light on a ridge of high chestnut hills to the north of the 

General Sherman im.mediately made demonstrations against the enemy. 
A pontoon bridge was placed across the Oostanaula, and a division of the 
Sixteenth corps, commanded by General Sweeney, crossed and threatened 
Calhoun. The cavalry division of General Gerrard was sent to break the 
railroad below Calhoun and above Kingston, while General Sherman 
pressed the main body of the army against Resaca, at all points. 

General McPherson succeeded in making a lodgment close upon the 
rebel works, while General Thomas pushed along Camp Creek Valley, 
and threw General Hooker's corps across the head of the creek to the 
main Dalton road, close on Resaca ; and General Schofield came up on his 
left. A severe battle commonced about noon of the 15th, which con- 
tinued during the whole afternoon and evening. 

The fi<:hting on both sides was very severe : and when night put an 
end to the conflict, the rebels took advanta";e of the darkness to make 

38lr TIIH \V\li FOR TIIK UXrOIi. 

their cscnpo ; and in the morning the town was entered and talccn posses- 
sion of hy the National troops. 

The wliolo Union army then started in pursuit of the retreating rebels, 
but found no token uf tlieir whereabouts until, the evening of the 17th, 
near a place called Adairsville, a brigade of the enemy was overtaken. 
The advance, consisting of General Newton's division, engiiged the rebel 
rear-guard, and a sharp encounter ensued. Night again put a stop to 
the conflict: and upon the following morning the enemy was gone, and 
•was not afterwards overtakon till the National army liad advanced four 
miles below Kingston, where he was again discovered on open ground, 
well adapted for a heavy battle. The proper dispositions for a fight wera 
promptly made ; but as the Union troops were getting in readiness, and 
preparing to hem in the rebels, they once more took advantage of the 
mantle of darkness, and escaped in the night-time across the Etowah 
river, burning the road and bridges which they passed over, but 
leaving the National troops in undisputed possession of the wliole vali;- 
able country about the Etowah river. General Sherman now gave his 
army a brief rest of a few days, as well for the purpose of recruiting their 
strength as to allow time for bringing forward supplies for the next .stage 
of the campaign. 

May 19, 1864. 
In the mean time a detachment of the Fourteenth corps (General 
Palmer) under command of General Jeff. C. Davis had been ordered on 
the 17th of May, along the west bank of the Oostanaula, toward Rome, a 
place fifteen miles west of Kingston. General Davis reached Rome upon 
the following day, and met with a determined resistance from the enemy. 
A sharp fight ensued, which resulted in the rebels being completely 
routed ; General Davis took several forts, eight or ten guns of hi3avy 
calibre, a great many valuable mills and foundries then doing duty in 
the service of the Confederate government ; and large quantities of 
stores. On the 19th, General Davis with his troops took possession of 
the city of Rome. 

On the 23d of ^fay, the march was resumed. Feeling assured that 

^the enemy had the power, and would therefore use it, to hold the Union 

rmy in check at a place called the AUatoona Pass, General Sherman 

^terrained to turn it by a circuit to the right, instead of attempting it in 

Oft, and on that day ordered ihe whole army, with the exception of the 

''.suns at Rome and Kingston, furwarJ upou Dallas. 



Upon (he march a letter from the rebel General Johnston wa? eap'urcd, 
showing that he had discovered General Sherman's movement, and was 
concentrating at Dallas to meet him. 

General Geary's division, of Hooker's corps, encountered the enemy's 
line of battle, after crossing Pumpkin Vine creek, and advancing about 
thiee miles along the Dallas road ; t.ho result was a severe fight of several 
hours. The remaining troops of General Hooker's corps were advancing 
along diirerent roads, but thoy were quickly brought in to the assistauao 
of Geary, and by order of General Sliermau the entire corps made a bold 
push to obtain a point called New Hope Church, which luy at the inter- 
section of three roads leading fiom Ackworth, Marietta, and Dallas. A 
very heavy battle was fought at this point, which resulted in defeat to 
the rebels, who were beaten back, but saved themselves from being 
driven from the road by throwing up hastily constructed fori ilicat ions. 
A severe storm, which set in about the close of the day, also proved 
of great assistance to them, inasmuch as it prevented General Hooker 
from making any further demonstraiion against them. In the morning 
the enemy was discovered strongly intrenched in front of the road which 
led from Dallas to 3Iarictta. Consequently, preparations against them 
were made in large force. General McPherson was stationed at Dallas ; 
General Thomas was deployed against New Hope Church ; and General 
Soliodeld was directed to hold the left. The cavalry under General Gar- 
rard operated with McPhcrson, that under General Stoneman with Scho- 
lield, and General McCook's division broug',;t up the rear. 

During all these movements, con>tant skirmishing occurred between 
the opposing armies. The heaviest attack took place on the 'iSth, and 
was made by a strong rebel force upon General McPhersou's troops, 
when they were in the act of closing up to General Thomas in front of 
New Hope Church. The Federal troops being strongly protected by 
breastworks, repulsed the enemy bravely, and succeeded in driving him 
back with heavy loss. A brief pause succeeded this demonstration, 
which was at times broken by a renewal of skirmishing ; after which 
the movements against the enemy were continued, and on the 1st of June 
General McPhcrson moved to the left, and occui)ied the position of Gen- 
eral Thomas in front of New Hope Church, while that general and Scho- 
fii;l<l were ordered to move five miles farther to the left, thus giving the 
Union troops the occupation of the roads leading to Allatoona and Ack- 
worth. General Stoueman's cavalry was next pushed into Allatoona, at 
the east end, and General Garrard's at the wcat end, of the Pass, thus 
aceomplishing the real intention to turn xVllatoona. 

The brid"e across the Etowah which had been destroyed by the rebels 
was immediately rebuilt ; and General Sherman moved his arn)y upon 
Aekworth uu the 411), thus compelling Johustuu to leave his intreuchuieuts 


at New Hope Clmrcli, and to move westward to cover Maiicjtta. The 
National troops readied Ackworth on the Gth, and rested there for a few 

Allatoon.i Pass, being considered by General Sherman as spceially 
suited to the purpose, was chosen by liim as a secondary base of opera- 
tions, and was, according to his orders, made suitable for def.uice. 

On the 9.h of June, the army moved forward to Big Shanty, having 
been on the previous day strengthened by two divisions of the Seven- 
teenth corps, and one brigade of cavalry, A/hich had been absent on fur- 
lough. Between Big Shanty and Marietta a mounfaiaous district inter- 
venes, which has three separate and well -defined summits, the most east- 
erly of which is called the Keiiesaw Mountain, and lies directly north 
and north-west of Marietta, and .vest of the railroad ; it has a spur, called 
the Little Kencsaw, Avhich juts out for a considerable distance iu a north- 
easterly direction. The second of the hi,'hest summits, known as L)st 
Mountain, lies directly west of Marietta, and midway between these two 
lies Pine Mountain. Tliese three mountains are connected by ranges of 
smaller eminences, upon all of which the rebels had erected signal 
stations, from which they could observe all the operations of the Nat;unj,l 

A great battle was impending; and the rebels, swarming about the 
summits of the hills, " thick as leaves in Valuimbrosa," mide the placj 
alive with moving figures, and the air vocal with the hum of voices, the 
noise of felling tiuiber, and the many hundred sounds of hurried prepara- 
tions for the coming struggle. 

(.Jeueral Sherman describes the scene as " enchanting — too beautiful 
to be disturbed by the clamors of war ;" but bcyoiul hiiu lay the 
Chattahoochie, which must be readied ; and no way to reach it lay 
before him except to cut his way through the rebel army, that stood 
bi^tween him and the goal to which all his motions then tended. The 
moment for attack approached. General McPherson was ordered toward 
Marietta ; General Thomas to Kenesaw and Pine Mountain : and General 
Scliofield toward Lost Mountain. The rebel front extended westward, 
and was upwards of two miles in length ; and was so drawn that Kenesaw 
Mountain, the controlling point of the whole region, formed a sort of 
citadel for the enemy. 

General Johnston's force was estimated at sixty-three thousand, 
besides a force numbering fifteen thousand of Georgia militia, which was 
placed at his service. The preparations for attack had been going on for 
five days, and on the 1-ith, the battle for the possession of the mountains 


June 14, 18G4. 

Heavy sliirmisliing had continued from the opening of this battle till 
the day on which the great fight occurred which ended in giving the 
Unionists possession of the enemy's position on Kenesaw Mountain Upon 
the 14th, the rebel general, Bi.>hop Leonidas Polk was killed, while emu- 
nianding on Pine 3Iountain, during a heavy cannonading by the Fourth 
corps. During the same u ght the enemy, having discovered that (icneral 
Hooker was moving to cut off their retreat, abandoned their works, which 
were quickly occupied by Stanley's division of the Fourth corps. A 
paper was found athxed to a stake near the rehA works on Pine Mountain, 
on which was written, "Here Gt-neral Polk was killed by a Yankee 
shell." It was subsequently ascertained that the rebel generals John- 
ston and Hardee, who were standing near Polk, narrowly escaped being 
killed at the same time. 

General Johnston now drew back his centre to the chain of hills which 
connected Kenesaw and Lost Mountain, still keeping his right and lei'c 
flank respectively on these mountains. During the 15th, IGih, and 17th, 
he.ivy skirmishing continued from morning till night; which told upon 
the endurance of the troops almost as much as a pitched battle wou d 
have done. Late in the evening of the 17th, .severe skirmishing opened 
in front of Stanley's division. At the same time the enemy engag^-d 
llarkens' brigade, of Newton's division, and a regiment — the Ninety-th'rd 
Ohio — of Hazen's brigade ; and toward nightfall a heavy lire was opened 
all along the front of General Howard's line. The batteries of Bridge 
and Bradery were speedily brought to boar upon the rebels, and with 
telling effect ; while upon the left the batteries of Logan and Blair were 
making themselves heard in most formidable manner. Mgh' drew on. 
and a brief silence ensued, but the rebels had not yet abandoned the 
attack. A correspondent of the day thus describes the renewal of tho 
battle : " It was a beautiful night. The soft moonlight beaming from 
the clear southern sky, floated through the forest trees, lighting them 
with a bewitching kind of beauty. The air was calm and balmy, ihe sky 
without a cloud. Fireflies, sparkling like diamonds, were flitting around. 
The cry of the whip-poor-will resounded through the forest, and ihe 
plaint cry of the croaking frogs rose from the marshes like the tinkling 
of sleigh-bells. Smoke and flames shot up from buildings that had been 
fired by shells. Soon a dropping shot along the line, followed by rapid 
musketry-firing, roused us from our solemn kind of torpor. The rebels 
had opened ou our skirmish line, and a brisk light ensued. Our batteries 


soon opened, liuriiiig slicll muJ canister into their ranks. The attack 
also extended to our left, where they vainly strove to regain thoir lost 
position, but were agiin repulsed by Loi;an's eoinmnnd. The rebt'ls wcro 
foiled in their attack at all points, and the lion id din of battle soon g.ivo 
way to the placid stillness of night.** 

A siulden rain storm came on in a perfect deluge, during the ni^ht, 
and the enemy abandoned his front line of works. Early in thj m)rri- 
in'T General Howard ordered his whole lino to push forward sliarjily. 
General Hirkens' brigade led the advance, and, having come up with the 
enemy, and being reinforced with Wagner's brigade, charged forwar.l, 
drivin,' them from their first line of works. On this day the possession 
of the Dallas and Marietta roads was secured ; and the Unionists con- 
tinned to press the enemy so close and hard that at dusk the Twentieth 
corps was in aline perpendicular with the rebel line. 

Daring the operations of the 18th, the loss to the National troops was 
very heavy ; the rebel loss in killed and wounded was also severe, 
besides which the Unionists took prisoner several hundred of the enemy. 

General Johnston took advantage of the night, and a heavy rain storm, 
to withdraw his left flank from its position on Lost Mountain, which he 
saw could not be maintained, making his strong point of resistance on 
Kenesaw Mountain. The National forces immediately took possession 
of the abandoned works on Lost Mountain. 

On the next morning, Stanley's division followed up the enemy to 
their new position, and threw out two brigades as skirmishers. Newtuu s 
division formed on Stanley's left, and sent out the Thirty-sixtli and 
Eighty-eighth Illinois as skirmishers. Wood's division then formed on 
the right, and fierce skirmishing began all along the lino. Ganoral 
Harkens' brigade signally distinguished itself in this encountor, and 
aided by Kimball's brigade developed the enemy's lines and works. 

Generals Sherman, Thomas, Howard, and other officers, were now 
occupying the house of a Mr. Wallace, on the Marietta road, eagerly 
watching the effect of the Union batteries upon the rebel works. To- 
gether with the batteries named above, those of Goodspeed and Spencer 
were now got into position, and all opened at once on the rebe s, who 
promptly replied with a couple of batteries from the slope of the hill, and 
a section of heavy guns from the crest. A regular duel now opened 
between the opposing artillery, and all along the intervening valley the 
clouds of dense smoke hung midway in the air. 

The whole line was soon engiged, and from early morning till late 
Bight the crash and flash, the roar and scream of batile never ceased; 
and when at length the night interrupted the fierco fight, it but served to 
recruit tlie strength with v.-hieh both sides renewed it in the morning. 
A slight, forked ridge which jutted out in front of General Wood's divi- 


Bion was selected, and at once made use of, as a position for a battcvy ; 
and two heavy guns were dragged forward, and placed so as to bear 
heavily upon the rebel line, and set to work iuimediately. Shortly after 
this it was ascertained from rebel prisoners that a portion of Hood's and 
Hardee's corps were m:issing against Sherman's centre; the attack was 
made, and gallantly repulsed, the rebels being driven back with loss. 
They next assailed Kirby's division, but met with similar misfortune, be- 
ing fiercely repulsed, but not beaten. They agiin attacked, and were stub- 
bornly resisted for one hour ; at the end of that time they gained a slight 
temporary advantage, taking possession of a prominent knoll in Kirby's 
front, which they continued to occupy, although severely attacked by the 
brigades of Gross and Whittaker. Again night temporarily put a stop 
to the battle. The divisions of Newton and Wood hud perceptibly advanced 
— that of Stanley, having been most severely pressed, had succeeded in 
keeping its ground, with the exception of the knoll lost to the enemy. 
Just as niglit fell intense anxiety was felt by all, for the rebels were seen 
pressing heavily upon Stanley's front ; but after a few minutes' suspense 
a loud ringing cheer from the bravcUnionists proclaimed the rebel repulse, 
and indicated that nothing had been gained by them. 

Early on the 21st, the fight opened with heavy skirmishing in all direc- 
tions, which continued during the whole day. 

On the 1221, the enemy made a sudden attack upon portions of Generals 
Hooker's and Schofield's troops on the Federal right, near what is known 
as the "Klip House," and was handsomely repulsed, leaving his dead, 
wounded, and many prisoners behind him. Tlie Federal centre w;!S now 
established squarely in front of Kenesaw, but it required so many men to 
hold the railroad and the line running along the base of the mountain, 
that but a small force was left with which to attempt a flank rajvemont 
to the right. So small was it that General Sherman hesitated to push it 
viLTorously toward the railroad, in the rear of Marietta, for fear that it 
might be altogether detached from the army, and exposed to disaster. 
He therefore contented himself with extending his right along the 
enemy's flank, hoping that General Johnston would thereby be induced 
to weaken his centre sufij.ciently to render an assault in that direction 
practicable. "Although inviting the enemy at all times," says General 
Sherman ia his official report, " to make such mistakes, I could not hope 
for him to repeat them after the examples of Dallas and the ' Kulp 
House ;' and upon studying the ground, I had no alternative but to 
assail his lines or turn his position. Either course had its difficulties 
and dangr;rs. And I perceived that the enemy and our own officers had 
settled down into a conviction that I would not assault fortified lines. 
All looked to me to ' outflank.' An army to be efficient must not Ret*^le 
down to one single mode of offence, but must be prepared to execute any 

392 THE wAu i-'oic Till!; union. 

plan which promises success. I waited, thorcl'ore, for the mora] effect, 
to make a successful iissault ajrainst the enemy beliind his bre stworks, 
and resolved to attempt it at that point where succciis would jjivc the 
largest fruits of victory." 

June 24, 1804. 

On tlie twenty-fourth of June General Sherman ordered an attack to 
be made at two points south of Kenesaw — the one to be made upon Little 
Kenesaw, by General McPherson, and the other, about a mile south of 
that point, by General Thomas. At six a. m. of the twenty-seventh — t,he 
a{)pointed day — the Seventeenth corps, commanded by General Elair, 
moved upon the eastern point of the mountain, threatenin:^ the enemy's 
right ; while the Fifteenth (General Logan), and the Sixteenth (General 
Dodge), attacked the northern slope. The three brigades forming the Fif- 
teenth corps scattered th^ enemy's skirmishers, and pushing up the slope 
with daring impetuosity, carried a large part of the rebel jifle-pits. 
Ru-hing forward, the troops found themselves at the foot of a precipitous 
cliff not less than thirty feet high, which they attempted to scale, but from 
which they were beaten back by the fire of the enemy firmed in line of 
battle at its summit, and by a sliower of heavy stones, which were hurled 
down upon them. A second attack was ordered, and, for the purpose, a 
portion of General Newton's division of the Fourth corps, and General 
Davis's, of the Fourteenth, were selected. Buoyant with courage, the troops 
ru.>ihed forward, charged up the tnountain in the midst of a murderous 
fire, and gallantly carrying the line of rifle-pits, reached the works be- 
yond. Many of them scaled the ramparts, but the fire of musketry and 
artillery was so overpowering that the men were hastily recalled. Gen- 
eral Newton's troops returned to their original line, but the Second brig- 
ade of General Davis threw up works between those they had carried, 
and the enemy's main line, and there they held their position. Brief as 
this fight was, it General Siierman a loss of three thousand men in 
killed and woundcil, while that of the rebels, intrenched behind strong 
works, was comparatively trifling. 

Referring to this defeat General Sherman says, " Failure as it was, and 
for which I assume the entire responsibility, I yet claim it produced good 
fruits, as it demonstrated to General Johnston that I would assault, and 
that boldly, and we also gained and held ground so close to the enemy's 
parapets that he could not show a head above them." 

It would have been wholly out of character in General Sherman to 
have rested under the imputation of defeat ; and, accordingly, immediate 


preparations wore made to turn the robcl left. Oa July Ist, Gou;ral 
iMcPherson was relieved by Garrard's cavalry in front of Kene.saw, tmd 
w;is in that way enabled to threaten Nickajack creek and Tunier's Ferry 
across the (jhattahoochie, Sloneman's cavalry being jiU^hcd down behjw 
the ferry. The efl'ect of this movement was insfantancous, and on the 
morning of the 31, Kenesaw was utterly abandoned by the rebels, and 
its summit covered by Union soldiers before tiie sun had risen. Genoral 
Thomas's line was then moved toward the Chattahoochie, in puisuit of r,he 
rebels, and at half past eight o'clock General Sherman entered Marietta, 
and took possession of the city Duiing the rebel retreat upwards of 
two thousand prisoners were captured by the Union soldiers. 

General Thomas overtook the enemy at the Smyrna cainp-mcctiiig 
ground, about Ave miles from Marietta, proiected in front with a strong 
parapet; and in rear by the Nickajack and Rottenwood creeks. General 
Siierman assigned a garrison for Mai-io;ta, and joined General Thomas at 
Smyrna. On ttic 4th, the whole line of rebel pits was captured, and on 
tl'.e next morning the en^my was gone. The army of (jerieral Sherman 
then moved directly on the Chattaho >ehie, bayund which ilie enemy was 
found behind a very strong line. Heavy skirmishing opened at once, 
which served to show the strength of the rebels, and to prove to General 
S lorman that the line could be turned only in one way — namely, by 
c!.i>s:ng tiie niain river. On the 7th, General Schofield having been or- 
ilered to cross the Chattalioochie, did so with success, .surprised the 
en 'my, and effected a lodgment on high ground, from which the le'jch 
tied to the easiward. General Garrard next secured the fort at R ).ss.v !,1, 
^7Ilich he was oidered to hold till relieved by infantry ; which was do io, 
v/hile General Schofield crossed the river two miles below Puwens' Ferry, 
and took a strong position on the right. Thus three safe points of pas- 
sai-e across the river were secured. Each position obtained had good 
roads Icailing direct to Atlanta, and at daylight on the tenth of July, the 
enemy had fled, leaving the Unionists in full possession of all they had won. 

One of the most important objects of tiie campaign was now accom- 
plished ; and beyond — only eight miles distant — lay the city of Atlantn, 
to obtain possession of which was the next object of General Sherman's 
march. Without an hour's delay the first step was taken. 

An expedition, commanded by General Rousseau, iu c^nmind of the 
district of Tennessee, was sent out at that time to break the railroad 
berween Montgomery and Opclika, by which Johnston received his sup- 

General Rousseau, as his commanding general states, " fulfilled his or- 
dcrs and instructions to the very letter ;" and on his route encounterel 
and deh-ated the rebel General Canton, returning safely to Marietta oa 
the twenty second ; having sustained a loss of not more than thu-ty mxju. 


During this pcrioil the main army bad spent some days in rest and col- 
lecting supplies, and had advanced on the seventeenth the road 
called the Old Fcaih-tree. 

All the armies had closed in and were converging towards Atlanta on 
the twentieth. In the afternoon the enemy emerged frun: his works along 
the road and attacked the Union right centre, composed of General New- 
ton's division of General Hooker's corps, and of General Johnson's divis- 
ion. This attack, though entirely unexpected, was handsomely repulsed 
by all three generals against whom it was aimed, with a loss to the en- 
emy of five hundred killed, one thousand wounded, many stand of colors, 
and over three thousand prisoners. The National loss did not exceed 
fifteen hundred in all, killed, wounded and missing. 

During the 21st the enemy's position was examined and found to be 
strong — his right resting below the Augusta road to the cast, and his 
left on the Chittahoochie, about four miles from Atlanta. On the 22d 
this whole line was found to have been aband ined during the night, 
which singular movement was subseqiently explained to the astonished 
Unionists by learning that General Johnston had been superseded in 
command by General Hood, and an entirely new line of policy deter- 
mined on by the rebels. 

July 22, 18G4. 

By a show of retreating to the city, the rebel general hoped to draw 
Genera! Sherman on, and. while he was in motion, to strike at the Union 
army on all available points. This decoy was not wholly without effect, 
for General Sherman pushed on beyond the abandoned rebel works, and 
found the enemy, in strong force, occupying a line of redoubts which en- 
tirely covered the approach to Atlanta. Tliis showed an evident inten' 
tion to fight, on the part of General Hood ; and General Sherman at 
once sent orders to all points of the centre and right of his army to 
press forward and engage the enemy, while General Schofield held as 
large a f(»rce as possible in reserve. 

General McPherson engaged the enemy at about noon, on the left, 
where they were making a cavalry demonstration. The fighting had now 
become very severe ; the loud crash of musketry was followed in quick 
succession by the rapid firing of artillery, and wliile a roar as of continu- 
ous thunder pealed all along the line, the flush of fire streamed out 
in vivid sheets of flame upon the noonday air. Just as General 
McPherson reached the left, the enemy advanced upon the Sixteenth 


corps, but were three times dctermiacJly and desperately repulscl by 
General Dud^c. 

Perceiving that the attempt to break the line of the Sixteenth had 
failed, General McPhcrson took advantage of a momentary lull to ride 
up to the Seventeenth corps, which was reported severely threatened by 
the enemy. Every member of his staff, except one, had been sent on 
various errands ; and he now directed that one to obtain a brig ido from 
General Logan to throw across the gap between the Sixteenth and Seven- 
teenth corps ; and then, with a single orderly, struck into the road that 
led direct to General Smith's position. Almost immediately he found 
liimsilf hemraGd within the enemy's skirmish liae; the rebel officer com- 
manding called out to him t) surrender, which order he rep'.ied to by 
dasliing his horse to the fron!; of the road, but before he couiJ effect his 
escape a volley fired by the skirmishers unhorsed him, mortally wounded. 
For a time his body remained within the enemy's line, but was subsequently 
recovered and brought within the line of the Union army. His death was 
a severe loss, and he was deeply regretted, both as an officer and as a man. 
General Sherman in chronicling this event says of General McPherson : 

" He was a noble youth, of striking personal appearance, of the highest 
professional capacity, and with a heart abounding in kindness, that drew 
to him the affections of all men." 

By his death the command of the Army of the Tennessee devolved 
temporarily upon the brave and gallant General John A. Logan, who sus- 
taimd his already brilliant reputation, and that of the veteran army placed 
under his command. 

The battle continued to rage with still increasing fury. The biigade 
that had been ordered from Logan's corps arrived just in time to check 
the farther progress of the enemy in that direction, but was not able to 
keep a portion of the rebel force from getting in the rear of the Seven- 
teenth corps ; while a strong detachment pushed up against the Union 
position on the hill beyond, determined to obtain possession of it. Bat 
(he brave troops held firmly to their post, and presented so determined a 
resistance, that the rebels recoiled before them, leaving the ground 
strewn with the dead and dying that fell from their ranks. A portion of 
the enemy, which had pushed fjr the gaps between the Sixteenth and 
Seventeenth corps— now bridged over with Wangelin's brigade — made 
another attack on the right flank of the Sixteenth, and captured a six-gun 
battery, surprising the Unionists, but were promptly driven back in 
confusion, and with hcav}"^ loss. 

The enemy's attack upon the Union left fiank was quite abandoned by 
three o'clock, the rebels having gained absolutely nothing except the 
capture of a few guns, while they had suffered enormous losses iu every 


At about four o'clock in tlie alternoon, General IIooJ massed a large 
force of troops for tlie purpose of assaulting the Fifteenth corps — lately 
coinniamlod by General Logan, and then temporarily under General Mor. 
gan L. Smith. The corps was stationed behind substantial breastworks, 
and held the right of tho Army of the Tennessee. The first rebel col- 
umn marched against the Union line, and were handsomely repulsed and 
kept at bay for more than half an hour ; when a second culumn ap- 
prnached steadily, and without flinching, beneath the furious Union fire. 
Close behind them came a third column, before which the Unionists 
were compelled to give way, losing their position, and two important 
batteries. This gain to the rebels was such a serions loss to General 
Sherman, that General Logan was ordered to regain the lost position at 
any cost. Several batteries from General Schotield were so placed that 
the enemy's works could be shelled, and reinforcements for him rendered 
impossible ; and just as the rebels were making ready to turn the cap- 
tured battery upon the National line, the Fifteenth corps, reinforced by- 
General Schofiold, pressed forward, and after a desperate strng'^le, in 
which the combatants fought hand-to-hand, the Unionists regained their 
lost position, and retook their guns. The rebels retreated before them 
in the wildest confusion, and the battle terminated with this defeat of th^ 
enemy's last effort. 

Ill this battle the total loss to the Union army was estimated at three 
thousand seven hundred and twenty-two men, of whom the larger portion 
were killed and wounded. 

In front of the National line the enemy's dead was counted at two 
thousand and two hundred, of whom eight Imndred were delivered under 
flag of truce ; their total loss in killed amounted to three thousand two 
hundred and forty. Upwards of three thousand prisoners were taken by 
the Unionis's, including one thousand wuinded, among whom were many 
officers of high rank. Besides these severe losses in men, eignteeii 
stands of colors, and five thousand small arms were taken from the rebels. 


The next important movement was fixed for the 28th of July, the 
preparations for which were as follows : General Rousseau's troops, 
fati<Tued with their long march, were not expected to do active service 
immediately : and were, therefore, ordered to relieve General Stoneraan, 
who was sent to the left flank, there to remain in readiness to strike at 
the Macon road, at the same time that the Army ol the Tennessee, which 
had been shifted below Proctor's Creek, was to move toward East Foiat. 


In order to make General Stoneiuan's movement sure of success, an effec- 
tive cavalry force of five thousand men was placed under liis command. 
This force, and that of General McCook, numberiuf^ four thousand, were 
ordered to move at the same time, the latter, by the right, on Fayette- 
ville, and the former, by the left, skirting Atlanta, round to McDouou ;h. 
In the evening of the day appointed, these two strong bodies of Union 
cavalry were to meet on the xMacon road, al a point known as Lovejty's, 
with orders to utterly destroy the railroad. These orders were not car- 
ried out. 

Tlie two expeditions set forth ; General Stoneman taking the direction 
to McDonough, after sending General Garrard to Flat liock to cover his 
movement. General McCook took his way along the right bank of the 
Chattahoochie. General Stoneman, after proceeding a very short distance 
on the road he had taken, turned to the Georgia railroad, along which he 
advanced to Covington. There he altered his course again, going due 
south for Macon, the neighborhood of which he reached on the 30th. A 
detachment which he sent east to Loudon, destroyed eleven locomotives 
and several trains loaded with stores, and a great many bridges between 
that place and Macon. It had been the intention of General Stoneman, 
as a part of the expedition — having received the necessary perm.sNion 
from his general commanding — to proceed to Macon and Andersonvillo. 
and release the Union prisoners confined at those two places ; buthavm ; 
received information at Gordon that the prisoners at Macon had bce-i 
sent forward to Charleston, the movements upon Macon and Andersonvillc 
were both abandoned. On the evening of the oOth General Stoneman 
turned northward (having so far accomplished nothing of especial value), 
skirmishing with the enemy as often as he was encountered on the way. 
till on the morning of the 31st he was met by a strong rebel force. 

The country at this jioint was particularly unsuited for cavalry move- 
ments ; accordingly, General Stoneman determined to escape without 
fighting, it" possible. Ho sent a portion of his command forward as skir- 
misiieis, but (juickly discovered that he was surrounded. Everything 
that ready wit and ingenuity could suggest was done with the hope of 
outwitting the enemy ; but escape was imf)Ossible. As a last resource. 
General Stoneman ordered the larger portion of his command to break 
through the opposing lines, and cfiect their escape in the readiest man- 
ner possible, while he, himself, with a few hundred men and a section of 
artillery, drew off the enemy's attention from the movement of the othei 
troops. He was speedily overpowered, and obliged to surrender ; and 
together with all those who were with him, became prisoners to the enemy. 
Of the remainder of his command, one brigade returned in safety to 
the main army, and another was attacked and considerably broken up on 
its way back. 


General GarrarJ, in the mean time, after remaining at Flat Roclc two 
days, awaitini^ further orders, moved toward Covington on the 29ih, where 
he le:irned that General Stoneinan had gone south ; and having no further 
orders to obey, he returned to his position on the left flank of the army. 

General McCook was more fortunate in his expedition than his 
brother officer. Having reached a place called Rivertown, on the Chat- 
tahoochie, he crossed the river, and directed his way toward Palmetto 
Station ; at this place he destroyed a portion of the Atlanta and West 
Point railroad. From there he proceeded to Fayetteville, dealing de- 
Btructioi) by burning public and private property along the whole line of his 
journey. He destroyed an important part of the Macon and Western rail- 
road. There he was disappointed by not meeting General Stoneman ; and 
being constantly met by large and ever increasing numbers of the enemy, 
he turned to the south-west, and proceeded in that direction. At a place 
called Newman, on the Atlanta and West Point railroad, he encountered 
a strong rebel force, through which he cut his way with hard fighting, and 
COnsider;ib!e loss. After losing all his prisoners, he reached the Chat- 
tahoochie, and from thence arrived in safety within the Union lines. 


General Howard, who, upon the 27th of July, according to the Presi- 
dent's appointment, assumed command of the Army of the Tennessee, 
vacant by General McPherson's death, had put his army in motion while 
the events above detailed were taking place. The Army of the Tennes- 
see was placed on the extreme right of General Sherman's army, its right 
flank being held by General Lognn. By this movement the whole line 
was drawn out directly south, with its face to the eastward, and gradu- 
ally winding around to the Macon road. The enemy perceiving this, massed 
his troops in the same direction. On the 28th, Generixl Stewart's corps 
advanced from xVtlanta upon the Union right flank, and for several hours 
kept up a succession of fierce assaults upon General Logan's troops. The 
assaults wore as fiercely repelled, causing the rebels to retire again and 
again, with constantly lessening ranks, till compelled to retire entirely 
at four p. M., leaving their dead and wounded on the ground, after 
sustaining a loss of five thousand men. In this conflict the Union loss did 
not exceed six hundred. 

About this time General Hooker resigned command of his corps, and was 
succeeded by General Slocum — whoso place in turn, was temporarily filled 
by General H. S. Williams — General Slocum being iibsont in Vicksburg 
General Palmer also resigned command of his corps, and was sueceeded 


by Gen lal Jeff. C. Davis ; and General D. S. Stanley was placed in 
coniiiKUid of the Fourth corps, left vacant by the promotion of General 

With his customary promptitude, General Slierman soon porceivel tJiat 
his lust iiiovoiiicnt would not effect tlic dislodginent of ILjod from Atlanta. 
and lie accordingly changed his tactics He still further extended iho riudit 
wing of his army, with the view of outflanuing Hood in that manner. The 
Twenty-thiid and Fourteenth were, therefore, during' the 5:h and 6lh of 
August, transferred froui their position on the left to the extreme right, 
where they joined the Fifteenth corps, and formed iha army's right flank. 

While this movement was in ])rogross, occasional demonstrations were 
made against the enemy, which only served to show that he was projected 
by defences of the strongest description, and was in a condition to main- 
tain his position for a long period, unless dislodged by some masler-picce 
of generalship on the part of the Union commander. 

The Union army was now very much changed fmni its first position 
for the siege of Atlanta. Instead of threatening the citv north and 
east, General Sherman's left now covered the northern apjiroaches to it, 
while his extreme right lay south-west and ran paiallcl to the railroad. 
The lines of his army were drawn about two and a half miles from the 
city, and between them and the enemy's works lay a narrow st)ip of 
wooded country, which had been the scene of almost perpetual skirmisiiing 
between the opposing forces. 

A movement against the enemy had now become of the first importance, 
as nothing could be gained to the National troops by delay, while Hood 
was every day strengthening the city's defences, and adding to his ariuv 
by organizing all the laborers, teamsters, and quartermasters' men within 
Atlanta, and filling their places by negroes. Without haste, and after 
mature consideration as to the safest course to pursue. General Sherman, 
having satisfied himself that the rebel lines could not be taken except by 
a fearful sacrifice of life, determined upon the capture of Atlanta by a 
bold strategic movement. A new movement by the right flank was 
ordered, which would require the participation of nearly the whole army. 
One corps was withdrawn and sent to the intrenched position across the 
Chattahoochie, in order to preserve, in any event, communication with 
the base. The whole of the remaining army was ordered to move upon 
the south and south-west sides of the city, destroy the railroad communica- 
tions, and thus place Atla ita beyond the possibility of obtainiu'j supidics. 
Preparations for these operations were entered upon at once, and bv the 
16th General Sherman's plans were virtually completed. On the 18th, 
General Kilpatrick, with five thousand men, made a raid, and struck the 
Macon railroaij at Joueshoro' and Lovejoy's, and the Atlanta and West 
Point road at Fairburn. But the enemy resisted him at all points and ho 


failed to infllc^ permanent injury upon the roa(is. Rotrftatin j;, therefore, on 
the 22(1 instant, by way of Decatur, he brought in one hundred prisoners, 
and a piece of artillery. Grenoral Sherman now made no further delay 
in executing his plan to force Hood to abandon Atlanta. That plan, as 
already noted, consisted in changing the position of liis lines, getting in 
between Atlanta and Macon, and thus cutting off Hood's supplies. The 
Bchcmo was brilliant, and was cleverly executed. A brisk engagement 
took place near Jonesboro", on the 31st of August, in which the rebel.s 
under Hardee were severely defeated, which was accomplished with litilo 
loss to the Union arms. Finding himself thus dangerously ^^ituated, General 
Hood, on the Ist of September, ordered the evacuation of Atianti — first 
taking care to burn the railroad rolling-stock and ail other mate rial t'lat 
•would have been useful to the National army. On leaving the city he 
retreated to McDmough, whence, moving westward, he was able to 
join his forces to those of Hardee and S. D. Lee Meanwhile, at daybieal; 
on the 2d of September, the Union troops marchod into Atlanta. " We 
have," says General Sherman, announcing the capture of the cify, "as 
the result of this quick, and, as I think, well-executed movement, twenty- 
seven guns, over three thousand prisoners, and have buried over four 
hundred rebel dead, and left as many wounded that could not bo removed. 
The rebels have lost, besides the important city of Ailanta and their 
stores, about five hundred killed, twenty-five hundred wounded, and three 
thousand prifonjrs ; whereas our aggregate loss will not foot up fifteen 
hundred. If that is not success I don't know wiiat is." 

To lose no time in the improvement of his victory. General Sherman, 
on the 4ih of September, issued an ordur to the effect that the city of 
Atlanta being exclusively required for warlike purposes, all citizens must 
remove from it; and to expedite such removal, he entered into a truce 
with General Hood, and made arrangements with him for forwarding the 
citizens and their offecLS beyond the Federal lines. In connection with 
this event the following correspondence took place between the authorities 
of Atlanta and General Sherman. 

"Atlanta, Ga, Scpt.ll, 1SG4. 
" Major-General William T. Sherman : 

** Sir : The undersigned, Mayor and two members of Cotmcil for the 
city of Atlanta, for the time being the only legal oriran of the people of 
the .said city to express their wants and wishes, ask leave most earnestly 
but respectfully to petition you to reconsider the order requiring them to 
leave Atlanta, At first view it struck us that the measure would involve 
extraordinary hardship and loss, but since we have seen the practical 
execution of it, so far as it has progressed, and the individual condition 
of many of the people, and hoard the statements as to the incinvenieneo, 
loss and sufTering attending it, we are satisfied that the amount of it will 
involve in the ygregate consequences appalling and heart-rending. 


" Many poor women arc in an advanced state of pregnancy ; others have 
young children, whose husbands, for the greater part, are either in the 
army, prisoners, or dead. Some say : ' I have such a one sick at my 
house ; who will wait on them when I am gone ?' Others s;iy : ' Wha- 
are we to do 1 we have no houses to go to, and no means to buy, build, 
or rent any ; no parents, relatives, or friends to go to.* Another srtys : 
I will try and take this or that article of property ; but such and su)h 
things I must leave behind, though I need them mush.' We reply to 
them : ' General Sherman will carry your property to Hough and Rjady, 
and then General Hood will take it thence on ;' and they will reply to 
that : ' But I want to leave the railroad at such a place, and cannot get 
conveyance from thence on.' 

" We only refer to a few facts to illustrate, in part, how this measure will 
operate in practice. As you advanced, the people north of us fell back, 
ana before your arrival here a large portion of the people here had retired 
south ; so that the country south of this is already crowded, and without 
sufficient houses to accommodate the people, and we are infuruied that 
many are now staying in churches and other out-buildings. This being 
so, how is it possible for the people still here (mostly women and children) 
to 6nd shelter, and how can they live through the winter in the woods 1 
no shelter or subsistence ; in the midst of strangers who know them not, 
and without the power to assist them much if they were willing to do so. 

" This is but a feeble picture of the consequences of this measure. You 
know the woe, the horror, and the suffering cannot be described by 
words. Imagination can only conceive of it, and we ask you to take these 
things into consideration. We know your mind and time are continually 
occupied with the duties of your command, which almost deters us from 
asking your attention to the matter, but we thought it might bo that you 
had not considered the subject in all of its awful consequences, and that, on 
reflection, you, we hope, would not make this people an exception to man- 
kind, for we know of no such instance ever having occurred — surely not 
in the United States. And what has this helpless people done, that they 
should be driven from their hnmos, to wander as strangers, outcasts, and 
exiles, and to subsist on charity ? 

" We do not know as yet the number of people still here. Of those who 
are here, a respectable number, if allowed to remain at home, could 
subsist fur several months without assistance ; and a respectable number 
for a much longer time, and who might not need assistance at any time. 

" In conclusion, we most earnestly and solemnly petition you to recon- 
sider this order, or modify it, and suffer this unfortunate people to remain 
at home and enjoy what little means they have. 

" Respectfully submitted, JAMES M. CALHOUN, Mayor. 

" E E. Uawson. "I ^ ., „ 
S. C. Wells, CouncUmen. 



" Headquarters Military DivistoN of the Mississirn, m the Field, ) 
Atlanta, Ua., September 12, ISM. ) 

" James M. Calhoun, Mayor, E. K. Uawson. and S. C. Wells, leprcseut,- 
inn; Ciiy Council of Atlanta : 

" Gentlemen : I have your letter of the the nature of a i^etition. 
to revoke my orders removing all the inhabitants from Atlanta. I have 

read it carefully, and give full credit to your statements of the distress 

that will be occasioned by it, and yet shall not revoke my order, himply 
because my orders are not de.'iigQcd to meet the humanities of the case, 
but to prepare for the future struggles in which millions, yea, hundreds 
of millions of good people outside of Atlanta have a deep interest. Wc 
must have Peace, not only at Atlanta, but in all America. To secure 
this we must stop the war that now desolates our once happy and favored 
country. To stop war we must defeat the rebel armies that are arrayed 
against the laws and Constitution, which all must respect and obey. To 
defeat these armies we must prepare the way to reach them in their 
recesses provided with the arms and instruments which enable us to 
accomplish our purpose. 

" Now, I know the vindictive nature of our enemy, and that we may 
have many years of militiry operations from this quarter, and therefore 
deem it wise and prudeut to prepare in time. The use of Atlanta for 
wailiko purposes is inconsistent with its character as a home for families. 
There will be no manufactures, corauicrce, or agriculture here for the 
maintenance of families, and sooner or later want will compel the inhabit 
tants to go. Why not go now, when all the arrangements are comjdeted 
for the transfer, instead of waiting till the plunging shot of contending 
armies will renew the scene of the past month ? Of course, I do not 
apprehend any such thing at this moment, but you do not suppose that 
this army will be here till the war is over. I cannot discuss this subject 
with }ou fairly, because I cannot impart to you what I propose to do, but 
I assert that my military plans make it necessiry for the inhabitants to 
go away, and I can only renew my uifer of services to make their exodus 
in any direction as easy and comfortable as possible. You cannot qualify 
war in harsher terms than I will. 

" War is cruelty, and you cannot refine it ; and those who brought war 
on our country deserve all the curses and maledictions a people can pour 
out. I know I had no hand in making this war, and I know I will make 
more sacrifices to-day than any of you to secure peace. But you cannot 
have peace and a division of our country. If the United States submits 
to a division now, it will not stop, but go on till we reap the fate of Mex- 
ico, which is eternal war. The United States does and must assert its 
authority wherever it has the power ; if it relaxes one bit to pressure it 


is gone, and I know that such is not the national feeling. This feeling 
assumes various sliapes, but always conios back to that of Union. Once 
idmit the Union, once more acknowledge the autliority of the National 
Government, and instead of devoting your liouscs, and streets, and roads, 
to the dread uses of war, I, and this army become at once your protec- 
tors and su()porters, shielding you from danger, let it come from what 
quarter it may. I know that a few individuals cannot resist a torrent of 
error and [»assion sucli as has swept the South into rebellion ; but you 
can point out, so that we may know those who desire a Government and 
those who insist on war and its desolation. 

" You might as well appeal against the thunder-storm as against these 
terrible hardships of var. They are inevitable, and the only way the 
people of Atlanta can hope once more to live in peace and quiet at home 
is to stop this war, which can alone be done by admitting that it began in 
error, and is perpetuated in pride. We don't want your negroes, or 
your horses, or your land, or anything you have, but we do want and will 
have a just obedience to the laws of the United States. That we will 
have, and if it involves the destruction of your improvements, we cannot 
help it. You have heretofore read public sentiment in your newspapers, 
that live by falsehood and excitement, and the quicker you seek for 
truth in other quarters, the better for you. 

" I repeat, then, that, by the original compact of government, the 
United States had certain rights in Georgia which have never been relin- 
quished and never will be ; that the South began war by seizing forts, 
arsenals, mints, customhouses, &c., &c., long before Mr. Lincoln was 
installed, and before the South had one jot or tittle of provocation. I 
myself have seen in Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Mississippi 
hundreds and thousands of women and children fleeing Irom your armies 
and desperadoes, hungry and with bleeding feet. In Memphis, Vicks- 
burg, and Mississippi, we fed thousands upon thousands of the families of 
rebel ^oldiers left on our hands, and whom we could not see starve. 
Now that war comes home to you, you feel very diflferent ; you deprecate 
its horrors, but did not feel them when you sent car-loads of soldiers and 
ammunition, and molded shell and shot, to carry war into Kentucky and 
Tennessee, and desolate the homes of hundreds and thousands of good 
people, who only asked to live in peace at their old homes, and under 
the Government of their inheritance. 

"But the.'ie comparisons are idle. I want peace, and believe it can 
only be reached through Union and war ; and I will ever conduct war 
purely with a view to perfect and early success. 

*' But, my dear sirs, when that peace does come, you may call on me 
for anything. Then I will share with you the last cracker, and watch 
with you to shield your homes and families against danger from every